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#101  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
John Wycliffe

        

#102  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
亨利四世篡位称王,名不正言不顺,叛乱、暗杀等种种阴谋令他的统治危机四伏。

亨利四世在位13年(30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413 ),前10年一直叛乱不断。

主要的两场叛乱分别由威尔士的欧文·格兰道尔(Owain Glyndŵr)和Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 发起。借助长子 Henry of Monmouth(后来的亨利五世)的军事能力,亨利四世得以平息叛乱。

亨利四世在位的最后一年,更有苏格兰使者到英格兰穿乡走镇,传言理查二世还活着,住在苏格兰王宫,只等伦敦的朋友发出信号,他就会立即返回伦敦夺回王位。


wiki(Henry IV of England):

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts.

Rebellions continued throughout the first 10 years of Henry's reign, including the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, who declared himself Prince of Wales in 1400, and the rebellion of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth, who later became king (though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in 1410).

In the last year of Henry's reign, the rebellions picked up speed. "The old fable of a living Richard was revived", notes one account, "and emissaries from Scotland traversed the villages of England, in the last year of Henry's reign, declaring that Richard was residing at the Scottish Court, awaiting only a signal from his friends to repair to London and recover his throne."
        

#103  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

阿尔弗雷德·特纳(Alfred Turner)制作的欧文·格兰道尔雕像,位于加的夫市政厅

wiki:

欧文·格兰道尔(威尔士语:Owain Glyndŵr、Owain Glyn Dŵr,[ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr],威廉·莎士比亚将其英语化为英语:Owen Glendower,1349年或1359年-1416年),又译为欧文·格兰道尔,生于威尔士,威尔士统治者,为最后一位持有威尔士亲王头衔的威尔士人。

格兰道尔由他父亲身上,继承了波伊斯亲王(Princes of Powys)与Glyndyfrdwy之主(Lord of Glyndyfrdwy)的头衔。1400年9月16日,他发动叛乱,对抗英王亨利四世,以阻止英格兰人统治威尔士。1412年,欧文·格兰道尔战败并下落不明,威尔士此后成为英格兰王国的领土之一。
        

#104  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
欧文反叛,实在是被逼上梁山。 1390s末年,他的邻居(当然不是我们一般人家的左邻右舍),Baron Grey de Ruthyn 格雷男爵(一个极有势力的marcher lord),霸占了欧文的一部分领地。欧文向英格兰国会投诉,国会不仅置之不理,还要求欧文做更多让步。 1400年,格雷在最后一个月才通知欧文缴纳苏格兰边境军队税。但这时已太迟了,欧文连申辩都来不及。格雷于是在伦敦法庭指控欧文为叛国贼。如果欧文无法证实自己对英格兰的忠诚,他的领地就会遭到没收。格雷与亨利四世有私交,欧文自然输了这场官司,并且自身安全也受到威胁。

1400年1月,被废黜的理查二世的一个下属被公开处决。这引起了英格兰/威尔士边境城市Chester 的严重骚乱。理查二世在威尔士很受拥戴。

以上事件促使欧文揭竿而起。 1400年9月16日,欧文继承祖先的称号Prince of Powys,率领一小批追随者,对格雷男爵的领地发起进攻。

1401年,叛乱开始扩展,欧文控制了威尔士北部和中部的大部分地区。亨利四世派Henry Percy,大名鼎鼎的”Hotspur”-- 热刺,前去控制局势。Hotspur 是Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 的长子。 父子俩曾鼎力相助,让亨利四世登上王位。

1401年3月,Hotspur 颁布大赦令,赦免所有叛乱参与者,但不包括领头的欧文及他的两个Tudur 堂兄弟。 这两个Tudurs 的父亲是 Tudur ap Gronwy。 Tudur ap Gronwy的孙子 Owen Tudor  是都铎王朝的创始人。两个Tudurs 兄弟后来在攻下爱德华一世的大城堡Conwy 后被赦免.

1402年,英格兰国会颁布了对付威尔士的刑事法Penal Laws against Wales,加强英格兰在威尔士的统治,但这反而把更多威尔士人推入了叛乱阵营。同年,欧文捉获了他的冤家对头--- 格雷男爵,把他关了快一年。最后亨利四世付了一大笔赎金,格雷才获释.



wiki( Owain Glyndŵr):

In the late 1390s, a series of events began to push Owain towards rebellion, in what was later to be called the Welsh Revolt, the Glyndŵr Rising or (within Wales) the Last War of Independence. His neighbour, Baron Grey de Ruthyn, had seized control of some land, for which Glyndŵr appealed to the English Parliament. Owain's petition for redress was ignored. Later, in 1400, Lord Grey informed Glyndŵr too late of a royal command to levy feudal troops for Scottish border service, thus enabling him to call the Welshman a traitor in London court circles. Lord Grey was a personal friend of King Henry IV. Glyndŵr lost the legal case, and was under personal threat. The deposed king, Richard II, had support in Wales, and in January 1400 serious civil disorder broke out in the English border city of Chester, after the public execution of an officer of Richard II.

These events led to Owain formally assuming his ancestral title of Prince of Powys on 16 September 1400. With a small band of followers which included his eldest son, his brothers-in-law, and the Bishop of St Asaph in the town of Corwen, possibly in the church of SS Mael & Sulien, he launched an assault on Lord Grey's territories.

After a number of initial confrontations between King Henry IV and Owain's followers in September and October 1400, the revolt began to spread in 1401. Much of northern and central Wales went over to Owain. Henry IV appointed Henry Percy – the famous "Hotspur" – to bring the country to order. Hotspur issued an amnesty in March which applied to all rebels with the exception of Owain and his cousins, Rhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur, sons of Tudur ap Gronw (forefather of King Henry VII of England). Both the Tudurs were pardoned after their capture of Edward I’s great castle at Conwy.

In 1402, the English Parliament issued the Penal Laws against Wales, designed to establish English dominance in Wales, but actually pushing many Welshmen into the rebellion. In the same year, Owain captured his arch enemy, Baron Grey de Ruthyn. He was to hold him for almost a year until he received a substantial ransom from Henry.
        

#105  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Sir Edmund Mortimer 被俘,同欧文结盟


Sir Edmund Mortimer 反叛也是被逼上梁山。

1402年6月,欧文在 Battle of Bryn Glas战役中击败了Sir Edmund Mortimer率领的英军并俘虏Mortimer。Mortimer战败的原因据说是因为他手下威尔士人投诚。欧文释放Mortimer 的条件同样是收取一大笔赎金。但将格雷男爵赎回的亨利四世却拒绝为莫蒂默支付赎金。

这位莫蒂默就是原应继承王位的Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 的叔叔,亨利四世因此并不急于赎回莫蒂默。
莫蒂默的姐姐Lady Elizabeth 嫁给了热刺Henry Hotspur Percy。尽管热刺同他父亲Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland一再请亨利四世赎回Mortimer,但也无济于事。

心灰意冷的莫蒂默气愤之至,遂与欧文缔盟,并娶了欧文的女儿Catrin ferch Owain Glyndŵr。后来并声称支持他的侄子Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 做英格兰国王。


wiki(Owain Glyndŵr):

In June 1402, Owain defeated an English force led by Sir Edmund Mortimer at the Battle of Bryn Glas, and Mortimer was captured. Glyndŵr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom but, in sharp contrast to his attitude to de Grey, Henry IV refused to pay. Mortimer's nephew could be said to have had a greater claim to the English throne than Henry himself, so his speedy release was not an option. In response, Mortimer negotiated an alliance with Owain and married one of Owain's daughters. It is also in 1402 that mention of the French and Bretons helping Owain was first heard. The French were certainly hoping to use Wales as they had used Scotland: as a base to fight the English.
        

#106  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland; 18th-century engraving


The pennon of Sir Henry Percy captured by James Douglas, Earl of Douglas


另一起暴乱由Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 发起。Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 和他的儿子Sir Henry (Hotspur) Percy 曾为Henry Bolingbroke 篡位立下大功。亨利四世登基后,对他们父子二人加官封地。 但他们后来由于以下一些原因对亨利四世不满:

1. 亨利四世命他们父子驻守英格兰/苏格兰边境,却不支付他们应得的薪金。
2. 亨利四世要求他们交出苏格兰俘虏。
3. 亨利四世play favorites, 更器重另一个贵族Dunbar,和他自己的儿子Prince Henry
4. 亨利四世拒付Sir Edmund Mortimer (Hotspur 的小舅子) 的赎金


1403年, Percy父子反叛,转而支持第五代马奇伯爵埃德蒙·莫蒂默,并与欧文合谋,同亨利四世对抗。

1403年7月,Hotspur 于 Battle of Shrewsbury 中战死。

1405年2月,欧文,莫蒂默,和 老Percy(Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland) 共同签订了The Tripartite Indenture三方契约, 欲将英格兰一分为三:欧文得威尔士及西英格兰,Percy得北英格兰及另外几郡,Mortimers 叔侄得南英格兰。

1408年老Percy 入侵英格兰时也身亡。


英国托特纳姆热刺足球俱乐部Tottenham Hotspur F.C.),简称热刺(Spurs或The Spurs),就是Percy后人以Hotspur命名的。


wiki[Henry Percy (Hotspur)]:

In spite of the favour that Henry IV showed the Percys in many respects, they became increasingly discontented with him. Among their grievances was the king's failure to pay the wages due to them for defending the Scottish border; his favour towards Dunbar; his demand that the Percys hand over their Scottish prisoners; his failure to put an end to Owain Glyn Dŵr's rebellion through a negotiated settlement; his increasing promotion of his son Prince Henry's military authority in Wales; and his failure to ransom Henry Percy's brother-in-law Sir Edmund Mortimer, whom the Welsh had captured in June 1402。

In 1403 the Percys turned against Henry IV in favour of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and then conspired with Owain Glyndŵr against King Henry. The Tripartite Indenture was signed by all three parties, which divided England up between them. Glyndŵr was to be given Wales, and a substantial part of the west of England, Northumberland was to have received the north of England, as well as Northamptonshire, Norfolk, Warwickshire, and Leicestershire. The Mortimers were to have received the rest of southern England, below the river Trent.

The Percy rebellion failed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, where Hotspur was killed. Since the earl did not directly participate in the rebellion, he was not convicted of treason. However, he lost his office as Constable. In 1405 Percy supported Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, in another rebellion, after which Percy fled to Scotland, and his estates were confiscated by the king.

In 1408 Percy invaded England in rebellion once more and was killed at the Battle of Bramham Moor. Percy's severed head was subsequently put on display at London Bridge.


Last modified on 02/22/16 00:32
        

#107  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
        

#108  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
谢和谈美乐!

距离亨德尔时期还有300年左右。I wish i had more time on my hands.
        

#109  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
The Battle of Shrewsbury 战役后,欧文对亨利四世军队的进攻大都不成功,莫蒂摩也陷入困境。

1409年,亨利四世之子威尔士王子亨利率军围攻欧文据点Harlech Castle长达8月之久,这是最后一场大战。莫蒂摩死去,欧文的妻子玛格丽特和他的两个女儿(包括莫蒂摩的妻子Catrin), 同莫蒂摩的三个孙女都被英军抓走,他们于1415年之前死于伦敦塔。

得以逃生的欧文,失了祖屋,成为在逃王子。他继续跟英军对抗,尤其想报掳妻之仇。

1412年,欧文率领他手下最忠心耿耿的士兵们冲入英军阵营砍杀,这是抵抗英军最后阶段的成功袭击之一;在Brecon的埋伏战中,欧文捉拿了Dafydd Gam--- 一个支持亨利四世的威尔士头领。在那之后,欧文下落不明,重赏之下,既未被俘也未遭出卖。

1414年,谣传罗拉德教派领袖同欧文有来往,于是从北到南的要塞城堡都严加防卫。

那时事态起了变化。亨利四世于1413年驾崩,他的儿子亨利五世开始对威尔士人采取安抚政策,豁免他父亲统治时的主要反叛领袖。

对王室赦免,欧文也不屑问焉。传说他死后可能葬于他宅子附近的教堂,或其他几处。

欧文。格林道尔是威尔士王室后代,最后一个拥有威尔士王子头衔的威尔士本土人。19世纪末的年轻威尔士运动(Cymru Fydd movement)将他打造为威尔士民族主义之父。


wiki(Owain Glyndŵr):

In 1409, it was the turn of Harlech Castle. Edmund Mortimer died in the final battle, and Owain's wife Margaret along with two of his daughters (including Catrin) and three of Mortimer's granddaughters were imprisoned in the Tower of London. They were all to die in the Tower before 1415.

Owain remained free, but he had lost his ancestral home and was a hunted prince. He continued the rebellion, particularly wanting to avenge his wife. In 1410, after a suicide raid into rebel-controlled Shropshire, which took many English lives, some of the leading rebels are thought to have been captured.

In 1412, Owain led one of the final successful raiding parties with his most faithful soldiers and cut through the King's men; and in an ambush in Brecon he captured, and later ransomed, a leading Welsh supporter of King Henry's, Dafydd Gam ("Crooked David"). This was the last time that Owain was seen alive by his enemies. As late as 1414, there were rumours that the Herefordshire-based Lollard leader Sir John Oldcastle was communicating with Owain, and reinforcements were sent to the major castles in the north and south.

But by then things were changing. Henry IV died in 1413 and his son King Henry V began to adopt a more conciliatory attitude to the Welsh. Royal pardons were offered to the major leaders of the revolt and other opponents of his father's regime.

Nothing certain is known of Owain after 1412. Despite enormous rewards being offered, he was neither captured nor betrayed. He ignored royal pardons. Tradition has it that he died and was buried possibly in the church of Saints Mael and Sulien at Corwen close to his home, or possibly on his estate in Sycharth or on the estates of his daughters' husbands — Kentchurch in south Herefordshire or Monnington in west Herefordshire.

In the late 19th century the Cymru Fydd movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism.
        

#110  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
亨利四世在位期间,劫持了苏格兰国王詹姆斯一世。
        

#111  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

苏格兰国王 詹姆斯一世

“Henry IV treated the young James well, providing him with a good education. James was ideally placed to observe Henry's methods of kingship and political control having probably been admitted into the royal household on reaching adulthood. James used personal visits from his nobles coupled with letters to individuals to maintain his visibility in his kingdom.

By 1420, James's standing at Henry V's court improved greatly; he ceased to be regarded as a hostage and more of a guest.[24]James's value to Henry became apparent in 1420 when he accompanied the English king to France where his presence was used against the Scots fighting on the Dauphinist side.

Henry appointed the Duke of Bedford and James as the joint commanders of the siege of Dreux on 18 July 1421 and on 20 August they received the surrender of the garrison  ” --- wiki (James I of Scotland) 摘抄

詹姆斯一世12岁时被英格兰抓获后,起初被监禁,后来受到的是王室宾客的厚遇。亨利四世为他提供了良好教育。亨利五世不仅带他出访法国,还委他以重任,在战场上兼任过指挥官。詹姆斯一世所言所行,极受英格兰国王赏识。 终于在被俘18年后,他被放回苏格兰。 英王却没料到是放虎归山。詹姆斯一世后来同法国再续老同盟协约(Auld Alliance ),共同对抗英格兰。


wiki(詹姆斯一世 (苏格兰)):

詹姆斯一世(James I of Scotland,1394年12月10日-1437年2月21日),是15世纪苏格兰王国的君主、诗人,罗伯特三世之子。詹姆斯是斯图亚特王朝第一任真正试图掌握政权的君主,少年时被长期拘禁在英格兰。

詹姆斯的父亲罗伯特三世继位后体弱多病,后来索性将军权交给了詹姆斯的兄长罗西塞公爵(Duke of Rothesay)大卫。1402年,大卫在与叔叔阿尔巴尼公爵(Duke of Albany)罗伯特发生争执后,突然神秘死亡,据说是在某监狱中活活饿死。罗伯特三世开始担心年幼的继承人詹姆斯的安危,计划送他到盟友国法国暂避。

1406年初,他被秘密安排出行。但是阿尔巴尼公爵获悉了行踪,派出军队追击王太子。11岁的詹姆斯和他的几个随从被迫在福斯湾的一块大礁石上困居了一个月,才有船来将他接走。但是这艘船的动向也被透露给了英格兰,结果坐船在驶往法国的途中被英格兰战舰抓获,并向苏格兰索要赎金。罗伯特三世闻讯后悲痛而死,弟弟阿尔巴尼公爵摄政,但是拒绝支付赎金救回詹姆斯。于是詹姆斯被亨利四世关押于温莎城堡内,达18年之久。但是他从1406年起就是苏格兰名义上的君主。

1420年,阿尔巴尼公爵去世,苏格兰王国同意支付赎金。英格兰国王亨利五世逝世后,英苏两国和谈。作为协议的一部分,詹姆斯被释放,带着自己的新婚英格兰妻子(国王亨利六世的远房表妹),返回苏格兰掌权。

1424年5月2日,挂名国王18年多的詹姆斯在斯昆正式加冕,称“詹姆斯一世”。1425年,他在史特灵处决了第二代阿尔巴尼公爵和他的两个儿子。

在接下来的几年中,詹姆斯致力于限制苏格兰贵族的权力,同时扩大王权,希望能把苏格兰建立成一个中央集权的国家。由于他长期在英格兰的见闻,他试图效仿英格兰议会改造苏格兰政治。同时在外交上,他重新确立了与法兰西的“老同盟”(Auld Alliance),试图对抗英格兰。

他的改革措施遭到了很多贵族的激烈反对。反对者以詹姆斯祖父罗伯特二世与祖母的婚姻的合法性为由,开始重新质疑詹姆斯的父亲罗伯特三世的继承权。

1437年,詹姆斯一世被一群反叛的贵族刺杀于珀斯的黑衣修士修道院(Church of the Friars Preachers of Blessed Virgin and Saint Dominic at Perth或Blackfriars)。他曾试图从下水道的秘道逃走,不过他忘了,三天前他自己下令,封死了下水道的另一端,以避免网球落入其中。

詹姆斯一世死后,参与叛乱的贵族被大批处决。他6岁的儿子詹姆斯继位,称詹姆斯二世。

据信,詹姆斯是著名苏格兰诗歌《国王书》(The Kingis Quair)的作者,一般认为是他在被囚禁期间所著,是苏格兰文学最早期的重要作品。
        

#112  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

The south face of Linlithgow Palace

詹姆斯一世在苏格兰修建了林利思哥宫Linlithgow Palace。"无论从地理位置还是建筑规模来说,它都是苏格兰文艺复兴时期建筑中最宏伟的一个。”

wiki:

林利思哥宫(英语:Linlithgow Palace),也通译为林利斯戈宫。位于苏格兰东部西洛锡安(West Lothian)地区的林利思哥(Linlithgow),距离首府爱丁堡约15英里(24千米),于15至16世纪曾一度是苏格兰国王们的王宫。1542年12月8日,苏格兰女王玛丽一世(Mary I of Scotland)就出生在这里。

无论从地理位置还是建筑规模来说,它都是苏格兰文艺复兴时期建筑中最宏伟的一个。20世纪之后曾是大英帝国的印度总督林利思戈侯爵的私人住宅。

原址早于12世纪已经是皇室的庄园。由于地理位置得宜,它后来成为了往来爱丁堡城堡及斯特灵城堡之间不可或缺的重要军事基地,以确保这补给路线不受强盗所滋扰。受命于爱德华一世(注:当时英格兰军队占领苏格兰),堡垒于1302年4月开始动工,由建筑大师圣乔治詹姆斯(Master James of Saint George)设计,两名神职人员负责监工,聘请了60名男工和140名女工,以男工每日两便士、女工每日一便士的薪酬,马不停蹄连日赶工,另外亦调配了百多名士兵协助建筑于1303年夏季完成。

1424年,林利思哥市镇遇到大火,部分的建筑物被焚毁,当时的苏格兰王国詹姆斯一世下令扩建堡垒,使之成为苏格兰皇室的其中一个行宫,同时亦修葺了宫殿旁边的圣迈克尔教区教堂。

往后数代的君主詹姆斯三世、四世和五世都曾经扩建林利思哥宫,令它的布局渐渐正规化。苏格兰女王玛丽一世在这里出生,詹姆斯六世的女儿伊丽莎白·斯图尔特,波希米亚王后(Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia)更加长居于此。
        

#113  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Linlithgow and Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, Scotland

        

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Monument to King Henry IV and Queen Joan,Canterbury Cathedral, north side of Trinity Chapel

亨利四世晚年常受病痛折磨。 他患有严重的皮肤病,很可能是麻风病或牛皮癣。他还可能患癫痫或其他心血管方面的急发病。1413年3月,一次致命的急发病发作后,45岁的亨利四世在统治英格兰13年之后,于20日病殁(Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) 在位 30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413 )。

一些中世纪作家认为,麻风病是对他处死约克大主教斯克洛普Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York 的报应。斯克洛普与Percy 是姻亲,1405年反叛失败后被俘,未经正式审判即以叛国罪定死罪。Scrope 临刑前要求刽子手砍他五刀,以此纪念耶稣受难时承受的五伤five wounds。罗马教皇对此事大为不满,将处死Scrope 的参与者开除了教籍。 中世纪时,教皇坚持神职人员不受世俗法庭审判。

尽管亨利四世之前的国王们大都葬于西敏寺,他同他的第二任王后Joan of Navarre 却选择了坎特伯雷大教堂,停棺于St Thomas Becket 旁边的圣陵。当时还有不少信徒狂热地崇拜着Becket。


wiki(Henry IV of England):

The later years of Henry's reign were marked by serious health problems. He had a disfiguring skin disease and, more seriously, suffered acute attacks of some grave illness in June 1405; April 1406; June 1408; during the winter of 1408–09; December 1412; and finally a fatal bout in March 1413. Medical historians have long debated the nature of this affliction or afflictions. The skin disease might have been leprosy (which did not necessarily mean precisely the same thing in the 15th century as it does to modern medicine), perhaps psoriasis, or some other disease. The acute attacks have been given a wide range of explanations, from epilepsy to some form of cardiovascular disease. Some medieval writers felt that he was struck with leprosy as a punishment for his treatment of Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, who was executed in June 1405 on Henry's orders after a failed coup.

Despite the example set by most of his recent predecessors, Henry and his second wife, Joan of Navarre, Queen of England, were buried not at Westminster Abbey but at Canterbury Cathedral, on the north side of Trinity Chapel and directly adjacent to the shrine of St Thomas Becket.


Last modified on 02/27/16 02:04
        

#114  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
顺手翻了下同时期的中国史,读到相似处,不由一惊。

到了1400年左右,统治不足百年的元朝(1271-1368)已被明朝取代。回眸历史长河,一百年或许只是一朵转瞬即逝的浪花,但它给社会带来的影响有时可能是不可估量的。看看中国过去几十年的历史,三反五反到文革等等,不由不唏嘘。 文化浩劫之后,沈从文笔下的《边城》再也不复存在。偏题了。

放牛娃朱元璋1368年灭元后,实施极端专制主义皇权,据说这是受元朝影响。

朱元璋之后,“ 由于太子朱标早死,所以朱允炆以皇太孙的身份即皇帝位”。这同黑太子病殁,王位由爱德华三世之孙理查二世继位相像。而理查二世放逐叔叔冈特的约翰之子Henry Bolingbroke , 又同建文帝的“削藩”如出一辙。不同的是,Henry Bolingbroke 并非完全无辜,只是被流放六年,被没收领地。 理查二世同建文帝相比,太小小巫了。 咱们中国皇帝的心狠手辣老外国王只能望其项背。结果是类似的,1399年理查二世的cousin亨利四世篡位,1402年建文帝的uncle明成祖朱棣 篡位。 同时期的王位之争,无独有偶?

wiki:

靖难之变

明太祖分封诸子为亲王,以加强边防、保卫天子。北方诸王势力较强,原因主要是对蒙古的边防任务。而其中又尤以燕王(朱棣)和晋王势力最大。为防止朝中奸臣不轨,明太祖规定诸王可移文中央捉拿奸臣,必要时得奉天子密诏,领兵“靖难”。同时为防止宗室诸王尾大不掉,明太祖也允许今后的皇帝在必要时可下令“削藩”。

洪武三十一年(1398年)明太祖驾崩,由于太子朱标早死,所以朱允炆以皇太孙的身份即皇帝位,改元建文,翌年为建文元年。建文帝立刻与亲信大臣齐泰、黄子澄等密谋削藩。周王、代王、齐王、湘王等先后或被废为庶人,或被杀。同时以边防为名调离燕王的精兵,准备削除燕王。结果燕王朱棣在姚广孝的建议下以“清君侧,靖内难”的名义起兵南下,占领京师,是为靖难之役,燕王即位,年号永乐。建文帝(惠帝)在宫城大火中下落不明。
        

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亨利五世(16世纪画像)


wiki:

亨利五世(Henry V,1386年9月16日-1422年8月31日)英格兰兰开斯特王朝国王(1413年—1422年在位)。在他短暂的九年统治期间,他取得了中世纪任何一位英格兰国王都未取得过的军事辉煌。

亨利五世是英王亨利四世之子,母为玛丽·德·伯翰。生于蒙茅斯(在威尔士)。在他出生时他父亲还只是德比伯爵。当德比伯爵被放逐期间,亨利被国王理查二世收养,并得到很好的教育。德比伯爵篡位后,即封亨利为威尔士亲王。1413年3月20日,亨利五世加冕为英格兰国王。

亨利五世重燃百年战争战火,而他甚至取得了比爱德华三世更大的胜利。当时法国内部矛盾重重:国王查理六世长期患精神病;两大贵族集团奥尔良派与勃艮第派流血冲突。亨利五世一一加以利用。实际上,他使勃艮第公爵无畏的约翰背叛自己的国家转而支持英国。

1415年亨利五世正式侵入法国。事实证明,他是比爱德华三世更善于发挥英格兰长弓手威力的指挥官。他首先攻下勒阿弗尔,继而向沿海重镇加来进军。在这期间,亨利五世宣称他要得到法国的王冠。以少胜多的阿金库尔战役(1415年)几乎摧毁法国人的斗志。此后英军不断取胜,1419年全部征服诺曼底,随即法国北部第一重镇鲁昂投降。

1420年亨利五世迫使查理六世签订特鲁瓦条约。这份条约对英格兰来说是难以置信的巨大胜利:条约规定,亨利五世与查理六世的女儿瓦卢瓦的凯瑟琳(法语读卡特琳)结婚,并且查理六世死后其法国王位由亨利五世继承(剥夺了法国王太子查理的继承权)。亨利五世实际成为法国的摄政。

此时的亨利五世可谓青云得意,然而1422年在万塞讷附近的一次战斗中,亨利五世死于斑疹伤寒。



亨利五世的纹章


Last modified on 03/03/16 01:16
        

#117  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
"当德比伯爵(亨利四世曾是Earl of Derby)被放逐期间,亨利被国王理查二世收养,并得到很好的教育。"

这样的事,中国哪个皇帝做得到?从来都是一人犯上,株连九族。推翻封建皇帝后,老蒋宁可错杀一千也不放过一个。 老毛让“中国人民站起来”之后,血统论决定每一个人的政治命运。 不得不感慨,中外之间确存在文明落差。

亨利五世继位后,将原本葬于King's Langley 的理查二世,移至安葬国王们的威斯敏斯特大教堂,理查二世在那里早为自己建好了精致的墓棺。据说亨利五世此举,一为弥补他父亲亨利四世篡位弑君之为,二为灭理查二世仍在人世之谣。除此之外,或许他犹记理查二世昔日的善待?


wiki(Henry V of England):

Meanwhile, in 1413, Henry V – in an effort both to atone for his father's act of murder and to silence the rumours of Richard's survival – had decided to have the body at King's Langley moved to its final resting place in Westminster Abbey. Here Richard himself had prepared an elaborate tomb, where the remains of his wife Anne were already entombed.


sing wrote: (3/2/2016 22:16)

wiki:

亨利五世是英王亨利四世之子,母为玛丽·德·伯翰。生于蒙茅斯(在威尔士)。在他出生时他父亲还只是德比伯爵。当德比伯爵被放逐期间,亨利被国王理查二世收养,并得到很好的教育。



Last modified on 03/06/16 01:37
        

#117  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
莎翁的三部名剧Henry IV (part 1), Henry IV(part 2), 和Henry V, 自然影响了后世对亨利五世的印象。历史剧有历史的影子,但并非真实的历史。

莎翁笔下整日厮混的亨利王子,并没有历史佐证。据说剧中的Falstaff 原来写做Sir John Oldcastle, 因 Oldcastle 后人反对,遂易名为Falstaff(此人无后)。 亨利王子同 Oldcastle 确曾有过一段友谊, 但剧中细节自然是莎翁的忽悠。

Henry IV (part 1), Henry IV(part 2) 这两部剧,亨利四世的戏很有限,不如说是亨利五世前传。剧中喜剧性穿插颇多,是否喧宾夺主,仁见仁智见智。

BBC拍摄的 Hollow Crown 四部曲中,亨利五世由 Tom Hiddleston 担纲。Hiddleston 在 Midnight in Paris 中出演The Great Gatsby 作者Fitzgerald。油管上有不少Hiddleston 读诗节目,很精彩。


wiki(Henry V of England):

Supposed riotous youth

It may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is partly due to political enmity. Henry's record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531.

The story of Falstaff originated in Henry's early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle, a supporter of the Lollards. Shakespeare's Falstaff was originally named "Oldcastle", following his main source, The Famous Victories of Henry V. However, his descendants objected, and the name was changed (the character became a composite of several real persons, including Sir John Fastolf). That friendship, and the prince's political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, perhaps encouraged Lollard hopes. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry, on becoming king, was suddenly changed into a new man.


Last modified on 03/06/16 01:40
        

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The Hollow Crown: Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part I | Great Performances | PBS

        

#120  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
国内政策

在国内事务上,亨利五世的政策涵盖广泛。从一开始起,他就将自己明确定位为统治英格兰的一国之首。

一方面,他试图消除亨利四世时期产生的仇隙。他将理查二世重新厚葬;解除对Mortimer兄弟(Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March)的监禁,并于加冕前一天封二人为巴斯骑士Knights of the Bath; 对那些叛乱贵族的后代, 使之贵族头衔及其原有封地失而复得。

另一方面,他对敌手毫不心慈手软。一有反叛苗头,他就立即采取行动,以防止事态扩大(“nip the movement in the bud" 防患于未然). 1414年,他击败了罗拉德教派的反叛。1417年,对他的老朋友Sir John Oldcastle 处以火刑。

总的来说,亨利五世统治时期比较太平,除了1415年的南安普顿阴谋 the Southampton Plot。

自1417年8月,亨利五世提倡英文做为政府部门官方语言, 他的统治也是法庭英文Chancery Standard English 问世的标志。诺曼统治(1066年)350年以来,亨利五世是第一位在私人信函中使用英文的英格兰国王。


wiki(Henry V of England):

Domestic policy

Henry tackled all of the domestic policies together and gradually built on them a wider policy. From the first, he made it clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation. On the one hand, he let past differences be forgotten – the late Richard II was honourably re-interred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their titles and estates. On the other hand, where Henry saw a grave domestic danger, he acted firmly and ruthlessly – such as the Lollard discontent in January 1414, including the execution by burning of Henry's old friend Sir John Oldcastle in 1417, so as to "nip the movement in the bud" and make his own position as ruler secure.

His reign was generally free from serious trouble at home. The exception was the Southampton Plot in favour of Mortimer, involving Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham and Richard, Earl of Cambridge (grandfather of the future King Edward IV of England), in July 1415.

Starting in August 1417, Henry V promoted the use of the English language in government, and his reign marks the appearance of Chancery Standard English as well as the adoption of English as the language of record within Government. He was the first king to use English in his personal correspondence since the Norman conquest, which had occurred 350 years earlier.


Last modified on 03/08/16 22:08
        

#120  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

John Oldcastle being burnt for insurrection and Lollard heresy


Sir John Oldcastle 老城堡爵士是英格兰罗拉德教派领袖。

因为同亨利五世的交情,做为异教徒的他很长一段时间得以免遭审判,直到在他的一本书中发现了确凿证据。即便如此,亨利五世还是拖延定罪时间。但老城堡声称他所有的财产都可以交给国王,除了他的信仰。

1413年9月被以异教徒定罪后,亨利五世仍想为老朋友开脱,遂特赐延缓40天执行。在大限到来之前,老城堡就从伦敦塔逃掉了,之后并领导了罗拉德教徒们预谋推翻亨利五世的叛乱。

1417年11月被捉拿,12月14日在伦敦被处绞刑,绞刑架被烧,他是否被burnt alive,没有明确记载。


wiki(Sir John Oldcastle):

Sir John Oldcastle (died 14 December 1417) was an English Lollard leader. Being a friend of Henry V, he long escaped prosecution for heresy. When convicted, he escaped from the Tower of London and then led a rebellion against the King. Eventually, he was captured and executed in London. He formed the basis for William Shakespeare's character John Falstaff, who was originally called John Oldcastle.

But his friendship with the new King Henry V prevented any decisive action until convincing evidence was found in one of Oldcastle's books, which was discovered in a shop in Paternoster Row, London. The matter was brought before the King, who desired that nothing should be done until he had tried his personal influence. Oldcastle declared his readiness to submit to the king "all his fortune in this world" but was firm in his religious beliefs.

On 14 December he was formally condemned, on the record of his previous conviction, and that same day was hanged in St Giles's Fields, and burnt "gallows and all". It is not clear whether he was burnt alive.


sing wrote: (3/8/2016 19:8)
国内政策

另一方面,他对敌手毫不心慈手软。一有反叛苗头,他就立即采取行动,以防止事态扩大(“nip the movement in the bud" 防患于未然). 1414年,他击败了罗拉德教派的反叛。1417年,对他的老朋友Sir John Oldcastle 处以火刑。


Last modified on 03/08/16 22:10
        

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