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#81  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
The Lords Appellant  勋爵上诉团

勋爵上诉团由理查二世时期的五位贵族组成。起先有三位成员,包括理查二世的叔叔 Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester。后来又加入两位,其一是理查的堂兄、后来成为亨利四世的 Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby ;另一位则是Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham. ,莎翁《理查二世Richard II》开场即是Henry Bolingbroke与 Thomas de Mowbray 互相指控对方并准备决斗。

上诉团的意图是通过法律程序,以叛国罪起诉并弹劾国王的五位宠臣,以此抑制他们认为专横的暴政。

上诉团达到了目的。理查二世的宠臣们或被处死,或被缺席(在逃)判决死刑。1387年,上诉团甚至发动了武装叛乱,使理查二世成了几乎没有实权的傀儡。

1389年,支持理查二世的冈特的约翰从西班牙返回。至1397年,羽翼已丰的理查二世认为时机到了,遂对上诉团成员实施报复。

理查的叔叔 Gloucester 被关进加莱监狱,还未审判就被谋杀。 当时驻守加莱的英军首领正是上诉团另一成员 Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk。他很可能是奉理查二世之旨杀了Gloucester。 莎翁《理查二世》一剧开始, Bolingbroke 就因此事指控 Thomas de Mowbray。

在理查二世1397年的复仇中,上诉团的原始三成员两人被杀,一人被关。

1398年,另二位也遭报复。起因是Thomas de Mowbray 指控Henry of Bolingbroke有叛君之嫌,Henry 则反控。“Take honour from me, and my life is done ”, 为名誉,二人决定进行决斗。就在决斗前,理查二世宣布将Thomas de Mowbray 终生放逐(Thomas1399年客死威尼斯);而亨利呢,先被放逐10年,随即减为6年。

莎翁剧中这么写(附本人粗译):

KING RICHARD II 理查二世
Uncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes 叔父,透过你的眼眸
I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect 我窥见悲哀的心:你的愁容
Hath from the number of his banish'd years 已将他的流放期
Pluck'd four away. 缩短了四年。
(To HENRY BOLINGBROKE 朝向亨利。博林波柔克 )
Six frozen winter spent, 度过六个寒冬,
Return with welcome home from banishment. 即可结束流放,回到欢迎你的故土。

HENRY BOLINGBROKE 亨利。博林波柔克
How long a time lies in one little word! 漫长岁月仅蕴于一字!
Four lagging winters and four wanton springs 四度冬寒四度春狂
End in a word: such is the breath of kings 皆止于一言: 是谓君王之鼻息。

国王吐口气,漫长的4个冬春瞬间终结,“ such is the breath of kings”。

1399年冈特的约翰过世,HENRY BOLINGBROKE卷土重来。


wiki(The Lords Appellant):

The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II who sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule. The word appellant simply means '[one who is] appealing [in a legal sense]'. It is the older (Norman) French form of the present participle of the verb appeler, the equivalent of the English 'to appeal'. The group was called the Lords Appellant because its members invoked a procedure under law to start prosecution of the king's unpopular favourites known as 'an appeal': the favourites were charged in a document called an appeal of treason, a device borrowed from civil law which led to some procedural complications.

There were originally three Lords Appellant: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, son of Edward III and thus the king's uncle; Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel and of Surrey; and Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. These were later joined by Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby (the future king Henry IV) and Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham.

They achieved their goals, first establishing a Commission to govern England for one year from 19 November 1386. In 1387, the Lords Appellant launched an armed rebellion against King Richard and defeated an army under Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford at the skirmish of Radcot Bridge, outside Oxford.They maintained Richard as a figurehead with little real power.

They had their revenge on the king's favourites in the "Merciless Parliament" (1388). The nominal governor of Ireland, de Vere and Richard's Lord Chancellor, Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, who had fled abroad, were sentenced to death in their absence.[4] Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, had all his worldly goods confiscated.[4] The Lord Chief Justice, Sir Robert Tresilian, was executed, as were Sir Nicholas Brembre, Lord Mayor of London, John Beauchamp of Holt, Sir James Berners, and Sir John Salisbury. Sir Simon Burley was found guilty of exercising undue influence over the king and was sentenced to death. Derby and Nottingham, together with the duke of York, tried to win a reprieve for him, but he was executed on 5 May

In 1389, Richard's uncle and supporter, John of Gaunt, returned from Spain and Richard was able to rebuild his power gradually until 1397, when he reasserted his authority and destroyed the principal three among the Lords Appellant. However in 1399 Richard was deposed by Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, partly as a result of the royal confiscation of Gaunt's estate on his death. Bolingbroke succeeded him as Henry IV.

Richard never forgave the Lords Appellant. His uncle Gloucester was murdered in captivity in Calais; it was (and remains) widely believed that he was killed on Richard's orders. The Earl of Arundel was beheaded. Warwick lost his title and his lands and was imprisoned on the Isle of Man until Richard was overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke. The behaviour of the two junior Lords Appellant, Bolingbroke and Mowbray, probably influenced Richard's decision in 1399 (这里应当是1398年) to exile them both, and to revoke the permission he had given them to sue for any inheritance which fell due, as it did in relation to Mowbray's grandmother and, more significantly, of Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt.
        

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Richard being taken into custody by the Earl of Northumberland (Froissart)


1399年2月3日, 冈特的约翰辞世。理查二世没收约翰的地产,剥夺约翰儿子Bolingbroke 的继承权,并且将Bolingbroke 终身流放。理查二世以为当时身在巴黎的Bolingbroke 对他并不构成任何威胁。理查二世对法国一直采取和平政策,所以他认为法国没有理由挑战他的王位。 于是理查二世在1399年5月再次出征爱尔兰(1395年,理查二世曾成功入侵爱尔兰)。理查一方面同法国讲和,另一方面却攻打爱尔兰,恃强凌弱?

理查二世这次远征爱尔兰,不只是大意失英格兰,失王冠,最终还失了性命。

话说法王查理五世1380年病殁后, 其子查理六世Charles VI le Insense – the Mad继位。查理六世患有精神病,王室一片混乱。13996月, 奥尔良公爵路易掌控了王室。路易并不赞成同英王发展友好睦邻关系,他发现这是放Henry Bolingbroke 回英格兰的天赐良机。

1399年6月底, Henry Bolingbroke 在英格兰东北部约克郡的Ravenspur(今已被海水侵蚀)登陆,消息传出,反国王势力很快在他身边集聚。开始时,亨利声称回英格兰只是要回属于他的领地和财产。

当时王室骑士和对国王忠心的贵族们都跟随理查二世去爱尔兰了,所以亨利一路南下,几乎未受到任何抵抗。受理查二世之托,留守英格兰的约克公爵Edmund of Langley(理查二世的叔父)也只好同亨利合作。

同时,从爱尔兰返回的理查二世归程受阻,7月24日才在威尔士登陆。

他到了Conwy 康威后,8月12日与 Earl of Northumberland 谈判。8月19日, 理查二世在Flint Castle 弗林特城堡向亨利投降,并保证在人身安全受保障的前提下放弃王位。9月1日返回伦敦后,理查被关进伦敦塔。


wiki(Richard II of England):


On 3 February 1399, John of Gaunt died. Rather than allowing Bolingbroke to succeed, Richard extended his exile to life and had him disinherited. The king felt safe from Bolingbroke, who was residing in Paris, since the French had little interest in any challenge to Richard and his peace policy. Richard left the country in May for another expedition in Ireland.

In June 1399, Louis, Duke of Orléans, gained control of the court of the insane Charles VI of France. The policy of rapprochement with the English crown did not suit Louis's political ambitions, and for this reason he found it opportune to allow Henry to leave for England. With a small group of followers, Bolingbroke landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire towards the end of June 1399. Men from all over the country soon rallied around the duke. Meeting with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, who had his own misgivings about the king, Bolingbroke insisted that his only object was to regain his own patrimony. Percy took him at his word and declined to interfere. The king had taken most of his household knights and the loyal members of his nobility with him to Ireland, so Henry experienced little resistance as he moved south. Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, who was acting as Keeper of the Realm, had little choice but to side with Bolingbroke. Meanwhile, Richard was delayed in his return from Ireland and did not land in Wales until 24 July. He made his way to Conwy, where on 12 August he met with the Earl of Northumberland for negotiations. On 19 August, Richard II surrendered to Henry at Flint Castle, promising to abdicate if his life were spared. Both men then returned to London, the indignant king riding all the way behind Henry. On arrival, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 1 September.
        

#82  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
理查二世放弃王位(或说被废黜)后,亨利与御座之间还横着一道障碍,因为有人继承权优先于亨利。

亨利的父亲--冈特的约翰在世时曾提议英格兰国会跟风法国,采纳《萨利克继承法》,即不允许女性及其后裔继承王位,但国会并未听从他的建议。 所以英格兰王位的继承权并不排除女性及其后裔。

按英格兰律法, 继承权属于爱德华三世的次子Lionel of Antwerp 的后代Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March 。这里是指Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 第五代马奇伯爵埃德蒙·莫蒂默--- Lionel of Antwerp 的女儿Philippa的孙子, 他是 the heir presumptive to King Richard II 。

而冈特的约翰是爱德华三世的第三子(among surviving sons), 所以亨利的继承权应当排在莫蒂默之后。

但亨利一再强调他是英王室一脉相承的男性直系后裔, 而莫蒂默的王室血缘来自他的祖母Philippa。官方文件并且记载,理查二世自愿让位于亨利。 最终结果:国会于1399年9月30日接受理查放弃王位,亨利于10月13日加冕为亨利四世。

兰开斯特家族的亨利戴上了英格兰至高无上的王冠, 但因理查二世被黜引发的王位之争, 却最终导致了后来的玫瑰战争。


wiki(Richard II of England):

Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma. It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king. However, Henry was not next in the line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, who descended from Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp. Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt, was Edward's third son.The problem was solved by emphasizing Henry's descent in a direct male line, whereas March's descent was through his grandmother. The official account of events claims that Richard voluntarily agreed to abdicate in favour of Henry on 29 September. Although this was probably not the case, the parliament that met on 30 September accepted Richard's abdication. Henry was crowned as King Henry IV on 13 October.


Last modified on 02/03/16 23:43
        

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爱德华三世的儿子们


爱德华三世与王后菲利琶共有5个儿子长大成人。 像金雀花王朝创始人亨利二世的儿子们一样,爱德华三世的儿子们也影响了英格兰历史的走向。


爱德华三世的长子:黑太子爱德华Edward, the Black Prince, (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376)

战功卓著的黑太子比其父早逝一年。黑太子有两个合法儿子,长子7岁夭折。次子理查二世继位。

理查先后迎娶Anne of Bohemia (m. 1382–1394), 和Isabella of Valois (m. 1396–1400) 。 身后无嗣。



Signet ring of the Black Prince in the Louvre


Last modified on 02/04/16 00:55
        

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Lionel of Antwerp


爱德华三世的次子:安特卫普的莱昂内尔Lionel of Antwerp(1338年-1368年)


Lionel也在爱德华三世之前过世。Lionel 名下只有独女菲利琶Philippa of Clarence (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1382)  。

Philippa 嫁给了Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March。Edmund 的曾祖父(great grandfather)就是Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, 曾伙同法兰西母狼伊莎贝拉联手,于1327年1月废黜爱德华二世。

菲利琶与莫提摩有二子二女。 长子为Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, 次子为Sir Edmund Mortimer。 稍后还会提到。

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 与Eleanor Holland 的长女长子, 即菲利琶的孙女孙子,影响了王位之争。

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 的长子就是本应在理查二世被黜之后继承王位的Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March.

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 的长女是 Anne Mortimer。 他与 Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge 成婚。 而这位Richard 的父亲正是爱德华三世的第四个儿子、约克家族鼻祖Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 。

Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 死后无嗣,他的财产连同他对英格兰王位的继承权因此就传给了他姐姐Anne Mortimer 和Richard的儿子Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York。后面再续。

一言以概之,玫瑰战争时约克家族继承王位的依据上溯到爱德华三世次子安特卫普的莱昂内尔Lionel of Antwerp的女儿菲利琶。约克家族与后来的约克郡的标志是白玫瑰。


Last modified on 02/03/16 23:47
        

#86  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

John of Gaunt


爱德华三世的第三个儿子: 冈特的约翰John of Gaunt,1340年-1399年

冈特的约翰是兰开斯特王朝的创始人。兰开斯特王朝及后来兰开斯特郡的标志是红玫瑰。

约翰先后有三任妻子。

第一任妻子是兰开斯特的布兰奇 Blanche of Lancaster (25 March 1345 – 12 September 1368) 。布兰奇也是金雀花家族成员,其父当时是英格兰巨富的当权派Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster(亨利三世的曾孙)。 布兰奇的父亲1361年过世,她的姐姐1362年4月去世,无嗣。布兰奇父亲的全部领地都传给了布兰奇夫妇。1362年11月,爱德华三世封儿子约翰为Duke of Lancaster。 布兰奇23岁时可能因感染黑死病而去世。亨利四世是他们的儿子。

“他的第二任妻子康斯坦萨是卡斯蒂利亚暴君佩德罗的女儿,他因此要求卡斯蒂利亚的王位,但未能战胜竞争对手恩里克二世 ”--wiki

约翰的第三任妻子是Katherine Swynford,约翰是凯瑟琳的第二任丈夫。凯瑟琳的妹妹Philippa Roet 是乔叟的妻子。 约翰是乔叟的恩主。约翰与凯瑟琳的儿子John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset的孙女Lady Margaret Beaufort 是都铎王朝的创始人亨利七世的母亲。



        

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Edmund of Langley before King Ferdinand I of Portugal, from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre

爱德华的第四个儿子;Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402)

兰利的埃德蒙 Edmund of Langley 是约克王朝的创始人。前面已提到,他的儿子Richard 与他兄长Lionel of Antwerp 的女儿菲利琶的孙女Anne Mortimer 成婚, 由此约克家族在玫瑰战争中claim 对英格兰王位的继承权。


wiki(Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York):

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, to Anne de Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Edmund's elder brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, that the House of York made its claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward III's third son.
        

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Thomas of Woodstock

爱德华三世的第5个儿子:格洛斯特公爵伍德斯托克的托马斯(Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester,1355年1月7日—1397年9月8日或9日)


前面已提到,Thomas 是the Lords Appellant 勋爵上诉团的首领, 1397年,被理查二世投入加莱监狱, 未及受审就死在狱中。

wiki(Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester):

Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388 that significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.
        

#89  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
回到理查二世。

像Arthur I 和Edward II一样,后世也只能猜测理查二世的死因,饿死?还是被杀?It remains a mystery。莎翁《Richard II》中的理查之死自然是艺术虚构。理查二世大约卒于1400年2月14日,时年33岁。

wiki(Richard II):

The exact course of Richard's life after the deposition is unclear; he remained in the Tower until he was taken to Pontefract Castle shortly before the end of the year.  Although King Henry might have been amenable to letting him live, this all changed when it was revealed that the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury and Lord Despenser, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland – all now demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard – were planning to murder the new king and restore Richard in the Epiphany Rising. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live. He is thought to have starved to death in captivity on or around 14 February 1400, although there is some question over the date and manner of his death. His body was taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral on 17 February before burial in Kings Langley Church on 6 March.



sing wrote: (1/30/2016 21:15)


wiki[理查二世 (英格兰)]:

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399.

理查二世(Richard II,1367年1月6日-1400年2月14日),1377年登基成为英格兰国王,1399年被废。

。。。。。。

1400年2月14日理查在Pontefract城堡被谋杀(也可能是饿死的),死后原本被葬于赫特福德郡的Kings Langley。最终,亨利四世之子亨利五世把他的遗体安葬在威斯敏斯特大教堂。

理查是一位伟大的皇家艺术赞助人,他是乔叟的赞助人,他下令把诺曼时代威斯敏斯特厅改建成现在的样子(这个大厅在1097到1099年被威廉二世建造,是王国的礼仪和行政中心,在1882年以前也是法院所在)传说理查二世是手帕的发明者,英国王室札记这样写到:“国王用一小片衣物擦鼻子。”

        

#90  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
莎翁的《Richard II 理查二世》很精彩,撇开人物刻画发展,单是俯拾皆是的经典段落和句子,就足以令人倾倒再三品味。不读莎士比亚,不知道英文可以如何迷人,he wrote, he conquered。 当然历史剧并非教科书,而是基于历史事件的艺术构建。

《理查二世》话剧本身已近两个半小时,改编成电影的《The Hollow Crown 空王冠》第一集《Richard II》长148分。《空王冠第一集---理查二世》拍得相当好看! 整部电影采用莎翁原剧台词,有删减,但衔接自然,编剧功夫了得。演员阵势很强大,饰演理查二世的Ben Whishaw 本身是同志,把理查二世文艺青年神经质的一面诠释得很出彩。(Contemporary writers, even those less sympathetic to the king, agreed that Richard was a "most beautiful king", though with a "face which was white, rounded and feminine", implying he lacked manliness. -- wiki)

《空王冠》是四部曲,《理查二世》是第一部,另三部后面将提到。

《The Hollow Crown》, 电影名称取自莎翁《理查二世》剧中理查的一段台词。开头即由理查的画外音引入这段话(附本人中文粗译):

Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs; 让我们来谈谈坟墓、蛆虫和墓志铭;
Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth, 让我们在大地的胸膛上书写忧伤,
let us sit upon the ground 让我们席地而坐
And tell sad stories of the death of kings; 讲讲有关国王死亡的悲惨故事;
How some have been deposed; 说说他们怎样被废黜;
some slain in war, 怎样在战场上被杀戮,
Some haunted by the ghosts they have deposed; 怎样被他们废黜的鬼魂所纠缠;
Some poison'd by their wives: 怎样被王后们毒死;
some sleeping kill'd; 怎样在酣眠中被弑;
All murder'd 他们全都难逃厄运。


莎翁剧中原话:

KING RICHARD II
No matter where; of comfort no man speak:
Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs;
Make dust our paper and with rainy eyes
Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth,
Let's choose executors and talk of wills:
And yet not so, for what can we bequeath
Save our deposed bodies to the ground?
Our lands, our lives and all are Bolingbroke's,
And nothing can we call our own but death
And that small model of the barren earth
Which serves as paste and cover to our bones.
For God's sake, let us sit upon the ground
And tell sad stories of the death of kings;
How some have been deposed; some slain in war,
Some haunted by the ghosts they have deposed;
Some poison'd by their wives: some sleeping kill'd;
All murder'd: for within the hollow crown
That rounds the mortal temples of a king
Keeps Death his court and there the antic sits,
Scoffing his state and grinning at his pomp,
Allowing him a breath, a little scene,
To monarchize, be fear'd and kill with looks,
Infusing him with self and vain conceit,
As if this flesh which walls about our life,
Were brass impregnable, and humour'd thus
Comes at the last and with a little pin
Bores through his castle wall, and farewell king!
Cover your heads and mock not flesh and blood
With solemn reverence: throw away respect,
Tradition, form and ceremonious duty,
For you have but mistook me all this while:
I live with bread like you, feel want,
Taste grief, need friends: subjected thus,
How can you say to me, I am a king?
        

#91  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Richard II: "This Sceptered Isle" speech



《Richard II》中,冈特的约翰临终前的一段飞扬文字道出了英格兰得天独厚的地理优势。

在征服者威廉之后,英格兰再没有被外族入侵过。而隔海相望的法国,就没有那么幸运。但每枚硬币都有两面,在很大程度上也因为地理原因,英格兰无法保住在法兰西的领地。


以下中文译文摘自网上,可能是朱生豪或梁实秋译本。

John of Gaunt:
This royal throne of kings, this scepter'd isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise,
This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands,
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings,
Fear'd by their breed and famous by their birth,
Renowned for their deeds as far from home,
For Christian service and true chivalry,
As is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry,
Of the world's ransom, blessed Mary's Son,
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,
Dear for her reputation through the world,
Is now leased out, I die pronouncing it,
Like to a tenement or pelting farm:
England, bound in with the triumphant sea
Whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege
Of watery Neptune, is now bound in with shame,
With inky blots and rotten parchment bonds:
That England, that was wont to conquer others,
Hath made a shameful conquest of itself.
Ah, would the scandal vanish with my life,
How happy then were my ensuing death!

这一个君王们的御座,这一个统於一尊的岛屿,
这一片庄严的大地,这一个战神的別邸,
这一个新的伊甸——地上的天堂,
这一个造化女神为了防御毒害和战祸的侵入而为她自己造下的堡垒,
这一个英雄豪杰的诞生之地,这一个小小的世界,
这一个镶嵌在银色的海水之中的宝石(那海水就像是一堵围墙,或是一道沿屋的壕沟,杜绝了宵小的觊觎),
这一个幸福的国土,这一个英格兰,
这一个保姆,这一个繁育著明君贤主的母体(他们的诞生为世人所侧目,他们仗义卫道的功业远震寰宇),
这一个像救世主的圣墓一样驰名、孕育著这许多伟大的灵魂的国土,
这一个声誉传遍世界、亲爱又亲爱的国土,
现在却像一幢房屋、一块田地一般出租了——
我要在垂死之际,宣布这样的事实。
英格兰,它的周遭是为汹湧的怒涛所包围着的,
它的岩石的崖岸击退海神的进攻,
现在却笼罩在耻辱、墨黑的污点和卑劣的契约之中,
那一向征服別人的英格兰,现在已经可耻地征服了它自己。
啊!要是这耻辱能够随着我的生命同时消失,
我的死该是多么幸福!
        

#92  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Richard II - Ben Whishaw from The Hollow Crown




“I wasted time, and now doth time waste me. ”--- Richard II

看过《Richard II》或《The Hollow Crown》, 谁又能忘记这句话.

失了王冠的曾经的国王在狱中发出的喟叹,我们凡夫俗子又何尝没有。自问,是我虚度了光阴,还是光阴消磨了我?

去年此时随手post 了《A History Of Britain 》第一集,原以为年底会搬完全部15集。谁知转贴兼翻译维基,三天打鱼十天晒网,到现在才第五集。


春节将至,顺祝网上诸君新春愉快安康吉祥!


Last modified on 02/06/16 13:28
        

#93  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
yeah, what makes you so slow simply doing c&P here?

look, last night, i read a news about Queen Elizabeth is set to retire but bypass Charles and pass crown to William and Kate Middleton. this morning, the new news coming from the other side of ocean says: oh no, that was rumor. she is not going to give up her crown that soon. so i'd ask both of you: how long we have to wait?





sing wrote: (2/6/2016 1:7)

“I wasted time, and now doth time waste me. ”--- Richard II

看过《Richard II》或《The Hollow Crown》, 谁又能忘记这句话.

失了王冠的曾经的国王在狱中发出的喟叹,我们凡夫俗子又何尝没有。自问,是我虚度了光阴,还是光阴消磨了我?

去年此时随手post 了《A History Of Britain 》第一集,原以为年底会搬完全部15集。谁知转贴兼翻译维基,三天打鱼十天晒网,到现在才第五集。


春节将至,顺祝网上诸君新春愉快安康吉祥!

        

#94  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
I wonder too why i've been proceeding at a snail's pace. too many interests, too little time.

"i'd ask both of you: how long we have to wait?"
--- The answer is: you may take over this thread.
        

#95  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Henry IV of England 亨利四世画像



此亨利四世是英格兰兰开斯特王朝的第一位国王,而非法兰西历史上颇负盛名的亨利大帝---伟大贤明的法兰西亨利四世。


“(亨利四世)由于受议会拥戴而即位,开创了国王尊重议会意见的先河。”

英格兰历史上第一个被国会废黜的国王是Edward II,但1327年时国会由Isabella of France 及其情夫 Roger Mortimer 掌控,所以这被认为是一出闹剧。

爱德华二世的曾孙理查二世1399年被废黜,则被认为是“开创了国王尊重议会意见的先河”。其实,很大程度上,国会也是被强势的亨利四世所迫。



wiki(亨利四世--英格兰):


亨利四世(英语:Henry IV,1367年4月3日[2]-1413年3月20日[3]),英格兰国王和爱尔兰领主,由1399年到1413年在位。他是金雀花王朝的第十代英格兰国王,同时也宣称拥有对法国国王王位的所有。因为出生在博林布鲁克城堡,因此也称为博林布鲁克的亨利(Henry (of) Bolingbroke 英语发音:/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/)。

他是爱德华三世的第三子兰开斯特公爵约翰·冈特的长子。支持堂兄理查二世镇压格洛斯特公爵叛乱。但是不久由于诺福克公爵的挑拨,在1398年被理查二世驱逐并没收领地。遂起兵征讨理查。由于受议会拥戴而即位,开创了国王尊重议会意见的先河。

1380年,在父亲的安排下,当时只有十三岁的亨利迎娶已故赫里福德伯爵汉弗莱·德·博亨的十二岁女儿玛丽·德·博亨为妻,亨利的母亲与玛丽的母亲是表姐妹。两人婚后育有六个孩子。
长子亨利五世,英格兰国王(1386年—1422年)
次子托马斯,拉伦斯公爵(1387年—1421年)
三子约翰,贝德福德公爵(1389年—1435年)
四子汉弗莱,格洛斯特公爵(1390年—1447年)
长女布兰奇(1392年—1409年),1402年嫁给德国王子普法尔茨选帝侯路易三世
次女菲利帕(1394年—1430年),1406年嫁给丹麦、挪威及瑞典国王埃里克七世
1394年,妻子玛丽生下最小的女儿后去世,得年26岁,当时亨利还未即位,所以玛丽不曾加冕为王后。


1403年2月7日,亨利迎娶纳瓦拉国王查理二世之女琼为继室,她当时是布列塔尼公爵约翰五世的遗孀,已经育有多名子女。琼后来成为英格兰王后,不过,两人并未再生育子女。


Last modified on 02/14/16 00:52
        

#96  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
King Henry IV "Henry Bolingbroke" (1367-1413)

        

#96  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

English Royalty House of Lancaster


亨利四世于1399年10月13日加冕。他很可能是自诺曼人征服英格兰以来,第一个以英文宣誓演讲的国王。

亨利的母亲布兰奇是兰开斯特领地的继承人,亨利四世因此成为金雀花王朝的支系兰开斯特王朝的第一位国王。
亨利四世宣称自己是法国国王,故徽章中有Fleur-de-lis。

亨利在位时经常咨询国会,但有时同议员仍有争执,尤其在教会事务方面。1401年,亨利通过国会颁布了De heretico comburendo , 即the Burning of Heretics, 对异教徒实施火刑惩罚。其主要目的是压制罗拉德教派运动。1410年,国会建议没收教会地产,但遭到亨利四世的反对,因为他在教会支持下才得以掌权,下议院遂请求将此项提案从记录中删除。


wiki(Henry IV of England):

Henry quickly gained enough power and support to have himself declared King Henry IV, imprison King Richard (who died in prison under mysterious circumstances) and bypass Richard's 7-year-old heir-presumptive, Edmund de Mortimer. Henry's coronation, on 13 October 1399, may have marked the first time following the Norman Conquest when the monarch made an address in English.

Henry's mother was Blanche, heiress to the considerable Lancaster estates, and thus he became the first King of England from the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets.

Henry consulted with Parliament frequently, but was sometimes at odds with the members, especially over ecclesiastical matters. On Arundel's advice, Henry obtained from Parliament the enactment of De heretico comburendo in 1401, which prescribed the burning of heretics; this was done mainly to suppress the Lollard movement. In 1410, parliament suggested confiscating church land. Henry refused to attack the Church that had helped him to power, and the House of Commons had to beg for the bill to be struck off the record.


Last modified on 02/17/16 01:36
        

#98  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
The De heretico comburendo, 即Regarding the Burning of Heretics, 焚烧异教徒,1401年由英格兰亨利四世的国会通过,将异教徒绑在柱子上烧死,以示惩罚。火刑是英格兰历史上最严厉残忍的宗教律法之一。

这条法律是为了消灭追随约翰·威克里夫的罗拉德教派。罗拉德教派被当作蛊惑人心颠覆天主教信仰的邪教。任何人不上缴邪教书籍,将被处以火刑,以达到杀鸡儆猴的目的。

这像是西方版的焚书坑儒。 这也令我想起科幻小说 《Fahrenheit 451 华氏451度》。思想的传播总是令统治者恐惧。约翰·威克里夫是宗教改革的先驱,他的小册子当时广为传抄。他翻译的圣经英文本在当时竟被当作禁书。


Wiki (The De heretico comburendo):

The De heretico comburendo (2 Hen.4 c.15) was a law passed by Parliament under King Henry IV of England in 1401, punishing heretics with burning at the stake. This law was one of the strictest religious censorship statutes ever enacted in England.

The statute declared there were "...divers false and perverse people of a certain new sect...they make and write books, they do wickedly instruct and inform people...and commit subversion of the said catholic faith". The sect alluded to is the Lollards, followers of John Wycliffe.


De heretico comburendo urged "...that this wicked sect, preachings, doctrines, and opinions, should from henceforth cease and be utterly destroyed...", and declared "...that all and singular having such books or any writings of such wicked doctrine and opinions, shall really with effect deliver or cause to be delivered all such books and writings to the diocesan of the same place within forty days from the time of the proclamation of this ordinance and statute."

"And if any person...such books in the form aforesaid do not deliver, then the diocesan of the same place in his diocese such person or persons in this behalf defamed or evidently suspected and every of them may by the authority of the said ordinance and statute cause to be arrested...". If they failed to abjure their heretical beliefs, or relapsed after an initial abjuration, they would "...be burnt, that such punishment may strike fear into the minds of others...".
        

#99  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

John Wyclif 约翰·威克里夫


wiki(约翰·威克里夫):

约翰·威克里夫(John Wyclif,约1320年—1384年),欧洲宗教改革的先驱。

威克里夫生于英国约克郡,其父亲是威克里夫农庄的主人。他于1345年到牛津大学墨顿学院就读,并于1362年在牛津大学贝利奥尔学院完成硕士学位。其后,他花了9 年时间供读博士学位,并于1372年正式取得该学位。曾任牛津大学哲学、神学博士,1369年起任英王的侍从神父,1374年受英王委派与教宗代表就英国教会的神职任免权问题进行谈判,未达成协议,从此抨击教宗权力至上。

威克里夫(John Wycliffe)为中世纪末期的改教先驱,于公开场合批评罗马大公教会所定的各项规条及不合上帝心意的教宗。威氏生于1320年,曾在英国牛津大学皇后学院读书,于1372年得到了神学博士的学位。之后就在该校任教,学识渊博,但为人不茍言笑。于1376年开始批评圣职人员,原因即是教会过于和执政掌权者亲近、政教不分,且生活优渥不愁吃穿,教会腐化的程度超乎想像。对于教宗所立的多项规条也不符合圣经的教导,一切应回归到圣经,以圣经为信仰生活的准则。另外由于当时圣经所采取的是武加大译本翻译出来的拉丁文圣经,人民阅读不易,故为了大家都能懂得圣经中的意思,威氏于1380到1382年间,与数位朋友将此圣经合译成英文圣经,同时也将教义等等资料汇总,均以英文来呈现,并带到英国各地方。但此举引发教宗及圣职人员的不满,威氏开始遭受到逼迫,幸赖许多王公贵族及平民百姓支持他,直到过世都未落入逼迫者的手中。威氏曾有一段时间任职于王室,当时英王爱德华三世和教宗贵革利十一世发生冲突,国王仗着国会对他的支持,拒绝效忠教宗,由于威氏早就敌视教宗,于是以写文章的方式来护卫国王,前后写了〈教皇分裂(Schisma Place)〉一书,说明了教宗根本不是清心寡欲的使徒;〈圣经真理与实意(On the Truth and Meaning of Scripture)〉一书,提及应将圣经翻译成英文,真正明白圣经的真理及上帝的旨意,不需要教宗及教会插手其中。当时印刷术尚未发明,整个翻译的工作是以手抄的方式一段段完成,每抄完一段即流传出去,最后再做总整理,使完整的英文译本可以问世。威氏在1384年12月31日中风过世于卢多倭(Lutterworth)。

威克里夫主张各国教会应隶属于本国国王,教宗无权向国王征收赋税,并建议国王没收教会土地,建立摆脱教廷控制的民族教会。他否认教士有赦罪权,要求简化教会礼仪。因此,他遭到时任教宗额我略十一世(Gregory XI)的五次谴责及坎特布里大主教的通缉,但获牛津大学的师生及伦敦市民支持,并得英王的保护。1381年英王与教会共同镇压瓦特·泰勒农民起义,威克里夫被迫幽居写作,把圣经译成英文,并完成神学著作《三人对话录》。他主张圣经的权威高于教会,信徒应服从基督而非教会,1384年死于莱斯特郡。三十年后其作品被教会销毁。在他死后教皇对他的理念或是教训深恶痛绝,因此在他死后三十年举行了康士坦会议,颁发了底下的谕令:“……,本神圣会议表明立场,并宣告威克里夫乃声名狼籍之异端者,至死顽梗不化,不但被逐出教会,而且他所有对他的追思都是有罪的,当将他的骸骨挖出,丢在教会墓园之外,将其他忠诚之死者以示区别。”十二年后,有一位主教发现此令尚未执行,乃于一四二八年将他的骸骨挖出并焚烧,且经他的骨灰丢至史威福(Swift)溪中。虽然威克里夫死后仍遭到这样焚骨扬灰的对待,但是老汤姆福勒(Tom Fuller)在他的教会历史里写道:“他的骨灰流至亚芬河(Avon),又流至塞芬河(Severn),然后流入海峡,最后流入汪洋大海。就这样象征威克里夫之教义的骨灰,如今已散布至各地。”
        

#100  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
约翰•威克里夫——英格兰宗教改革的先驱
(译自《照亮历史航程的灯塔》)
作者 [美]约翰•洛德
译者 蒙钧

生卒年:1324-1384

改革的曙光

威克里夫这个名字代表了新教改革的曙光,而新教改革又暴露了逼使其出现的邪恶。我并不把早期的新教改革视作单纯的神学运动。事实上,无论是天主教还是新教的神学,经过那些至圣权威的系统阐述,都与早期教会神父们的理论没有实质性的差异。奥古斯丁的教义也能被托马斯•阿奎那及约翰•加尔文平等地接受。我们在神学课堂上所学习的所谓系统化的神学理论都是根据保罗及其他使徒的著作推演出来的系列论述,后来又经过圣亚塔那修、耶柔米、圣奥古斯丁及其他早期教会贤哲的润饰及条理化。到了中世纪,又有学院中的学者运用令人叹为观止的辩论技巧及精巧细致的辩证技巧,借助于古代最伟大的逻辑学家亚里士多德的方法,维护这神学,流衍而为哲学。路德也好,加尔文也好,基本上都没有背离这些针对诸如上帝的存在与属性、三位一体、罪与罚、救赎、天恩、宿命论等重大问题的阐述。现代新教教义与早期教会神父及经院学者阐述基督教基本义理的著作相一致。当然,有关礼拜、圣餐、教会政府、助益宗教生活等为经院学者所捍卫的观念确实不为新教徒所接受。这方面,早期基督教神父的著述中也没有很多权威之论。新教与天主教的主要分歧表现在如何看待教会机构上。随着基督教在与异教的斗争中逐渐占上风,教会机构也壮大起来,在中世纪又获得充分发展。然而大规模的、骇人听闻的腐败也侵蚀了这些机构,结果导致改革呼声的出现。这就是威克里夫的呼声。他谴责这种滥用威权的行为,因此而蜚声于世,成为改革先锋。神职人员及非神职人员——甚至包括诗人——也普遍承认腐败问题的存在,偶尔也加以抨击。这种现象太严重了,想否认也否认不了。

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