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#41  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Robert II, king of Scots


在与英军的内维尔十字之战 Battle of Neville's Cross 中,苏格兰的摄政大臣罗伯特·斯图亚特Robert Stewart 临阵脱逃。Robert Stewart 是老国王罗伯特一世Robert the Bruce 的外孙( Bruce长女马乔里公主的独子),在大卫二世出生前是苏格兰王位的指定继承人。 尽管大卫二世在内维尔十字战之后对外甥Robert Stew一直耿耿于怀, 大卫死后,王位仍被罗伯特·斯图亚特Robert Stewart --- 罗伯特二世继承。

罗伯特二世为斯图亚特王朝(House of Stewart, 自Mary I of Scots之后又称Stuart)的首位君王。

斯图亚特王朝自1371年罗伯特二世起,到1714年的Anne, Queen of Great Britain, 绵延343多年。 1603年时, 信奉新教的James VI of Scots, 被独身的英格兰女王Elizabeth I 指定为接班人,于是James VI of Scots 同时成为 James I of England and Ireland, 英格兰与苏格兰终于统一。 到底谁统一了谁? 英格兰、苏格兰,及至整个欧洲王室的血脉都混得厉害。

“苏格兰国王詹姆斯五世临终前曾感叹自己家族的王权是“由一个女人而来”,指的就是大卫二世的同父异母姐姐马乔里公主(罗伯特二世的母亲)。(wiki)”


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罗伯特二世(1316年3月2日-1390年4月19日),是14世纪后期苏格兰王国的君主,也是统治苏格兰(和之后英格兰)长达三百多年的斯图亚特王朝的第一代君王。

罗伯特是第六代苏格兰王室总务官(High Steward of Scotland)沃尔特·斯图亚特(Walter Stewart)和苏格兰国王罗伯特·布鲁斯长女马乔里公主所生的独子,继承了总务官的头衔。马乔里公主怀孕后期坠落马下,不治身亡,但是她腹中的罗伯特却存活了下来。

早在1318年罗伯特还是婴儿时,苏格兰议会通过议案,宣布如果罗伯特·布鲁斯无嫡子以继承王位的话,苏格兰王位应该传给他的外孙罗伯特。但是在1324年,罗伯特·布鲁斯的儿子大卫诞生,并在1329年布鲁斯去世后继位苏格兰国王,即大卫二世。
1332年,苏格兰第二次独立战争开始,年幼的大卫二世远避法国。罗伯特·斯图亚特与第三代莫瑞伯爵约翰·蓝道夫(John Randolph)一起摄政国事,与英格兰军队及他们扶持的苏格兰国王爱德华·巴里奥作战。

1341年,大卫二世返回苏格兰领导战争。但是,1346年,苏格兰军队在英格兰北部内维尔十字大败,大卫二世被俘监禁,莫瑞伯爵战死。罗伯特在战斗开始前因故撤离,躲过一劫,回到苏格兰后,成为唯一的摄政大臣。

1357年,英格兰王国和苏格兰王国议和,大卫二世被释放。罗伯特因为在内维尔十字之战涉嫌临阵脱逃,受到怀疑。当时仍然无嗣的大卫二世示意宁可将王位传给英格兰国王也不会留给自己的外甥罗伯特。

1363年,罗伯特曾试图起兵造反,但是很快投降,之后与他的四个儿子一起被监禁。直到1371年,大卫二世病重却仍然无嗣,罗伯特才被释放。

1371年2月大卫二世去世。3月,罗伯特在斯昆修道院加冕,继其外公而称罗伯特二世。

继位后的罗伯特二世因为年事已高,虽在位近20年,却没有什么突出成绩,其统治期间与英格兰的几次战斗也没有参加。
        

#42  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
House of Stuart

        

#43  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
回到百年战争。

百年战争有五大决定性战役,1346年的克雷西会战Battle of Crécy 为第一大战,爱德华三世大败法军。

法国重镇加莱沦陷后,爱德华三世更“准备进军巴黎加冕。1348年,他拒绝了竞选神圣罗马帝国皇帝的邀请。 ” 但这时黑死病正肆虐整个欧洲,英法两国因此休战数年。直到1356年,英军再度开战。

黑死病的可怕恐怖,在薄伽丘的《Decameron 十日谈》开篇中有一长段描写。 相之于但丁的《神曲》,《十日谈》被称之为《人曲》。在这一集将提到的乔叟的《坎特伯雷故事集》,即深受《十日谈》的影响。



zt:

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicates that thepathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, probably causing several forms of plague.

黑死病是人类历史上最严重的瘟疫之一。起源于亚洲西南部,一说起源于黑海城市卡法,约在1340年代散布到整个欧洲,而“黑死病”之名是当时欧洲的称呼。这场瘟疫在全世界造成了大约7500万人死亡,根据估计,瘟疫爆发期间的中世纪欧洲约有占人口总数30%-60%的人死于黑死病。

中世纪的人们称14世纪的灾难为“大瘟疫”。丹麦的年鉴第一次用“黑色的”来描述这一事件,不只是因为患者晚期的皮肤会因皮下出血变黑,更确切的是指此事件给人带来灰暗可怕的黑色阴霾。
        

#44  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
《Decameron 十日谈》中关于黑死病的描写:

在我主降生后第一千三百四十八年,意大利的城市中最美丽的城市——就是那繁华的佛罗伦萨,发生了一场可怖的瘟疫。这场瘟疫不知道是受了天体的影响,还是威严的天主降于作恶多端的人类的惩罚;它最初发生在东方,不到几年工夫,死去的人已不计其数;而且眼看这场瘟疫不断地一处处蔓延开去,后来竟不幸传播到了西方。大家都束手无策,一点防止的办法也拿不出来。城里各处污秽的地方都派人扫除过了,禁止病人进城的命令已经发布了,保护健康的种种措施也执行了;此外,虔诚的人们有时成群结队、有时零零落落地向天主一再作过祈祷了;可是到了那一年的初春,奇特而可怖的病症终于出现了,灾难的情况立刻严重起来。

    这里的瘟疫,不象东方的瘟疫那样,病人鼻孔里一出鲜血,就必死无疑,却另有一种征兆。染病的男女,最初在鼠蹊间或是在胳肢窝下隆然肿起一个瘤来,到后来愈长愈大,就有一个小小的苹果,或是一个鸡蛋那样大小。一般人管这瘤叫“疫瘤”,不消多少时候,这死兆般的“疫瘤”就由那两个部分蔓延到人体各部分。这以后,病征又变了,病人的臂部、腿部,以至身体的其他各部分都出现了黑斑或是紫斑,有时候是稀稀疏疏的几大块,有时候又细又密;不过反正这都跟初期的毒瘤一样,是死亡的预兆。

    任你怎样请医服药,这病总是没救的。也许这根本是一种不治之症,也许是由于医师学识浅薄,找不出真正的病源,因而也就拿不出适当的治疗方法来——当时许许多多对于医道一无所知的男女,也居然象受过训练的医师一样,行起医来了。总而言之,凡是得了这种病、侥幸治愈的人,真是极少极少,大多数病人都在出现“疫瘤”的三天以内就送了命;而且多半都没有什么发烧或是其他的症状。

    这瘟病太可怕了,健康的人只要一跟病人接触,就染上了病,那情形仿佛干柴靠近烈火那样容易燃烧起来。不,情况还要严重呢,不要说走近病人,跟病人谈话,会招来致死的病症,甚至只要接触到病人穿过的衣服,摸过的东西,也立即会染上了病。

    骇人听闻的事还有呢。要不是我,还有许多人眼见目睹,那么,种种事情即使是我从最可靠的人那儿听来的,我也不敢信以为真,别说是把它记录下来了。这一场瘟疫的传染可怕到这么一个程度,不仅是人与人之间会传染,就连人类以外的牲畜,只要一接触到病人、或是死者的什么东西,就染上了病,过不了多少时候,就死了,这种情形也是屡见不鲜。有一天,我亲眼看到有这么一回事:大路上扔着一堆破烂的衣服,分明是一个染病而死的穷人的遗物,这时候来了两头猪,大家知道,猪总是喜欢用鼻子去拱东西的,也是合该它们倒楣,用鼻子把那衣服翻了过来,咬在嘴里,乱嚼乱挥一阵,隔不了一会,这两头猪就不住地打起滚来,再过了一会儿,就象吃了毒药似的,倒在那堆衣服上死了。

活着的人们,每天看到这一类或大或小的惨事,心里就充满着恐怖和种种怪念头;到后来,几乎无论哪一个人都采取了冷酷无情的手段:凡是病人和病人用过的东西,一概避不接触,他们以为这样一来,自己的安全就可以保住了。

    有些人以为唯有清心寡欲,过着有节制的生活,才能逃过这一场瘟疫。于是他们各自结了几个伴儿,拣些没有病人的洁净的宅子住下,完全和外界隔绝起来。他们吃着最精致的食品,喝着最美的酒,但总是尽力节制,绝不肯有一点儿过量。对外界的疾病和死亡的情形他们完全不闻不问,只是借音乐和其他的玩意儿来消磨时光。

    也有些人的想法恰巧相反,以为唯有纵情欢乐、纵饮狂歌,尽量满足自己的一切欲望,什么都一笑置之,才是对付瘟疫的有效办法。他们当真照着他们所说的话实行起来,往往日以继夜地,尽情纵饮,从这家酒店逛到那家酒店,甚至一时兴来,任意闯进人家住宅,为所欲为。也没有人来阻拦他们,因为大家都是活了今天保不住明天,哪儿还顾得到什么财产不财产呢。所以大多数的住宅竟成了公共财产,哪一个过路人都可以大模大样地闯进去,只当是自己的家一般占用着。可是,尽管他们这样横冲直撞,对于病人还是避之唯恐不及。

    浩劫当前,这城里的法纪和圣规几乎全都荡然无存了;因为神父和执法的官员,也不能例外,都死的死了,病的病了,要不就是连一个手底下人也没有,无从执行他们的职务了;因此,简直每个人都可以为所欲为。

    还有好多人又采取了一种折衷的态度。他们既不象第一种人那样严格节制着自己的饮食,也不象第二种人那样大吃大喝、放荡不羁。他们虽然也满足自己的欲望,但是适可而止,他们并没有闭户不出,也到外面去走走,只不过手里总要拿些什么鲜花香草,或是香料之类,不时放到鼻子前去嗅一下,清一清神,认为要这样才能消除那充满在空气里的病人、药物、和尸体的气味。

    有些人为了自身的安全,竟抱着一种更残忍的见解。说,要对抗瘟疫,只有一个办法——唯一的好办法,那就是躲开瘟疫。有了这种想法的男男女女,就只关心他们自己,其余的一概不管。他们背离自己的城市,丢下了自己的老家,自己的亲人和财产,逃到别的地方去——至少也逃到佛罗伦萨的郊外去,仿佛是天主鉴于人类为非作歹,一怒之下降下惩罚,这惩罚却只落在那些留居城里的人的头上,只要一走出城,就逃出了这场灾难似的。或者说,他们以为留住在城里的人们末日已到,不久就要全数灭亡了。

    这些人的见解各有不同,却并没个个都死,也并没全都逃出了这场浩劫。各地都有好些各色各样的人在自身健康时,首先立下榜样,教人别去理会那得病的人,后来自己病倒了,也遭受人们的遗弃,没人看顾,就这样断了气。

    真的,到后来大家你回避我,我回避你;街坊邻舍,谁都不管谁的事了,亲戚朋友几乎断绝了往来,即使难得说句话,也离得远远的。这还不算,这场瘟疫使得人心惶惶,竟至于哥哥舍弃弟弟,叔伯舍弃侄儿,姊妹舍弃兄弟,甚至妻子舍弃丈夫都是常有的事。最伤心、叫人最难以置信的,是连父母都不肯看顾自己的子女,好象这子女并非他们自己生下来似的。

    因此许许多多病倒的男女都没人看顾,偶然也有几个朋友,出于慈悲心,来给他们一些安慰。不过这是极少数的;偶然也有些仆人贪图高额的工资,肯来服侍病人,但也很少很少,而且多半是些粗鲁无知的男女,并不懂得看护,只会替病人传递茶水等物,此外就只会眼看着病人死亡了。这些侍候病人的仆人,多半因此丧失了生命,枉自赚了那么些钱!

    就因为一旦染了病,再也得不到邻舍亲友的看顾,仆人又这样难雇,就发生了一种闻所未闻的风气。那些奶奶小姐,不管本来怎么如花似玉,怎么尊贵,一旦病倒了,她就再也不计较雇用一个男子做贴身的仆人,也再不问他年老年少,都毫不在乎地解开衣裙,把什么地方都在他面前裸露出来,只当他是一个女仆。她们这样做也是迫于病情,无可奈何,后来有些女人保全了性命的,品性就变得不那么端庄,这也许是一个原因吧。

    有许多病人,假如能得到好好的调理,本来可以得救,现在却都死去了。瘟疫的来势既然这么凶猛,病人又缺乏护理,叫呼不应,所以城里日日夜夜都要死去大批大批的人,那情景听着都叫人目瞪口呆,别说是当场看到了。至于那些幸而活着的人,迫于这样的情势,把许多古老的习俗都给改变过来了。

    照向来的风俗说来(现在也还可以看到),人死了,亲友邻居家的女眷都得聚集在丧事人家,向死者的家属吊唁;那家的男子们就和邻居以及别处来的市民齐集在门口。随后神父来到,人数或多或少,要看那家的排场而定。棺材由死者的朋友抬着,大家点了一支蜡烛,拿在手里,还唱着挽歌,一路非常热闹,直抬到死者生前指定的教堂。但是由于瘟疫越来越猖獗,这习俗就算没有完全废除,也差不多近于废除了;代之而起的是一种新的风气。病人死了,不但没有女人们围绕着啜泣,往往就连断气的一刹那都没有一个人在场。真是难得有几个死者能得到亲属的哀伤和热泪,亲友们才不来哀悼呢——他们正在及时行乐,在欢宴,在互相戏谑呢。女人本是富于同情心的,可是现在为了要保全自己的生命,竟不惜违背了她们的本性,跟着这种风气走。

    再说,人死了很少会有十个邻居来送葬;而来送葬的决不是什么有名望有地位的市民,却是些低三下四的人——他们自称是掘墓者;其实他们干这行当,完全是为了金钱,所以总是一抬起了尸架,匆匆忙忙就走,并不是送到死者生前指定的教堂,而往往送到最近的教堂就算完事。在他们前面走着五六个僧侣,手里有时还拿着几支蜡烛,有时一支都不拿。只要看到是空的墓穴,他们就叫掘墓人把死尸扔进去,再也不自找麻烦,郑重其事地替死者举行什么落葬的仪式了。

    下层阶级,以至大部分的中层阶级,情形就更惨了。他们因为没有钱,也许因为存着侥幸的心理,多半留在家里,结果病倒的每天数以千计。又因为他们缺乏适当的医治,无人看护,几乎全都死了。白天也好,黑夜也好,总是有许多人倒毙在路上。许多人死在家里,直到尸体腐烂,发出了臭味,邻居们才知道他已经死了。

    城市里就这样到处尸体纵横,附近活着的人要是找得到脚夫,就叫脚夫帮着把尸体抬出去,放在大门口;找不到脚夫,就自己动手,他们这样做并非出于恻隐之心,而是唯恐腐烂的尸体威胁他们的生存。每天一到天亮,只见家家户户的门口都堆满了尸体。这些尸体又被放上尸架,抬了出去,要是弄不到尸架,就用木板来抬。

    一个尸架上常常载着两三具尸体。夫妻俩,或者父子俩,或者两三个兄弟合放在一个尸架上,成了一件很普通的事。人们也不知道有多少回看到两个神父,拿着一个十字架走在头里,脚夫们抬着三四个尸架,在后面跟着。常常会有这样的事情发生:神父只道要替一个人举行葬礼,却忽然来了六七具尸体,同时下葬,有时候甚至还不止这么些呢。再也没有人为死者掉泪,点起蜡烛给他送丧了;那时候死了一个人,就象现在死了一只山羊,不算一回事。本来呢,一个有智慧的人,在人生的道路上偶尔遭遇到几件不如意的事,也很难学到忍耐的功夫;而现在,经过了这场空前的浩劫,显然连最没有教养的人,对一切事情也都处之泰然了。

    每天,甚至每小时,都有一大批一大批的尸体运到全市的教堂去,教堂的坟地再也容纳不下了,尤其是有些人家,按照习俗,要求葬在祖坟里面,情形更加严重。等坟地全葬满了,只好在周围掘一些又长又阔的深坑,把后来的尸体几百个几百个葬下去。就象堆积船舱里的货物一样,这些尸体,给层层叠叠地放在坑里。只盖着一层薄薄的泥土,直到整个坑都装满了,方才用土封起来。

    当时整个城里的种种凄惨景象也不必一一细谈了,我只要再补说一句,当城内瘟疫横行的时候,郊外的市镇和乡村也并没逃过这一场浩劫,不过灾情不象城里那样声势浩大罢了。可怜的农民(以及他们的家人),在冷落的村子里,荒僻的田野中,一旦病倒了,既没有医生、也没有谁来看顾,随时倒毙在路上,在田里,或者死在家门口。他们死了,不象是死了一个人,倒象是死了一头牲畜。

    城里的人们大难当前,丢下一切,只顾寻欢作乐;乡下的农民,自知死期已到,也再不愿意从事劳动,拿到什么就吃什么,从前他们在田园上、在牛羊上注下了多少心血,寄托过多少期望,现在再也顾不到了。这样,牛、驴子、绵羊、山羊、猪、家禽、还有人类的忠诚的伴侣——狗,被迫离开圈栏,在田里到处乱跑——田里的麦早该收割了,该打好收藏起来了,却没有一个人来过问一下。这些牲口,有许多好象赋有理性似的,白天在田野里吃饱了草料,一到天晚,虽然没有家人来赶,也会自动走回农庄来。

    让我们再从乡村说回到城里吧。其实除了说天主对人类真是残酷到极点,还能怎么说呢(当然有些地方也得怪人类太狠心)?由于这场猛烈的瘟疫,由于人们对病人抱着恐怖心理,不肯出力照顾,或者根本不管,从三月到六月,佛罗伦萨城里,死了十万人以上。在瘟疫发生之前,谁也没想到过城里竟住着这么多人。

    唉,宏伟的宫室,华丽的大厦,高大的宅第,从前达官贵妇出入如云,现在却十室九空,连一个最低微的仆从都找不到了!有多少显赫的姓氏、巨大的家产、富裕的产业遗下来没有人继承!有多少英俊的男子、美丽的姑娘、活泼的小伙子(就连盖伦、希波克拉底、伊斯克拉庇斯1都得承认他们的身子顶结实),在早晨还同亲友们一起吃点心,十分高兴,到了夜里,已到另一个世界去陪他们的祖先吃晚饭了。
        

#45  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Decameron Nights 1953

        

#46  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
The Black Death BBC Documentary

        

#47  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Statute of Labourers 1351


黑死病爆发后,人口锐减。三分之一欧洲人丧生,不列颠人口减少3到5成。劳力供给因而大幅下降,劳力费用随之飙升,引起通货膨胀。不愿支付高价劳动力的贵族们遂怨声不断。

1349年,爱德华三世签署了Ordinance of Laboruers 劳工条例,企图控制劳力费用和物价。

1351年,为应对劳力短缺带来的问题, 爱德华三世控制的国会通过Statute of Labourers 劳工法,以遏制劳动者的工资上涨,并防止为改善生活条件而发起的劳工运动。但此举奏效甚微。

对于追求生活改善的农民们,劳工法非常不得人心,并引起了后来的农民暴动,包括理查二世年间有名的English peasants' revolt of 1381.

从1350 到1450年,农民的平均工资增长了一倍。


zt:

The Black Death or Bubonic Plague, which killed more than one-third of the population of Europe, killed 30%−50% of the population in Britain, caused a dramatic decrease in the supply of labour. Lords suddenly faced a sharp increase in competition for workers to work for them. Labourers had increased bargaining power and commanded higher wages. The increase in labour cost also led to inflation throughout the economy. The elite class lamented the sudden shift in economic power. In an attempt to control labour costs and price levels, Edward III issued theOrdinance of Labourers in 1349. Parliament attempted to reinforce the Ordinance with the Statute of Labourers.

The Statute of Labourers was a law created by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage, designed to suppress the labor force by prohibiting increases in wages and prohibiting the movement of workers from their home areas in search of improved conditions. It was poorly enforced and did not stop the rise in wages.

The Statute of Labourers (and its counterpart, the Ordinance of Labourers) were, of course, very unpopular with the peasants, who wanted higher wages and better living standards, and was a contributing factor to subsequent peasant revolts, most notably the English peasants' revolt of 1381. Similar processes happened throughout Europe – wage caps following a labour shortage after the Black Death resulting in popular revolts.

The Statute was poorly enforced in most areas, and farm wages in England on average doubled between 1350 and 1450.
        

#48  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour (after the Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and of the United Kingdom, and is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George as England's patron saint. -- wiki


嘉德勋章 the Order of the Garter

爱德华三世同法国打仗,就要依靠贵族们的支持。与他被国会废黜的父亲爱德华二世不同,爱德华三世同贵族们的关系很融洽。 在与法国交战之前,他一天之内就封了6个新earls-- 伯爵。他还引进了“duke-- 公爵”这一头衔,专门赐与国王的近亲,扩充了贵族阶层。

大约于1348年,为了进一步增强贵族们的荣誉感,爱德华三世缔造了“the Order of the Garter –嘉德勋章”,其圆形图案, 承载了亚瑟王圆桌骑士的传奇。

“garter”, 即吊袜带。 “the Order of the Garter”, 直译为”吊袜带勋章”。

关于“嘉德勋章”的来源,中文维基如是说:
最普遍的传说是有一次爱德华三世在埃尔特姆宫殿与一位“索尔兹伯里女伯爵”跳舞时女伯爵的吊袜带突然落下,引起许多宫廷贵人笑。而爱德华三世则将这根吊袜带拾起系在自己腿上,并当众宣布“Honi soit qui mal y pense”(“Shame on him who thinks evil of it.”“心怀邪念者蒙羞”)。由此这句话就成了这枚勋章的格言,并当场宣布,将设立以蓝色吊袜带为标志的嘉德勋章,作为英格兰最高荣誉的象征。。另一个传说是12世纪理查一世参加十字军东征时以圣乔治为榜样给他的骑士系吊袜带而获胜,后来14世纪的爱德华三世在设立这枚勋章时想起了这个典故。

Zt:

Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects. Both Edward I and Edward II had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign. The young king reversed this trend when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day. At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king. Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter. Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury – allegedly the king's favourite at the time – accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ensuing ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense – shame on him who thinks ill of it.

最高贵的嘉德勋章(The Most Noble Order of the Garter,KG或LG)是授予英国骑士的一种勋章,它起源于中世纪,是今天世界上历史最悠久的骑士勋章和[来源请求]英国荣誉制度第二高的一级。只有极少数人能够获得这枚勋章,其中包括英国国君和最多25名活着的佩戴者。英国君主还可以授予少数超额佩戴者(包括王室成员和外国君主)。与其他勋章不同,只有国君可以授予嘉德勋章,首相无权建议或者提名受勋者。

嘉德勋章最主要的标志是一根印有“Honi soit qui mal y pense”(“Shame on him who thinks evil of it.”“心怀邪念者蒙羞”)的金字的吊袜带。在正式场合下勋章佩戴者要佩戴这个吊袜带,在一些其他标志中印有它的图案。
        

#49  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Catherine Montagu, Countess of Salisbury

传说之一,“嘉德勋章”之名源于爱德华三世钟情的Salisbury 女伯爵Catherine。这个故事在莎翁的《爱德华三世》中有精彩描述。 1341年左右,苏格兰包围Catherine 所在的Wark Castle, 爱德华三世率兵前去解救,大卫二世望风而逃。

另一种传说是,“嘉德勋章”源自女伯爵Catherine 的儿媳---Joan of Kent。 Joan of Kent 的婚姻比较复杂,第二任丈夫是女伯爵Catherine 的儿子(婚姻后判无效),第三任丈夫是黑太子爱德华。


《Edward III》剧中,爱德华三世为女伯爵Catherine的美貌才华所折服。
摘抄片断,兼附本人拙译:

KING EDWARD. 爱德华三世
When she would talk of peace, me thinks, her tongue
Commanded war to prison; when of war,
It wakened Caesar from his Roman grave,
To hear war beautified by her discourse.
Wisdom is foolishness but in her tongue,
Beauty a slander but in her fair face,
There is no summer but in her cheerful looks,
Nor frosty winter but in her disdain.
I cannot blame the Scots that did besiege her,
For she is all the Treasure of our land;
But call them cowards, that they ran away,
Having so rich and fair a cause to stay.—


依我之见,她谈论和平时,唇枪舌剑
足以发号施令,将战争囚禁投入牢监;
而当她谈论战争时,她的巧舌能唤醒
罗马墓中的恺撒大帝,听她美化战争。
智慧只发自她的唇舌,除此皆为愚妄。
美丽仅聚于她的娇容,其余全是诽谤。
除却她那欢愉的模样,夏日无处可寻,
若非她那蔑视的神情,霜冬何以现身。
我怎么能怪罪那些围困她的苏格兰人,
因为她集我们英格兰所有珍宝于一身;
面对这般财富和佳丽, 原该坚守不退--
但他们却望风而逃,实在是帮胆小鬼。


Zt:

Catherine Montacute (or Montagu), Countess of Salisbury (c. 1304 – 23 November 1349) was an English noblewoman, remembered for her relationship with King Edward III of England and possibly the woman in whose honour the Order of the Garter was originated. She was born Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison, and Sibylla de Tregoz. Her mother was one of two daughters of John de Tregoz, Baron Tregoz (whose arms were blazoned Gules two bars gemels in chief a lion passant guardant or),maternal granddaughter of Fulk IV, Baron FitzWarin). Catherine married William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury in about 1320.

According to rumour, King Edward III was so enamoured of the countess that he forced his attentions on her in around 1341, after having relieved a Scottish siege on Wark Castle, where she lived, while her husband was out of the country.

An Elizabethan play, Edward III, deals with this incident. In the play, the Earl of Warwick is the unnamed Countess's father, though he was not her father in real life.

In around 1348, the Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III and it is recorded that he did so after an incident at a ball when the "Countess of Salisbury" dropped a garter and the king picked it up. It is assumed that Froissart is referring either to Catherine or to her daughter-in-law, Joan of Kent.


Last modified on 01/13/16 01:31
        

#50  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
i received this forwarded message in mail this morning and feel it's relevant to the topic.




A MESSAGE FROM THE QUEEN



To the citizens of the United States of America from Her Sovereign Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
In light of your failure in recent years...to nominate competent candidates for President of the USA and thus to govern yourselves, we hereby give notice of the revocation of your independence, effective immediately. (You should look up 'revocation' in the Oxford English Dictionary.)
Her Sovereign Majesty Queen Elizabeth II will resume monarchical duties over all states, commonwealths, and territories (except North Dakota, which she does not fancy).
Your new Prime Minister, David Cameron, will appoint a Governor for America without the need for further elections.
Congress and the Senate will be disbanded. A questionnaire may be circulated next year to determine whether any of you noticed.
To aid in the transition to a British Crown dependency, the following rules are introduced with immediate effect:
-----------------------
1. The letter 'U' will be reinstated in words such as 'colour,' 'favour,' 'labour' and 'neighbour.' Likewise, you will learn to spell 'doughnut' without skipping half the letters, and the suffix '-ize' will be replaced by the suffix '-ise.' Generally, you will be expected to raise your vocabulary to acceptable levels. (look up 'vocabulary').
------------------------
2. Using the same twenty-seven words interspersed with filler noises such as ''like' and 'you know' is an unacceptable and inefficient form of communication. There is no such thing as U.S. English. We will let Microsoft know on your behalf. The Microsoft spell-checker will be adjusted to take into account the reinstated letter 'u'' and the elimination of '-ize.'
-------------------
3. July 4th will no longer be celebrated as a holiday.
-----------------
4. You will learn to resolve personal issues without using guns, lawyers, or therapists. The fact that you need so many lawyers and therapists shows that you're not quite ready to be independent. Guns should only be used for shooting grouse. If you can't sort things out without suing someone or speaking to a therapist, then you're not ready to shoot grouse.
----------------------
5. Therefore, you will no longer be allowed to own or carry anything more dangerous than a vegetable peeler. Although a permit will be required if you wish to carry a vegetable peeler in public.
----------------------
6. All intersections will be replaced with roundabouts, and you will start driving on the left side with immediate effect. At the same time, you will go metric with immediate effect and without the benefit of conversion tables. Both roundabouts and metrication will help you understand the British sense of humour.
--------------------
7. The former USA will adopt UK prices on petrol (which you have been calling gasoline) of roughly $10/US gallon. Get used to it.


8. You will learn to make real chips. Those things you call French fries are not real chips, and those things you insist on calling potato chips are properly called crisps. Real chips are thick cut, fried in animal fat, and dressed not with catsup but with vinegar.
-------------------
9. The cold, tasteless stuff you insist on calling beer is not actually beer at all. Henceforth, only proper British Bitter will be referred to as beer, and European brews of known and accepted provenance will be referred to as Lager. South African beer is also acceptable, as they are pound for pound the greatest sporting nation on earth and it can only be due to the beer. They are also part of the British Commonwealth - see what it did for them. American brands will be referred to as Near-Frozen Gnat's Urine, so that all can be sold without risk of further confusion.
---------------------
10. Hollywood will be required occasionally to cast English actors as good guys. Hollywood will also be required to cast English actors to play English characters. Watching Andie Macdowell attempt English dialect in Four Weddings and a Funeral was an experience akin to having one's ears removed with a cheese grater.
---------------------
11. You will cease playing American football. There is only one kind of proper football; you call it soccer. Those of you brave enough will, in time, be allowed to play rugby (which has some similarities to American football, but does not involve stopping for a rest every twenty seconds or wearing full kevlar body armour like a bunch of nancies).
---------------------
12. Further, you will stop playing baseball. It is not reasonable to host an event called the World Series for a game which is not played outside of America. Since only 2.1% of you are aware there is a world beyond your borders, your error is understandable. You will learn cricket, and we will let you face the South Africans first to take the sting out of their deliveries.

--------------------
13.. You must tell us who killed JFK. It's been driving us mad.
-----------------
14. An internal revenue agent (i.e. tax collector) from Her Majesty's Government will be with you shortly to ensure the acquisition of all monies due (backdated to 1776).
---------------
15. Daily Tea Time begins promptly at 4 p.m. with proper cups, with saucers, and never mugs, with high quality biscuits (cookies) and cakes; plus strawberries (with cream) when in season.
God Save the Queen!

PS: Only share this with friends who have a good sense of humour (NOT humor)!
        

#51  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
I didn't know Queen Elizabeth II has such a good sense of HUMOUR. Long live the Queen!

Bob Dylan was just killed by internet death hoax. Guess nowadays the internet has everything, fake or true. I had a good laugh. Thanks for sharing!
        

#52  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the order of the Garter, 1453, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book


黑太子爱德华, 即为爱德华三世于1348年授予的第一代嘉德骑士团成员。


wiki:

Edward of Woodstock KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362–72).

爱德华(黑王子)(英语:Edward the Black Prince,1330年6月15日-1376年6月8日),英格兰统帅。英格兰君主爱德华三世的长子,母亲为埃诺的菲利帕(Philippa of Hainault)。

爱德华的妻子是他的堂姑母肯特的琼安,他们的次子理查二世继承了爱德华三世的王位。(长子夭折)

爱德华是英法百年战争第一阶段中英军最著名的指挥官。“黑王子”的绰号,大概是由于他穿戴黑色盔甲(最早见于16世纪文献中;爱德华生前从未被这么称呼过)。1346年,爱德华指挥了英军获胜的克雷西战役。1355年他的军队洗劫了阿基坦。

1356年,爱德华指挥了他最出名的战役:普瓦捷战役,他与父王配合大胜法军,俘虏了法王约翰二世。同年,他被封为阿基坦公爵。他亦积极干预西班牙事务,支持(残忍的)佩德罗一世争夺卡斯蒂利亚王位。

1362年—1372年,爱德华是阿基坦的统治者。然而,他的军队在阿基坦横行不法,令他的声名受损。1371年1月爱德华返回英格兰,并于1372年末正式放弃公爵称号。此后他过着打猎、比武的骑士生活。1376年爱德华在威斯敏斯特去世,葬于坎特伯雷。
        

#53  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

法兰西海豚盾徽

瓦卢瓦王朝的第一位国王腓力六世在百年战争中指挥不利, 1346年克雷西之战更被爱德华三世打得落花流水。

但他在1349年,成功地将多菲内Dauphiny并入法兰西版图,Dauphiny的条件是法国王位继承人必须冠以"le Dauphin" 头衔。 法国第一位法兰西海豚为约翰二世之子查理五世Charles V le Sage (Charles V the Wise)。

腓力六世1350年过世,将王位传给儿子约翰二世John II.


zt:

多菲内(发音:[dofine])是法国东南部的一个行省。英语拼写为英语:Dauphiny。大致包括现在的伊泽尔省、德龙省、上阿尔卑斯省。

从1040年到1349年,多菲内是一个独立国家,在阿尔邦伯爵(Counts of Albon)统治下,直至加入法兰西王国。作为法国的一个行省,直至1457年保持自治。历史首府是格勒诺布尔。它的居民成为多菲内人(Dauphinois)。

多菲内的名字来源于阿尔邦伯爵的家族徽章上有一只海豚,法文的海豚为Dauphin,成了该地的绰号。

1349年多菲内归入法国的一个条件是:法兰西王国的皇太子必须使用多菲内称号。这保持到了法兰西革命。

法兰西海豚(法语:Dauphin),严格地应称为维埃诺瓦海豚(Dauphin de Viennois),是从1350年到1791年和从1824年到1830年被授于法国王储的头衔,中文里有时也直接称为法国王太子。

维埃纳伯爵家族之祖居伊一世绰号海豚 (法语:le Dauphin),其后人则以黄地蓝海豚盾章作为家族纹章。他的家族保有维埃诺瓦的海豚的头衔直到1349年,当温伯特二世将俗称“海豚领地”的家族世袭领地出售给菲利普六世后,从此法兰西王国的继承人承担了海豚(le Dauphin)的称号。海豚的妻子称母海豚(la Dauphine),又译为王太子妃。

第一位称“海豚”的王子是后来成为国王的夏尔五世。这个头衔相当于中国的太子、英国的威尔士亲王。法兰西海豚的官方全称在1461年之前是“托上帝鸿福,维埃诺瓦海豚、瓦伦蒂诺瓦和迪瓦伯爵”(法语:par la grace de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois)。“海豚”会穿上一件织上代表海豚的多菲内在大衣手臂的衣服,它同时印上了法兰西的百合花.
        

#54  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

普瓦捷战役 (弗鲁瓦萨尔细密画)

“By the end of 1350, the Black Death subsided, but it never really died out in England. Over the next few hundred years, further outbreaks occurred in 1361–62, 1369, 1379–83, 1389–93, and throughout the first half of the 15th century. ”--- wiki

1356年,黑死病的阴霾似乎已消散,而战争硝烟再起。8月,英格兰的黑太子爱德华率兵从加斯科涅登陆,再度进攻法国。

1356年9月19日,英法在法国中部的普瓦捷附近交战,是为普瓦捷战役Battle of Poitiers, 百年战争中的第二次主要战役。 英军的长弓箭雨再展威力,令老祖宗征服者威廉在Battle of Hastings获胜的诈败战术,在普瓦捷也同样凑效。结果英军以少胜多,不仅击败法军,还俘获了法王约翰二世。


wiki:

普瓦捷战役(Battle of Poitiers)是英法百年战争期间的一场主要战役,1356年9月19日发生于法国普瓦捷(Poitiers)附近。上承1346年的克雷西战役,下接1415年的阿金库尔战役,是百年战争中英国三大捷战的第二捷,也是一场以少胜多的著名战役。

背景

1356年8月8日,英王爱德华三世长子威尔士亲王爱德华(后称黑太子)成为英军骑兵大统帅(Chevauchée)。他从阿基坦登陆向北袭击法国,对法国农村多次实施焦土政策,以确保他的军队在法国中部立足。他的部队几乎没有遇到抵抗,大量城镇和农田被烧毁,直到他们到达图尔的卢瓦尔河。由于倾盆大雨,英军的烧杀掳掠被迫停止。闻讯追击的法王约翰二世,为报诺曼底布雷特伊被围之仇,为求增加他的军队的速度,以追上英军,他将约15,000–20,000名老弱步兵解散,终于在沙特尔将英军赶上。

战斗经过

战前1万多法军骑兵排成四列,第一列中间为重骑兵,左右两翼为弓箭手。

6千英军排成两列,第一列中间为长枪步兵,左右两翼为长弓手。

战役开始时,英军将他们的辎重队转移,导致法军认为他们要撤退,法军骑士匆忙变阵,对英军弓箭手发起攻击。由于1346年的克雷西战役中,法军战马被英国弓箭手大量杀伤而造成骑兵失去冲击力,但骑士由于盔甲的保护则伤亡较低。根据弗鲁瓦萨尔记载,“英军攻击敌人,尤其是马匹,箭如雨下。”英国编年史学者杰弗里·贝克写道,法国盔甲是无懈可击的,英军箭头不是滑出就是破碎。马的盔甲在两侧和背部防护较弱,因此弓箭手通常是设在骑兵和马的侧翼,以此阻止骑兵的冲锋。法国人总结了克雷西的教训,在法国皇太子攻击萨利斯贝利时,让大部分骑兵下马,顶着英国弓箭手的箭雨前进,先锋克莱蒙特骑兵队不支撤退,后撤的骑兵队与推进的带甲步兵混杂,图中绿色表明法国皇太子与他成千上万的军队在这个阶段的攻击。法军向英军阵前推进,但最终失败,这个阶段的攻击持续了约两个小时。

骑兵攻击后,紧随其后的是步兵攻击。法国皇太子的步兵在激烈战斗后,退出重新集结。下一波攻击的奥尔良公爵步兵见皇太子的步兵退出,引发恐慌并开始转身逃跑。这导致法王约翰二世率领的步兵陷入困境,英国长弓手进行低射,辅助步兵的战斗,一些步兵上马组成了一个临时骑兵队。

此时,约翰二世把两个儿子从战场中送走,小儿子菲利普一直陪伴着他,在他身边直至最后阶段的战斗。皇太子和其他儿子退出时,奥尔良公爵也撤退了。两军激烈交战,英国黑王子爱德华让藏在树林里的后备队出击,由让·德·格莱利(Jean de Grailly)率领的骑兵队绕过法军前阵,攻击法军的侧翼和后方。法国人害怕被包围,开始溃逃。约翰二世最终不支与他的随从们一起被俘。


Jean II, the Good, being captured.


Last modified on 01/14/16 23:11
        

#55  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
在《爱德华三世》一剧中,黑太子爱德华三世被法军包围时,面对死神, 和Lord Audley有段对话。读了不由想起Emily Dickinson 的“Because I could not stop for Death ” ,死亡乃生命之终点。

“whether ripe or rotten, drop we shall,
As we do draw the lottery of our doom.” --- 《Edward III》

摘录片段并粗译大意:

AUDLEY.
To die is all as common as to live:
The one ince-wise, the other holds in chase;
For, from the instant we begin to live,
We do pursue and hunt the time to die:
First bud we, then we blow, and after seed,
Then, presently, we fall; and, as a shade
Follows the body, so we follow death.
If, then, we hunt for death, why do we fear it?
If we fear it, why do we follow it?
If we do fear, how can we shun it?
If we do fear, with fear we do but aide
The thing we fear to seize on us the sooner:
If we fear not, then no resolved proffer
Can overthrow the limit of our fate;
For, whether ripe or rotten, drop we shall,
As we do draw the lottery of our doom.

死就同生一样寻常:
一为选择,一为追逐;
自我们出生那一刻,
就时时在追逐死亡:
我们发芽、开花、结实,
如今凋零,追随死亡
如同影子追随身体。
既追寻死,为何怕死?
既畏惧死,为何追随?
若惧怕死,如何躲避?
既惧怕死,却又助它
加速步伐扑向我们;
若不畏惧,也没法子
挣脱这既定的宿命。
成熟腐烂,终为一死,
厄运彩票人人必中。
        

#56  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

John the Good. Portrait of John painted on wood panel around 1350, Louvre Museum




1194年,英国向神圣罗马帝国皇帝亨利六世缴纳了15万马克的巨额赎金,狮心王理查才被释放。 162年后,英国竟俘获了法王约翰二世,当然不会放过敲竹杠的好机会。

约翰二世被带到伦敦塔。 身为俘虏, 仍被奉为上宾,是toast of high society, 享有皇室待遇。

1360年英法之间签署了Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约,约翰二世的赎金定为300万金克朗。约翰二世把儿子安茹公爵路易一世留下做人质,自己回国筹款。不想,路易竟逃跑了。约翰二世不听谋士们苦劝,坚持回英国做人质,只为遵守“good faith and honour”的骑士规章。返英后不久于1364年4月病殁于Savoy Palace。

因信守承诺,约翰二世遂得美名“好人约翰”(Jean le Bon, John the Good)。 在克雷西战役中阵亡的盲约翰John of Bohemia,就是约翰二世的第一位老丈人。约翰二世和盲约翰在百年战争中都因骑士精神而闻名。

约翰二世被俘期间,长子Charles (第一位法国海豚)摄政。 约翰死后, Charles 继位,成为查理五世。


zt:

As a prisoner of the English, John was granted royal privileges that permitted him to travel about and enjoy a regal lifestyle. At a time when law and order was breaking down in France and the government was having a hard time raising money for the defence of the realm, his account books during his captivity show that he was purchasing horses, pets, and clothes while maintaining an astrologer and a court band.

The Treaty of Brétigny (1360) set his ransom at 3 million crowns. Leaving his son Louis of Anjou in English-held Calais as a replacement hostage, John was allowed to return to France to raise the funds.

But all did not go according to plan. In July 1363, King John was informed that Louis had escaped. Troubled by the dishonour of this action, and the arrears in his ransom, John did something that shocked and dismayed his people: he announced that he would voluntarily return to captivity in England. His council tried to dissuade him, but he persisted, citing reasons of "good faith and honour." He sailed for England that winter and left the impoverished citizens of France again without a king.

John was greeted in London 1364 with parades and feasts. A few months after his arrival, however, he fell ill with an unknown malady. He died at the Savoy Palace in April 1364. His body was returned to France, where he was interred in the royal chambers at Saint Denis Basilica.

约翰二世(1319年4月16日-1364年4月8日,1350-1364在位),瓦卢瓦王朝第2位国王。

约翰二世是法兰西国王腓力六世的儿子,母亲为勃艮第的琼。1332年,约翰在其父安排下迎娶波希米亚国王卢森堡的约翰的女儿。其后约翰被封为诺曼底公爵。1350年,约翰在其父腓力六世死后继承王位。1356年约翰在普瓦捷战役失败后被黑太子爱德华俘虏押回英格兰,他把儿子安茹公爵路易一世留下做人质后,约翰二世回国去筹赎金,不料路易其后逃跑了,约翰二世严格遵守了骑士制度的信条,他自愿返回英国做人质,更在数月后死去,因为这个缘故他被称做“好人约翰”(Jean le Bon)。


Last modified on 01/16/16 15:30
        

#57  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

France after the Treaty


The Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约

1356年的普瓦捷战役Battle of Poitiers 后,法国上下一片混乱,中世纪的法国史学家和卡默利特派修士让·德·韦内特 如此描述,“从那时起整个王国都乱了,国家败坏,小偷和强盗无处不在。贵族鄙视和憎恨所有其他人,没有去思考相互有益的事以及上帝和人民的利益。他们统治并洗劫了农民和农村的男人。不要指望他们保卫国家,抵抗敌人。农民被他们踩在脚下,抢劫和掠夺他们的东西。 ”

1359年,年近47岁的爱德华三世第三次也是最后一次入侵法国,企图借机加冕。 但摄政的法兰西海豚查理王子比较冷静明智,不像他父亲约翰二世那样仓促应战,而是采取不交战(non-engegement)策略。

爱德华三世直逼加冕之都兰斯Reims,但兰斯人坚决抵抗,英军围攻5周无效。爱德华三世率兵转围巴黎。王太子查理明智地决定暂时割地求和,于1360年5月8日在Brétigny 草拟了The Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约 。同年10月和约在加莱签字正式生效。

和约主要内容是:法国将加莱让给英国。 爱德华三世放弃诺曼底、都兰、安茹,以及曼恩领地,以换取扩大的阿基坦领地,法国将卢瓦尔河以南至比利牛斯山脉的全部领土割让给英格兰。并且,英国不必向法国进贡。(爱德华三世封儿子黑太子爱德华为 Lord of Aquitaine 阿基坦领主。”The title Duke of Aquitaine was abandoned in favor of Lord of Aquitaine”)。 爱德华三世同时保证放弃法兰西王位。法王约翰二世的赎金由400万金克朗降为300万,且付了首款100万之后即可获释。

The Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约标志着百年战争第一阶段的结束。和约虽未带来永久和平,但令百年战争出现了第一次为期9年的和平期First peace: 1360–69。


zt:

Edward invaded France, for the third and last time, hoping to capitalize on the discontent and seize the throne. The Dauphin's strategy was that of non-engagement with the English army in the field. However, Edward wanted the crown and chose the cathedral city of Reims for his coronation (Reims was the traditional coronation city).However, the citizens of Reims built and reinforced the city's defences before Edward and his army arrived. Edward besieged the city for five weeks, but the defences held and there was no coronation. Edward moved on to Paris, but retreated after a few skirmishes in the suburbs. The French made contact with him and forced him to negotiate. A conference was held at Brétigny that resulted in the Treaty of Brétigny (8 May 1360). The treaty was ratified at Calais in October. In return for increased lands in Aquitaine, Edward renounced Normandy, Touraine, Anjou and Maine and consented to reducing King John's ransom by a million crowns. Edward also abandoned his claim to the crown of France.

By virtue of this treaty Edward III obtained, besides Guyenne andGascony, Poitou, Saintonge and Aunis, Agenais, Périgord, Limousin,Quercy, Bigorre, the countship of Gauré, Angoumois, Rouergue,Montreuil-sur-Mer, Ponthieu, Calais, Sangatte, Ham and the countship ofGuînes.[2] The king of England was to hold these free and clear, without doing homage for them. Furthermore the treaty established that title to all the islands that the King of England now holds would no longer be under the Suzerainty of the King of France. The title Duke of Aquitaine was abandoned in favor of Lord of Aquitaine.

On his side, the King of England gave up the duchy of Touraine, the countships of Anjou and Maine, and the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders. He also renounced all claims to the French throne. The terms of Brétigny were meant to disentangle the feudal responsibilities that had caused so much conflict, and as far as the English were concerned, would concentrate English territories in an expanded version of Aquitaine. England also restored the rights of the Bishop of Coutances to Alderney, which had been stripped from them by the King of England in 1228.

John II had to pay three million gold crowns for his ransom, and would be released after he paid one million. The occasion was the first minting of the franc, equivalent to one livre tournois (20 sous). As a guarantee for the payment of his ransom, John gave as hostages two of his sons, several princes and nobles, four inhabitants of Paris, and two citizens from each of the nineteen principal towns of France. This treaty was ratified and sworn to by the two kings and by their eldest sons on 24 October 1360 at Calais. At the same time the special conditions relating to each important article of the treaty and the renunciatory clauses in which the kings abandoned their rights over the territory they had yielded to one another were signed. Edward III retired finally to England, for the last time.
        

#58  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
百年战争第一阶段,英格兰占绝对优势。1360年布勒丁尼和约之后,爱德华三世退回英国,进入执政后期。较之军事行动,他对处理国家日常事务不感兴趣。

爱德华三世所倚重的财政大臣 William Wykeham, 并无经验,被国会强辞。更糟糕的是,那些一直追随他的干将相继离世,包括最得力的Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster (爱德华三世的2nd cousin, 两人的曾祖父是Henry III。爱德华三世的儿子John of Gaunt 迎娶了亨利之女Blanche,Duchess of Lancaster)。 剩下的年轻将帅们则同他的儿子们更契合。爱德华三世后来愈加依靠几个儿子。

“1364年查理五世正式即位后,拒绝承认加来条约(布勒丁尼和约),爱德华就又开始使用法兰西国王的称号。但查理五世是一个难以对付的对手,他采取了不少有力度的改革措施。同时,在法兰西出现了迪·盖克兰这样的优秀将领。总之,爱德华三世的战争计划从此就开始失利。他的扩张活动到此为止了。 ”---wiki


wiki:

While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham. A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1363 and Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371. Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, died as early as 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls created in 1337, William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague. Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.

Increasingly, Edward began to rely on his sons for the leadership of military operations. The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366. 

In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brétigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home. He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.
        

#59  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
The emerging sense of national identity

自征服者威廉在英格兰加冕后,法语就成了上流社会及正规场合使用的“官方语言”。

爱德华一世时期,坊间传说法国人欲灭绝英语。爱德华三世效仿其祖父,对民众的恐慌大加利用,从而使英格兰文字得到了极大复兴。

1362年,国会颁布Statute of Pleading 诉讼条例,规定在法庭要使用英文,并且规定国会于1363年第一次以英文开会。

与此同时,英格兰俗语方言在杰弗里·乔叟Geoffrey Chaucer 等文学家的作品中东山再起。

但英语花的进程不可夸大。1362年的诉讼条例本身就是用法文写的,而且国会拖延到1377年才以英文开会。爱德华三世创建的英国嘉德骑士团却吸收法国贵族。另外,宣称同为英法两国国王的爱德华三世使用英法两种语言,对英语并没有显示任何偏爱。


wiki:

Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and as his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare. As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a Statute of Pleading ordered the English language to be used in law courts, and the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English. At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gowerand especially The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377. The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as John IV, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur. Edward III – himself bilingual – viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another.
        

#60  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Geoffrey Chaucer: The Founder of Our Language

        

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