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#21  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
英法纷争之三: Robert III of Artois


也可以说,百年战争是Robert III of Artois 引发的。

1337年4月30日,腓力六世拒绝了英格兰代表团的邀请,并向全法国发出the arrière-ban --- 总动员令。

1337年5月,腓力六世与他的Great Council 大议事会商议后,决定将英格兰的领地Gascony 收归法王,理由:爱德华三世身为法王的诸侯,原该效忠法王,竟公然庇护法王的仇敌---”mortal enemy ” Robert d'Artois.

爱德华三世挑战腓力六世的王位,称自己才是法国王位的合法继承人,并于1340年自封法王。

“It is in the nature of the human being to seek a justification for his actions.” 
Robert d'Artois 不过是双方开战的借口。

另外,佛兰德的纺织业依靠从英格兰进口的羊毛。但因英法交恶,法国的海上势力阻碍了英格兰的羊毛出口和与Gascony之间的葡萄酒贸易。(佛兰德是比利时西部的一个地区。传统意义的“佛兰德”亦包括法国北部和荷兰南部的一部分。-- wiki )


zt:

End of homage

At the end of April 1337, Philip of France was invited to meet the delegation from England but refused. The arrière-ban, literally a call to arms, was proclaimed throughout France starting on 30 April 1337. Then, in May 1337, Philip met with his Great Council in Paris. It was agreed that the Duchy of Aquitaine, effectively Gascony, should be taken back into the king's hands on the grounds that Edward III was in breach of his obligations as vassal and had sheltered the king's 'mortal enemy' Robert d'Artois. Edward responded to the confiscation of Aquitaine by challenging Philip's right to the French throne. When Charles IV died, Edward had made a claim for the succession of the French throne, through the right of his mother Isabella (Charles IV's sister), daughter of Philip IV. Any claim was considered invalidated by Edward's homage to Philip VI in 1329. Edward revived his claim and in 1340 formally assumed the title 'King of France and the French Royal Arms'.

On 26 January 1340, Edward III formally received homage from Guy, half-brother of the Count of Flanders. The civic authorities of Ghent, Ypres and Bruges proclaimed Edward King of France. Edward's purpose was to strengthen his alliances with the Low Countries. His supporters would be able to claim that they were loyal to the "true" King of France and were not rebels against Philip. In February 1340, Edward returned to England to try and raise more funds and also deal with political difficulties.

Relations with Flanders were also tied to the English wool trade, since Flanders' principal cities relied heavily on textile production and England supplied much of the raw material they needed. Edward III had commanded that his chancellor sit on the woolsack in council as a symbol of the pre-eminence of the wool trade. At the time there were about 110,000 sheep in Sussexalone. The great medieval English monasteries produced large surpluses of wool that were sold to Europe. Successive governments were able to make large amounts of money by taxing it. France's sea power led to economic disruptions for England, shrinking the wool trade to Flanders and the wine trade from Gascony.
        

#22  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Statue of Robert d'Artois in Versailles



Robert III of Artois 原是法国大贵族,父亲Philip of Artois和母亲Blanche of Brittany 均为卡佩王朝的王室后裔。祖父是阿图瓦伯爵 Robert II, Count of Artois。

1297年8月20日法国与佛兰德人交战---Battle of Furnes,法军由阿图瓦伯爵领兵。法军虽获胜,但阿图瓦伯爵之子Philip of Artois 战死。Philip 之子Robert III of Artois 当时仅十岁。

1302年7月阿图瓦伯爵死于Battle of the Golden Spurs。老伯爵原有三个子女,幼子夭折,儿子Philip 也已丧生,遂根据习俗将领地阿图瓦传给女儿Mahaut.

Robert III of Artois 却认为,他的父亲Philip才是合法继承人,父亲既死,阿图瓦应该传给他--- Robert III of Artois。 但15岁的他无法为自己争取继承权。

1320年,33岁的 Robert 与瓦卢瓦王朝始祖瓦卢瓦伯爵的女儿 Joan of Valois 成亲。腓力六世(Joan 的half brother)1328年登上王位,Robert 功不可没。Robert 后来有段时期还为腓力六世出谋划策,颇受信赖。

1329年,Mahaut 过世,将阿图瓦传给她的女儿Joan II, Countess of Burgundy ---- 腓力五世的王后。

Robert 不甘心,以佛兰德地产遗传例子为据,又提出对阿图瓦的继承权一事。 于是阿图瓦被置于国王监管之下。

Robert又生一计,伪造他父亲的遗嘱。被识破后,得到阿图瓦的希望彻底破灭。1331年,他的财产遭腓力六世没收,他的妻子和两个儿子被监禁。

为了逃避被羁押被处死的厄运,Robert 逃离法国寻求庇护,但他的亲友们都不敢收留他。谁留他,法王向谁宣战。

Robert 最后跑到英格兰,成为英格兰王室顾问的一员,向爱德华三世提供了大量法国宫廷的信息,并且鼓动爱德华三世开战,夺回法兰西王国。

14世纪40年代末,在英格兰和法国流传着一首起誓诗a vowing poem,题为苍鹭之誓 Vow of the Heron(效仿爱德华一世加封骑士的Feast of the Swans), 描述爱德华三世如何进攻法国,以践他向Robert 所许的骑士之诺--- 坐上原归他的法兰西王位。

1342年11月,Robert III of Artois 在War of the Breton Succession 中受伤后,死于痢疾。


zt:

Robert III of Artois (1287–1342) was Lord of Conches-en-Ouche, of Domfront, and of Mehun-sur-Yèvre, and in 1309 he received as appanage the county of Beaumont-le-Roger in restitution for the county of Artois which he claimed. He was also briefly Earl of Richmond in 1341 after the death of John III, Duke of Brittany.

Robert was the son of Philip of Artois, Lord of Conches-en-Ouche, and Blanche of Brittany, daughter of Duke John II, Duke of Brittany, both descended in male line from the Capetian dynasty.

He was only eleven when his father died on 11 September 1298 from wounds he received at the Battle of Furnes on 20 August 1297 against the Flemish people. The early death of his father was an indirect cause of the dispute over the succession to the County of Artois. After the death of his grandfather, Robert II, Count of Artois, in the Battle of Courtrai in 1302, the latter's daughter, Mahaut, inherited the County of Artois in accordance with custom. Because of his age, Robert III could not object to his aunt and assert the rights which he inherited from his father. He would do so later. The rancor and intrigues between Mahaut (sometimes called Mathilde) and Robert occurred within a period of strife between France and England, before the Hundred Years' War.
Around 1320 Robert married Joan of Valois, Countess of Beaumont, daughter of Charles of Valois and his second wife Catherine I of Courtenay.

Robert played an important role in the succession of Philip VI of France (his wife's half-brother) to the throne, and was his trusted adviser for some time. From this he drew a certain influence in the royal council which he used to try to wrest from Mahaut what he considered his county. At Mahaut's death in 1329, the claim passed to her daughter Joan II, Countess of Burgundy. Building on the example of the estate of the County of Flanders, he again raised the matter of succession. Artois was put under the custody of the King of France. However, in 1331, he used a forgery created by Jeanne Divion attesting to the will of his father. This deception was discovered, and Robert lost any hope of acquiring Artois. The forger Divion was condemned at the stake. Robert's property was confiscated by Philip in 1331, and his wife and his sons John and Charles imprisoned. Robert fled France in 1332 to escape arrest and execution, and took refuge with his nephew John II, Marquis of Namur. Philip requested that the Bishop of Liège attack Namur. Accordingly, Robert fled again to John III, Duke of Brabant, his nephew-in-law. Again, the influence of Philip stirred up a war against Brabant, and Robert was exiled again, this time to England. There he joined Edward III and urged Edward–whose wife Philippa of Hainault also descended from Charles of Valois–to start a war to reclaim the Kingdom of France. While in England, he became a member of Edward's royal council and provided extensive information on the French court to the English king. Numerous contemporary chroniclers relate how Robert's influence led directly to the start of the Hundred Years War, specifically because Philip VI cited Edward's unwillingness to expel Robert as the reason for confiscating the Duchy of Aquitaine in May 1337. A vowing poem called the Voeux du héron (Vow of the Heron) circulated in France and England in the late 1340s that depicted Edward's invasion of France as the fulfilment of a chivalric oath made to Robert that he would take the French throne, as was his dynastic right.

Robert followed Edward in his campaigns thereafter, including command of the Anglo-Flemish army at the Battle of Saint-Omer in 1340. He ultimately succumbed to dysentery after being wounded while retreating from the city of Vannes in November 1342, during the War of the Breton Succession. He was originally buried in the Blackfriarschurch, in London, though his grave is now in St. Paul's Cathedral.


Last modified on 12/10/15 22:42
        

#23  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
http://www.york.ac.uk/teaching/history/pjpg/heron.pdf

The Vows of the Heron


I

In the month of September, when summer is on the wane, when the happy birds have ceased to sing and the vines dry up and the grapes are ripe and the trees lose their leaves which cover the roads, in the year 1338, I tell you truthfully, Edward was at London in his marble palace. With him sat dukes, earls, and courtiers and ladies and maidens and many others. Those close to him call him Edward Louis. The king was seated at table, without evil thoughts; with his head bowed, he was thinking of love. He was cousin to the good king of France and held him dear, as his loyal neighbour; he had no thought of war or strife against him. But, when Fortune changes, I believe, then words are spoken that give birth to evil. Thus it occurred at that time, because of a noble vassal who was of high lineage: his name, according to the courtiers, was Robert of Artois. He began the war and the terrible strife in which many fine knights were struck down dead, many ladies were made widows, and there were many orphans, and many fine seamen had their lives shortened, and many good women were forcibly corrupted; and a great many churches were burned and destroyed – and many more will be, unless Jesus brings this to an end.


.............
        

#24  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Shakespeare's EDWARD III


《爱德华三世 Edward III》一剧,1596年匿名发行,现在通常归在莎翁名下.
“The Raigne of King Edward the Third, commonly shortened to Edward III, is an Elizabethan play printed anonymously in 1596. It has frequently been claimed that it was at least partly written by William Shakespeare, a view that Shakespeare scholars have increasingly endorsed.[1] The rest of the play was probably written by Thomas Kyd.”---wiki)



戏一开场, Robert III of Artois 即鼓动爱德华三世reclaim 法国王位:


http://www.shakespearealoud.com/edward-iii-full-text/

ACT I. SCENE I. London. A Room of State in the Palace. Flourish.

[Enter King Edward, Derby, Prince Edward, Audley, and
Artois.]

KING EDWARD.
Robert of Artois, banished though thou be
>From France, thy native Country, yet with us
Thou shalt retain as great a Seigniorie:
For we create thee Earl of Richmond here.
And now go forwards with our pedigree:
Who next succeeded Phillip le Bew?

ARTOIS.
Three sons of his, which all successfully
Did sit upon their father’s regal Throne,
Yet died, and left no issue of their loins.

KING EDWARD.
But was my mother sister unto those?

ARTOIS.
She was, my Lord; and only Isabel
Was all the daughters that this Phillip had,
Whom afterward your father took to wife;
And from the fragrant garden of her womb
Your gracious self, the flower of Europe’s hope,
Derived is inheritor to France.
But note the rancor of rebellious minds:
When thus the lineage of le Bew was out,
The French obscured your mother’s Privilege,
And, though she were the next of blood, proclaimed
John, of the house of Valois, now their king:
The reason was, they say, the Realm of France,
Replete with Princes of great parentage,
Ought not admit a governor to rule,
Except he be descended of the male;
And that’s the special ground of their contempt,
Wherewith they study to exclude your grace:
But they shall find that forged ground of theirs
To be but dusty heaps of brittle sand.
Perhaps it will be thought a heinous thing,
That I, a French man, should discover this;
But heaven I call to record of my vows:
It is not hate nor any private wrong,
But love unto my country and the right,
Provokes my tongue, thus lavish in report.
You are the lineal watchman of our peace,
And John of Valois indirectly climbs;
What then should subjects but embrace their King?
Ah, where in may our duty more be seen,
Than striving to rebate a tyrant’s pride
And place the true shepherd of our commonwealth?

KING EDWARD.
This counsel, Artois, like to fruitful showers,
Hath added growth unto my dignity;
And, by the fiery vigor of thy words,
Hot courage is engendered in my breast,
Which heretofore was raked in ignorance,
But now doth mount with golden wings of fame,
And will approve fair Isabel’s descent,
Able to yoke their stubborn necks with steel,
That spurn against my sovereignty in France.
        

#25  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377


爱德华三世自封法王后,就把盾徽加入了法国的fleurs-de-lys。
        

#26  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
wiki:

百年战争(英语:Hundred Years' War,法语:Guerre de Cent Ans)1337年-1453年,交战双方是英格兰和法国,后来又加入勃艮地等。它是世界最长的战争之一,长达116年,最后由法胜出,不少新的战术和武器因而发明。

百年战争依局势转变,大约可分四阶段:

第一阶段

1337年-1360年之间,英法争夺佛兰德斯和阿基坦。1340年,英军在斯鲁伊斯海战打败法军,夺得制海权,防止法军渡海入侵。1346年8月,英军先于陆上的克雷西会战大胜,再围攻法国海防要塞加莱港,11个月后成功占领。接着又于本土的内维尔十字之战打败苏格兰入侵,擒获亲法的苏格兰王大卫二世,大大减少其威胁。

1348年,黑死病横扫整个欧洲,两国停战十年。1356年,英格兰再度进攻,夺取法国西南部的基恩和加斯科涅。随即在普瓦捷战役以相同战术再次获胜。法国王室则承受英军横征暴敛、国家经济崩溃、平民起义反抗等内外煎熬,情势非常不利。1360年于布勒丁尼,法国被迫签订极不平等的布勒丁尼和约,割让出卢瓦尔河以南至比利牛斯山脉的全部领土。
        

#27  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

A miniature of the battle from Jean Froissart's Chronicles, 14th century.


百年战争是后世为英法这个时期的纷争所起的称谓。这段时期由一连串的conflicts 及大战组成。

第一场大战为Battle of Sluys, 斯鲁伊斯海战.

wiki:

斯鲁伊斯海战发生在公元1340年6月24日,为英法百年战争揭开序幕。在这次战役中,法国海军舰队受到严重的打击,使法军无法跨过海峡入侵英国,也让之后的战役大多发生在法国本土。

这场战役发生在斯鲁伊斯(Sluys或Sluys,法语为écluse),当时那是个足以停泊军舰的港口,约在现今比利时西佛兰德省及荷兰西兰省之间。此处的法国舰队为爱德华三世寄给他儿子黑太子爱德华的信中所提到的舰队,数量约有190艘,指挥官为库尔特(Quiéret)及贝胡切特(Béhuchet),当中还有少部分的热那亚雇佣军是由巴巴内罗 (Barbavera) 所指挥。虽然有很多英国史学家声称此战中英国舰队少于法国,但英国舰队6月22日从奥威尔(Orwell)启航时,数量约在200艘左右。在法兰德斯附近时,又与另一支约有50艘船的舰队会合,不过这支舰队上大多是非战斗人员,包括了英王爱德华三世的妻子。

在这次的战役中,法国海军舰队几乎被毁灭。两个指挥官当中,库尔特死在战场上,贝胡切特则是据说被英王爱德华三世处以绞刑,而担任热那亚雇佣军指挥的巴巴内罗则是在隔天早上逃离这片海域。根据当时英国史学家的说法,英军只花了极少的代价便得到胜利,并歼灭两万人左右的法军,不过此数据正确的可能性相当低。战役结束之后,英国舰队停止行动数天,显示其可能也受到相当程度的损失。


Last modified on 12/28/15 00:36
        

#28  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force.



1340年6月22日爱德华三世亲率英国舰队从奥威尔(Orwell)启航, 对,就是George Orwell 深爱的并以之为名的那条河(The writer Eric Blair chose the pen name under which he would later become famous, "George Orwell", because of his love for the river).

据说爱德华三世在涨潮时启航,背对太阳,顺风顺水,占了天时。法军方面迎战时则须面向刺眼的阳光。另外,战术不当的法军的对手是由军事天才爱德华三世统帅的英军。

爱德华三世遣派战船三艘一组,两艘满载弓箭手,一艘装满披甲戴盔的士兵。弓箭手先朝一艘法国舰船雨点般放箭,待靠近时,英军士兵便跳上法船甲板短兵相接,然后获得控制权。 英军的弓箭手使用的是长弓--- longbows, 即 English longbow, 亦称 Welsh longbow ,射箭速度是 20支箭/每分钟, 射程为270米。 法军的弓箭手是热那亚(意大利)雇佣军,使用十字弩---crossbow,一分钟仅能放两只箭。英军的长弓在这次海战和以后几次大战中都大显身手,为英军取胜起了关键性的作用。

战后交战水域尸体横浮,血水腥浓。 "青山寂寂水澌澌,正是将士战死时。浪打尸骨血染水,月冷黄昏鬼守尸。(篡自《姽婳词》)". 一人争王位,多少性命丧!

Battle of Sluys一战法军惨败,英军只损失两艘战船。 制海权落入英军手中。

wiki:

The extant records report that Edward entered the roadstead at high tide on 24 June 1340, and that after maneuvering his ships to windward, sailed his fleet with the sun behind them towards the French. However, as the English fleet approached the Zwin estuary from the northwest, it would appear highly unlikely that the sun would have been behind them, as modern research reveals that high tide would have been at 11:23 a.m. on 24 June.

Edward sent his ships against the French fleet in units of three, two ships crammed with archers and one full of men-at-arms. The English ships with the archers would come alongside a French ship and rain arrows down on its decks, the men-at-arms would then board and take the vessel. The English archers, with their long bows, could accurately shoot twenty arrows per minute at a range of up to 300 yards (270 m), whereas the Genoese crossbowmen could only manage two.

By the end of the battle, the French fleet had been broken at the cost of only two English ships captured, and the water was reported to be thick with blood and corpses.
        

#29  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
The Battle Of Crécy

        

#30  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Battle of Crécy. Image from a 15th-century illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles


克雷西会战 Battle of Crécy 是爱德华三世时期英法之间的第二次大战。英军再次以少胜多。爱德华三世精心布局,而自以为胜券在握的腓力六世方面章法混乱。英军除了长弓再显威力,还以轰鸣的大炮惊吓对方的战马。


wiki:

克雷西会战(英语:Battle of Crécy, 法语:Bataille de Crécy),是英法百年战争中的一场战役,发生于1346年8月26日,英军以英格兰长弓大破法军重骑兵与弩兵。

1337年,英法百年战争爆发。第一场会战是斯鲁伊斯海战,发生于1340年6月23日,英格兰获胜,并且获得多佛海峡的控制权。之后,英格兰国王爱德华三世企图藉道法兰德斯入侵法国,但由于财政上的困难,加上同盟间的不稳定,使得爱德华三世无力持续作战。1340年10月30日,爱德华回到了英格兰。1346年7月,为了支援法兰德斯和布列塔尼处境危险的盟军,爱德华三世率部从朴次茅斯出发,渡海抵达法国北岸。在一个月左右的时间内,他穿过法国西北部地区,来到低地国家背后。法王腓力六世率领的军队比英军强大的多,正紧紧的追赶着前面的敌人。

双方的兵力对比相当的悬殊。当时的法军兵力大约30,000至40,000名重骑兵,并且雇用六千名左右的热那亚十字弓手佣兵,而英军只有约7000名长弓兵、五千名骑士。

由于英军明白他们在数量上处于劣势,故爱德华三世精心的布置了战场,希望将自己在兵力上的劣势,能够配合地形而安排的阵形予以补足。他将其部队平均的分成了三个部分。右翼部队部署在靠近克雷西的地方,并且有一条河流作为其屏障;左翼部队则布阵于瓦迪库而特村的前方,有树林和步兵挖掘的防御工事作为掩护;右翼则由黑太子爱德华率领;至于爱德华三世则率军亲自坐阵中央。整个布阵情况呈现出一个指向东面的倒V字型阵式。而在每个部分的中央,则是由大约一千名骑士所组成的方阵。

摆阵完毕后,爱德华骑马缓行视察部队,鼓励人员努力作战。他们奉命吃午餐,当吃饱休息完之后,再列成阵势,大家坐在地上,将头盔和弓弩放在前面,所以,当法军到达前,部队士兵们的体力和精神都很饱满。

8月26日下午6时左右,法军排成冗长的一路行军纵队到达了战场。没有任何的侦察和警戒就乱哄哄的开始进攻。腓力六世当时还想将部队集结一下再发动攻击。于是将十字弩手调到了前面。但是那些妄自尊大、目空一切的法军骑士们,却不听从指挥命令,在弩兵行动后不久就开始进攻。

此时,热那亚十字弩手纪律严明,他们排成了整齐的队伍,在距离150码的地方停了下来,开始向英军进行射击。但是,由于英军位于一个坡地上,同时由于十字弩本身的问题,导致多数的箭都没有射中目标,英军来说可以说是毫发无伤。于是,热那亚的十字弩手们又再次向前移动,打算将距离再拉近些。此时,英军的长弓手开始发射弓箭。

英军的射击射出铺天盖地的箭雨,使得热那亚十字弩手无法承受,纷纷向后溃散。但后方的法军骑兵却已经等的不耐烦。他们冲上前去,并与热那亚弓十字弩手发生自相践踏,形成一片混乱。法军接下来长达几小时的战斗中,不断进行一次又一次的冲锋、突击,但每一次都被英军的骑兵分队化解,皆以失败收场。战役结束前,法王腓力六世虽然还有部队,但是这些七零八落且一身疲惫的散兵,已经不可能挽回败局。

8月27日上午,爱德华准许他的部队解散去搜括法军死者身上的财物。山坡下躺着无数的法军尸体。在山下的尸体中有1524位勋爵和骑士、约15000名左右的骑兵、十字弩兵和步兵的尸体。其中这时候英军才发现被杀的人当中,甚至包含波希米亚国王、洛林公爵、法兰德斯以下的十位伯爵。同时还有成千上万匹的马做了陪葬。而英军则伤亡约数百人左右。不过,英王爱德华却对如此多的贵族骑士阵亡感到十分的后悔。因为这些法军的死亡,让他们损失了一大笔的可以到手的赎金。
        

#31  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

John the Blind


法国方面战亡者中,最著名的是同盟者波希米亚国王John von Luxemburg。 50岁的约翰当时已双目失明十年。


wiki:

约翰一世 (波希米亚)

卢森堡的约翰(捷克语:Jan Lucembursky;德语:Johann von Luxemburg,1296年8月10日-1346年8月26日)波希米亚国王(1311年~1346年在位)。

卢森堡的约翰是神圣罗马帝国皇帝亨利七世之子,生于卢森堡。1310年,他在父皇的支持下获得对全部捷克地区的统治权,并成为卢森堡伯爵和波希米亚国王。1311年2月7日,他在布拉格加冕。

约翰在奥地利公爵腓特烈三世和上巴伐利亚公爵路易四世(即皇帝路易四世)争夺神圣罗马帝国皇位的斗争中支持后者,并参加了决定性的米尔多夫战役(1322年)。此役之后,路易成为无可争议的皇帝。然而不久,约翰与路易的关系即告破裂。

1333年至1335年,卢森堡的约翰代表圭尔夫派(教皇派)在意大利作战。1340年起,约翰双目失明。1346年路易四世去世后,约翰的儿子当选为神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理四世。

约翰在百年战争中支持法国。1346年,他在援助法国国王腓力六世抵御英格兰国王爱德华三世入侵时阵亡于克雷西战役。
在约翰统治时期,波希米亚从波兰手中夺取了上卢日策和西里西亚。




Memorial to Jean I, Count of Luxembourg in Crécy
        

#32  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

The badge of the Prince of Wales


盲约翰当时命随从带他冲锋陷阵,以使他能亲手向敌人砍上一剑(“I require you bring me so far forward, that I may strike one stroke with my sword.”)。随从们为让他如愿,遂将几匹战马的缰绳绑在一起纵马前行, 约翰的马被围在当中。

盲约翰的骑士精神勇乎?愚乎?

约翰之死造就一条现今已过时的俚语:"to fight like King John of Bohemia" , meaning "to fight blindly"---- 像波希米亚国王约翰那样打仗,意为盲目而战.

打扫战场时,盲约翰插着鸵鸟毛的头盔为黑太子爱德华所获,黑太子并采纳了约翰的骑士座右铭Ich dien ("I serve") ,自此Ich dien成为威尔士王子徽章的一部分。现在认为这种说法只是传奇而已。

另外,德语的Ich Dien 同威尔士语的Eich Dyn (Your Man) 发音极相似,黑太子爱德华以此为motto, 会令威尔士士兵更爱戴他。这种说法也无历史证据相佐。


wiki:

According to a longstanding but now discredited legend, the Black Prince obtained the badge from the blind King John of Bohemia, against whom he fought at the Battle of Crécyin 1346. After the battle, the prince is said to have gone to the body of the dead king, and taken his helmet with its ostrich feather crest, afterwards incorporating the feathers into his arms, and adopting King John's motto, "Ich dien", as his own. The story first appears in writing in 1376, the year of the Black Prince's death. There is, however, no sound historical basis for it, and no evidence for King John having used either the crest (he actually bore a crest of vultures' wings) or the motto.

Since a key factor in the English army's victory at Crécy was the use of Welsh archers, it is also sometimes said to have been Edward's pride in the men of Wales which led him to adopt a symbol alluding to their assistance. The German motto "Ich dien" ("I serve") is a near-homophone for the Welshphrase "Eich Dyn" meaning "Your Man", which might have helped endear the young Black Prince to the Welsh soldiers in particular. Again, however, there is no historical evidence to support this theory. In 1917, during the First World War, it was rumoured that the motto might be formally changed to "Eich Dyn" to avoid the use of German.

Prince of Wales Feathers Geyser, Te Whakarewarewa Thermal Valley, Rotorua, New Zealand
        

#33  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back




围攻加莱 The Siege of Calais(1346年9月4日--- 1347年8月3日)

克雷西会战Battle of Crécy(1346年8月26日)之后,英军即乘胜北上, 欲攻取法国北部港口加莱。

英军需要一个防御性极好的法国港口做为据点,以使英军得以喘息并获得给养。

与英国多佛港隔海相望的加莱防御性极好,正是爱德华三世的理想港口。加莱城有两道护城河,一百多年前建造的城墙非常坚固。一旦英军占据加莱,英军就可轻易地自海上为加莱提供补给和防卫。但是a sword has two edges,加莱既易守难攻,爱德华三世自然无法唾手得之。

英军运来大炮(那时大炮威力有限)、弹弩、长梯来攻城也无济于事,1347年2月只好放弃进攻,开始围城。这之后,因为英格兰海军的封锁,法军只在开始围城时为城中成功送过给养一次。因周围沼泽遍地,腓力六世的军队对爱德华三世也奈何不得。 因腓力六世下令死守加莱。加莱市民一直坚持,不肯投降。 但到了六月,城中濒临断水断粮。

1347年8月1日,加莱人在城头点火,以示愿意投降。据说,爱德华三世受降的条件是:加莱市民须交出城门钥匙,并牺牲六个市民的生命。6个市民(“burghers”) 站出来,自愿牺牲自己保全他人性命。爱德华的顾问极力劝说, 身怀六甲的王后菲利琶更是跪下求情:六人若死,对爱德华三世尚未出世的孩子将是不详的厄兆(此婴儿后来夭折)。 盛怒的爱德华三世遂豁免了那六个市民,让他们离开加莱。仁慈的菲利琶因此事而留名后世。当然有说法认为爱德华三世夫妻在联手演双簧,一威一仁。

The Siege of Calais(1346年9月4日--- 1347年8月3日),前后持续了11个月,加莱终于落入英军手中,成为英军进攻法国的桥头堡。英国自此控制加莱200余年,直到1558年,于玛丽一世时才被攻陷,回归法国掌控。



zt:

The Siege of Calais began in 1346, early in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453). Edward III of England asserted dominion over France, and defeated the French navy in theBattle of Sluys in 1340. He went on to make raids throughout Normandy, the last of which led to the Battle of Crécy in 1346. By then, Edward's army in France required supplies and reinforcements from Flanders, so they withdrew to the north. English ships had already left Normandy for England. Edward needed a defensible port where his army could regroup and be resupplied.


The English Channel port of Calais suited Edward's purposes. It was highly defensible. It boasted a double moat and substantial city walls built a hundred years earlier. The citadel in the northwest corner of Calais had its own moat and additional fortifications. Once taken, Calais could be resupplied and defended easily by sea. But the defences which made Calais attractive to Edward also made it difficult to seize.

The English laid siege. Philip VI of France failed to deliver relief, and the starving city surrendered after almost a year. The Kingdom of England held Calais until 1558. It was her last possession in mainland France. 

In November the English were supplied with cannon, catapults, and long ladders, but could not breach the city walls. Edward broke off the attack by February and initiated a siege. One more French supply convoy succeeded in reaching the city, but the English navy repelled all further supply attempts. Still, King Philip continued his assault. Both armies received additional reinforcements that spring. Philip's French forces still could not displace the English, who benefited from a position surrounded by marshland.

By June, the city's supplies of food and fresh water were nearly depleted. Another French supply convoy was blocked by the English fleet two months later. Five hundred children and elderly were expelled from the city so that the remaining healthy adult men and women might survive. One version of events holds that the English refused to allow these exiles to approach, so they starved to death just outside the city walls. That version of events was contradicted by the contemporary Flemish chronicler Jean Le Bel, who praised Edward III for his charity in feeding and granting free passage and a small monetary gift to each expelled person.

On August 1, the city lit fires signaling they were ready to surrender. Reportedly, Edward had offered to end the siege if citizens of Calais would surrender the keys to the city gates – and would sacrifice their lives. Six citizens, or “burghers,” volunteered. Edward was persuaded by his advisers to allow the remaining citizens to live. After providing them with some provisions, he allowed them to leave the city. Philip destroyed the encampment from which his army had been planning to attack the English so that it would not fall into their hands.

Although the burghers expected to be executed, their lives were spared by the intervention of England's queen,Philippa of Hainault, who persuaded her husband to exercise mercy by claiming that their deaths would be a bad omen for her unborn child. (Her son, Thomas of Windsor, only lived for one year.)


Calais fell under English control and remained as such until 1558, providing a foothold for English raids in France. Calais was finally lost by the English monarch Mary I following the 1558 siege of Calais.




Siege of Calais
        

#34  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

The Burghers of Calais by Auguste Rodin, Dimensions 201.6 cm × 205.4 cm × 195.9 cm (79 3⁄8 in × 80 7⁄8 in × 77 1⁄8 in)


THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS ---- The Citizens of Calais, 加莱市民(加莱义民)


THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS 加莱义民群雕,是罗丹最著名的雕塑作品之一。

1884年9月,加莱市长建议竖起一座碑,纪念Eustache de Saint Pierre(当时的加莱市长,第一位自愿献身) 和他的同伴们。雕塑家罗丹被荐。罗丹决定雕塑所有六位市民“slow procession towards death 缓慢走向死亡”的那一刻。被这件义举感动的罗丹愿意只收一件雕塑的报酬(1万5千法郎)而完成六件塑像。

罗丹手下的雕塑表现面临死亡时的绝望,放弃,勇气,茫然,或心神不定(despair, resignation, courage, impassiveness, or uncertainty)等种种情感, 而非所谓的大无畏的英雄主义气概。

罗丹的设计当时比较有争议,似有悖英雄人物的光辉形象,而展示常人走向生命终点时必须面对的痛苦、悲哀与宿命(“pain, anguish and fatalism”)。 而对罗丹,这丝毫不妨碍六位高贵市民的英雄性:自我牺牲的英雄主义。

这组雕像或竖立在较低的底座上,或就在草坪上,你可以看见他们颈上的绳索,看见他们各自不同的触动你的眼神。


zt:

In September 1884, the Mayor of Calais,Omer Dewavrin, suggested erecting a monument as a tribute to the heroism of Eustache de Saint Pierre and his companions, with the aid of a national appeal fund. Alphonse Prosper Isaac, a Calais-born painter who had settled in Paris, was asked to advise the monument committee on the sculptor to be chosen. He put forward Rodin’s name. As soon as he started reading Froissart’s account of the historic episode, Rodin began working on the project, even before the commission was confirmed. He decided not represent just one burgher of Calais but all six in a “slow procession towards death”: Eustache de Saint Pierre, Jean d’Aire, Pierre and Jacques de Wissant,Andrieu d’Andres and Jean de Fiennes.

The notion of collective sacrifice was emphasized even in the first maquette.The six figures, not yet individualized, were presented on the same plane, one next to the other, with no visible order of importance and all clad in the loose garments of men about to be executed. They were placed on a very high rectangular base, adorned with bas-reliefs, which formed a triumphal pedestal. This first maquette was greeted enthusiastically by the committee. Rodin was officially awarded the commission for the monument and the price was set at 15,000 francs.
 
He then pursued his investigations into the identity of each figure and made them express the different feelings experienced by men on the verge of death: despair, resignation, courage, impassiveness or uncertainty.He modeled them directly in their actual size, first unclothed, then clothed in the type of tunics worn by the condemned men. He arranged real shirts dipped in plaster on the nude studies, so that the bodily build could be seen under the garments.
 
Rodin's design was controversial. The public had a lack of appreciation for it because it didn't have "overtly heroic antique references" which were considered integral to public sculpture. It was not a pyramidal arrangement and contained no allegorical figures. It was intended to be placed at ground level, rather than on a pedestal. The burghers were not presented in a positive image of glory; instead, they display "pain, anguish and fatalism". To Rodin, this was nevertheless heroic, the heroism of self-sacrifice.


Last modified on 01/06/16 00:01
        

#35  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Rodin - The Burghers of Calais

        

#36  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Eustache de staint Pierre, Berthélemy.



身怀六甲的菲利琶王后为加莱义民跪下求情一事,在莎翁的《爱德华三世 Edward III》一剧中有描述。
摘抄片断兼附本人粗译:

ACT V. SCENE I. Picardy. The English Camp before Calais.

[Enter six Citizens in their Shirts, bare foot, with halters about their necks.]
身着上衣, 光着双脚,六个市民颈上套着绳索走入

ALL. 六位市民
Mercy, king Edward, mercy, gracious Lord!
求您宽恕,爱德华国王,求您慈悲,仁慈的君主!

KING EDWARD. 爱德华国王
Contemptuous villains, call ye now for truce?
Mine ears are stopped against your bootless cries:—
Sound, drums alarum; draw threatening swords!
傲慢不恭的家伙们,现在要求和了?
我的耳朵懒得听你们无用的哭喊----
击鼓警告,拔剑出鞘!

FIRST CITIZEN. 第一位市民
Ah, noble Prince, take pity on this town,
And hear us, mighty king:
We claim the promise that your highness made;
The two days’ respite is not yet expired,
And we are come with willingness to bear
What torturing death or punishment you please,
So that the trembling multitude be saved.
啊,尊贵的君主,请怜悯这座城市
请聆听我们,强大的国王:
我们来兑现您的保证
两天的延缓还未逾期,
要杀要罚随你,我们六人都情愿承受,
只要城中战栗的百姓们能得救。

KING EDWARD. 爱德华国王
My promise? Well, I do confess as much:
But I do require the chiefest Citizens
And men of most account that should submit;
You, peradventure, are but servile grooms,
Or some felonious robbers on the Sea,
Whom, apprehended, law would execute,
Albeit severity lay dead in us:
No, no, ye cannot overreach us thus.
我的保证? 嗯,我确实做了那样的保证:
但我要求加莱交出最高贵最有声望的市民;
而你们几个可能只是顺从的下人,
或是犯了重罪的海盗,
关在牢里等着被依法处决,
而生杀权由我们掌控:
算了吧,你们骗不了我们。

SECOND CITIZEN. 第二位市民
The Sun, dread Lord, that in the western fall
Beholds us now low brought through misery,
Did in the Orient purple of the morn
Salute our coming forth, when we were known;
Or may our portion be with damned fiends.
令人敬畏的君王,那此刻正俯视着我们的
西沉的太阳,曾引领我们度过苦难,
在今晨东方紫色的曦光里
为我们挺身而出的义举而致意,那时我们的高贵才为人知;
太阳也或许是祝我们与该死的恶魔同命运。


KING EDWARD. 爱德华三世
If it be so, then let our covenant stand:
We take possession of the town in peace,
But, for your selves, look you for no remorse;
But, as imperial justice hath decreed,
Your bodies shall be dragged about these walls,
And after feel the stroke of quartering steel:
This is your doom;—go, soldiers, see it done.
果然如此,那我们的协约仍然有效:
我们将和平占领加莱,
但你们几人不得反悔;
按照皇室法令,
你们的身体将被铡刀肢解,
然后沿城墙拖街示众:
这是你们的厄运;--- 去吧 ,士兵们,执行命令。

QUEEN PHILLIP. 菲利琶王后
Ah, be more mild unto these yielding men!
It is a glorious thing to stablish peace,
And kings approach the nearest unto God
By giving life and safety unto men:
As thou intendest to be king of France,
So let her people live to call thee king;
For what the sword cuts down or fire hath spoiled,
Is held in reputation none of ours.
啊,请对这些投降的人们宽大些吧!
建立和平才是伟大的事业。
除了上帝,只有国王
才能赐人以生命和安全:
您既一心要做法国国王,
那就该让她的子民活着称您为王;
因为刀剑所杀或火焰所毁,
都不会成就我们的声望。

KING EDWARD. 爱德华三世
Although experience teach us this is true,
That peaceful quietness brings most delight,
When most of all abuses are controlled;
Yet, insomuch it shall be known that we
As well can master our affections
As conquer other by the dint of sword,
Phillip, prevail; we yield to thy request:
These men shall live to boast of clemency,
And, tyranny, strike terror to thy self.

当所有其他虐行得到惩罚
和平会带来最大的欢愉,
经验告诫我们,这固然是对的;
然而,也须明白
我们要控制情感
就如用刀剑征服世界。
菲利琶,你赢了;我们听从你的请求:
这些人将活着夸耀我的仁慈,
暴行,自己吓自己吧。
        

#37  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Battle of Neville's Cross

爱德华三世能够围攻加莱达十一月之久,原因之一是已无后顾之忧。 苏格兰的大卫二世于1346年10月17日的Battle of Neville's Cross 内维尔十字之战中被英军俘获。

内维尔十字之战,英军又一次以少胜多。

wiki:

内维尔十字之战 (Battle of Neville's Cross)是中世纪时英格兰王国与苏格兰王国之间的一场战役,具体发生在1346年10月17日,地点在英格兰北部达拉谟附近的内维尔十字。战役结果是英格兰王国地方军队以少胜多,战胜了苏格兰王国由国王亲自领兵的大部队。这一骄人战绩在之后数百年内仍为英格兰人引以为豪。

历史背景

1337年,英格兰与法兰西之间的百年战争拉开帷幕。1341年,长期受法国国王腓力六世庇护的苏格兰年青国王大卫二世从法国返回苏格兰,亲自领导在苏格兰地区已经进行了近十年的对英战争(第二次独立战争),从北方威胁英格兰。

1346年,英格兰国王爱德华三世亲率大军跨海进攻法国,9月起对加莱进行围城。腓力六世急请大卫二世出兵入侵英格兰,希望能迫使爱德华三世分兵回救本土。腓力六世教说英格兰北方当时已是“毫无防卫的真空地带”,苏格兰军队可以任意作为。大卫面对着与法国长期的老同盟关系,决定出兵侵略英格兰。


交战经过

1346年10月7日,大卫二世率领约12000名士兵,跨越国境进入英格兰。但是苏格兰军队没有善加利用其突然袭击的优势,一路上行进过慢,在卡莱尔等地收取当地的保护费,用了整整九天时间才于10月16日到达初始目标杜伦附近。

而于此同时,英格兰北方却在积极组织力量迎战苏格兰军队。英格兰方的总指挥是约克大主教威廉·佐奇(William Zouche)。但是由于英格兰主力部队正在欧洲大陆对加莱围攻,本土能召集起来的军队很少。佐奇开赴战场附近时手下只有3000至4000人,而另外3000人正在赶赴战场,最终没有赶上战役。

10月16日,杜伦许诺向苏格兰军队支付巨额保护费一千英镑,但是要到10月18日才能与付。苏格兰军队同意建议后,当晚在周围驻扎。

直到10月17日战役当天的早晨,苏格兰军队才偶然发现附近有英格兰军队的存在。闻讯后的大卫二世下令将军队行进到杜伦以西2公里的小高地内维尔十字,准备迎战。但是两军列队后,却发现战场中间有很多的障碍物,不利于进攻时的整体推进。于是两方面全部采取守势,都不愿意主动出击。英格兰军队深知拖延的时间越久,援军到达的可能性越大,对苏格兰军队也越不利。

英格兰军队用著名的长弓手不停骚扰苏格兰军,最终苏格兰军队决定出击。但是战场地形确实不利于推进,英格兰军队很容易就防守住苏格兰军的进攻,并造成大量伤亡。

苏格兰两位摄政大臣之一的罗伯特·斯图亚特在此期间离开了战场,有临阵脱逃之嫌。

战事到了下午,苏格兰军队伤亡惨重,国王大卫二世的部队也不得不撤退。大卫二世本人的撤退却并不顺利,据说在被英格兰士兵发现后,经过一番顽强抵抗,面部中两箭,最终被俘虏。
        

#38  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back



还记得电影《Braveheart 勇敢的心》中的Robert the Bruce 吧,即带领苏格兰的民族英雄罗伯特一世。罗伯特一世前三个孩子都是女儿。“苏格兰议会通过法令,如果最后布鲁斯无子而终,王位将由他已故长女马乔里的独子罗伯特·斯图亚特继承。” 在罗伯特一世50岁那年,儿子大卫于1324年3月5日出世,即后来的大卫二世, David II of Scotland.

罗伯特一世于 1329年6月7日,54岁时病逝。 当时5岁的大卫二世登基。

大卫二世的第一任王后即为爱德华三世的亲妹妹Joan of England 英格兰的琼公主。 “1328年,根据苏格兰王国与英格兰王国的北安普顿条约,4岁的大卫与英格兰新国王爱德华三世7岁的亲妹妹英格兰的琼公主成婚,以示两国友好。 “

大卫二世继续与法国的Auld Alliance 老同盟, 1346年10月欲在"内维尔十字"一战中击败英军,为加莱解围,不料想自己却被俘,被英军扣押11年。大卫被俘后,王后琼返回伦敦,经常到Castle Rising 探望她母亲Isabella。 1357年10月大卫二世被重金赎回,归返苏格兰,王后琼并未跟随,而一直留在伦敦。

大卫二世与琼无子嗣,后再婚亦无子女。House of Bruce 布鲁斯王朝遂终结。


wiki:

大卫二世 (David II of Scotland)(1324年3月5日-1371年2月22日),是14世纪中叶苏格兰国王,也是布鲁斯王朝的第二代和末代君王。他幼年登基,一生波折,最后却由于没有子女,而让王权传到了外甥的斯图亚特家族。

大卫的父亲罗伯特·布鲁斯领导苏格兰赢得了第一次独立战争的胜利,最终登王位称罗伯特一世。但是布鲁斯始终无子,于是苏格兰议会通过法令,如果最后布鲁斯无子而终,王位将由他已故长女的独子罗伯特·斯图亚特继承。

1324年,50岁的罗伯特·布鲁斯终于有了儿子大卫,大卫也成了王位的第一继承人。1328年,根据苏格兰王国与英格兰王国的北安普顿条约,4岁的大卫与英格兰新国王爱德华三世7岁的亲妹妹英格兰的琼公主(Joan of England)成婚,以示两国友好。

1329年6月7日,罗伯特·布鲁斯去世,5岁的大卫成为苏格兰国王,称“大卫二世”。1331年11月,大卫二世在斯昆行加冕礼。
但是与此同时,曾称苏格兰国王的约翰·巴里奥之子爱德华·巴里奥获得了英格兰国王爱德华三世的暗中支持,带兵进入苏格兰,自称自己家族才是苏格兰真正的国王,第二次独立战争爆发。爱德华·巴里奥在1332年后称苏格兰国王,但是基本不获苏格兰人支持,是英格兰的傀儡政权。苏格兰支持布鲁斯家族的贵族与民众与之展开战斗,但是在英格兰军队的协助下,巴里奥方取得绝对军事优势。

1334年5月,年幼的大卫与王后逃到法国避难,得到法兰西国王腓力六世的保护。

1337年,英法百年战争爆发,英格兰军队不得不转移对于苏格兰战事的注意力。1341年,独立战争的天平已经倒向苏格兰方,17岁的大卫返回苏格兰执政,直接领导对英战争,希望能不负他父亲的威名。他坚守与自己同盟腓力六世的约定,连续率军进攻英格兰北方的目标,迫使爱德华三世分兵救援。

1346年,为了解救英军对法国加莱的围城,大卫亲率12000人[来源请求]跨越国境远征英格兰。两军在英格兰境内杜汉(Durham)附近的内维尔十字发生激战,结果苏格兰军队几乎全军覆没。大卫本人面部中两箭,被英格兰军队俘虏。

大卫二世在英格兰温莎城堡等地被关押了十一年,直到1357年两国达成协议,第二次独立战争结束。大卫二世被放回苏格兰,但是苏格兰王国必须缴纳高额赎金。

大卫二世回国后,发现贫穷的王国根本担负不起这笔债务。由于他本人无子女,他曾试图与爱德华三世协商,用指定英格兰的某王子为苏格兰王位继承人为交换,试图免去支付赎金。但是这项计划遭到苏格兰政府内外的一致反对,最终没能实行,而大卫二世与各方的矛盾也日益加剧。

1369年,大卫与第二任妻子离婚,并准备迎娶第三任妻子。但是1371年,大卫二世便在南艾尔郡登多纳德城堡去世,最终没有留下任何子女。


Last modified on 01/07/16 00:03
        

#39  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
每次到博物馆面对林林总总的展品,基本上两眼一抹黑。平时没有了解、积累,出去旅游也只能是到此一游式的————跟线偶得。
        

#40  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
"积累", 积累, 积累。 所言极是! 我对艺术历史也“基本上两眼一抹黑”。且读且学。
        

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