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#1【历史长河 】   BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
A History Of Britain - Episode 5 King Death - BBC series



英国史 BBC A History Of Britain 05 King Death (中文字幕)
http://tiny.cc/9gmk6x


BBC英国历史纪录片汇总
http://www.en8848.com.cn/tingli/video/britain-history/186000.html


BBC英国史英语视频第05章:King Death 灾难中的英国(中英字幕)
http://www.en8848.com.cn/tingli/video/britain-history/185955.html

zt:

In the summer of 1348, the English could be forgiven for thinking themselves unconquerable.

They had vanquished the old enemies, the Scots and the French.

Their king, Edward III, seemed the most powerful ruler in Europe.

But they would be conquered, and by a king against whom neither longbows nor warships offered any defence...

King Death.

...............
        

#2  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Edward III, detail from his bronze effigy in Westminster Abbey


zt维基中文:

爱德华三世 (英格兰)

爱德华三世(英文:Edward III,1312年11月13日-1377年6月21日),英格兰国王,1327年到1377年在位。

早年

爱德华三世是被谋杀的爱德华二世的儿子,生于伯克郡温莎。其母法兰西的伊莎贝拉与马奇伯爵罗杰·莫蒂默合谋废黜爱德华二世后成为英格兰的实际统治者。马奇伯爵获得大量封地(包括著名的登比封地)并在英格兰飞扬跋扈。

父王遭废黜后,爱德华三世由坎特伯雷大主教沃尔特·雷诺兹(此人是爱德华二世的宠臣之一)加冕为英格兰国王。实权被摄政的太后和其情夫马奇伯爵掌握。然而,爱德华三世很快聚集起实力惩罚杀死他父亲的人。1330年,爱德华三世亲政,立刻下令处死马奇伯爵并没收其财产。



爱德华三世与百年战争

1336年,为报复法国国王腓力六世侵犯在佛兰德的英国商人,爱德华三世曾下令禁止向法国出口羊毛。由于对腓力六世继承法兰西王位不满(爱德华是法国卡佩王朝最后一代国王查理四世的外甥),爱德华三世对法国怀有越来越大的敌意。1337年,爱德华三世正式自称为法兰西国王,而且此后直到1801年,每个英国君主也都自称是法兰西国王。他旋即联合神圣罗马帝国皇帝路易四世,拼凑一支反法力量。当1338年腓力六世宣布没收他在法国的一切领地时,爱德华的怒气爆发了。1339年、1340年他从法国北部发动了两次失败的进攻尝试;1340年6月,英格兰舰队在斯鲁伊斯海战中大获全胜。但军费开支过于巨大使爱德华三世无力持续作战。1344年他甚至宣布破产,导致佛罗伦萨的两家大银行倒闭。

1346年,爱德华三世携长子黑太子爱德华卷土重来,在克雷西战役中大败法军。这次战斗是杰出的将领黑太子爱德华初次亮相,也是在此战中,欧洲人第一次使用了火器。到1347年,爱德华三世已攻占法国重镇加来,并准备进军巴黎加冕。1348年,他拒绝了竞选神圣罗马帝国皇帝的邀请。

1356年英军在普瓦捷战役中再度取得大胜,并俘获了法兰西国王约翰二世。爱德华三世即与各怀鬼胎的各方法兰西贵族签订加来条约,控制了法国北方的大片领土,但承诺放弃法兰西王位。

1359年爱德华三世再次入侵法国,围攻兰斯,而后更推进到巴黎;在那里,他与法兰西王国摄政王太子查理(后为国王查理五世)签署了布勒丁尼和约。1360年,他在法兰西封黑太子爱德华为阿基坦公爵。

1364年查理五世正式即位后,拒绝承认加来条约,爱德华就又开始使用法兰西国王的称号。但查理五世是一个难以对付的对手,他采取了不少有力度的改革措施。同时,在法兰西出现了迪·盖克兰这样的优秀将领。总之,爱德华三世的战争计划从此就开始失利。他的扩张活动到此为止了。


其他政绩

1348年,爱德华三世统治之下的英国遭受了有史以来最大的灾难之一——黑死病。他颁布了一些法令来强迫人们继续劳动。1353年,议会通过法案,禁止民众向教会法庭上诉及向教皇交纳什一税。大约在1348年,爱德华三世创立了嘉德骑士团。

爱德华三世在位时的另一个主要的敌对目标是苏格兰。早在1333年,爱德华三世击退过入侵英格兰的苏格兰国王罗伯特一世。1356年他又曾进入苏格兰南部。

晚年受到情妇佩雷斯夫人的控制。也是在这时,被认为是异端的罗拉德派宗教改革运动盛行起来。
        

#3  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
King Edward III (1312-1377)

        

#4  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

The coronation of Philippa of Hainault as Queen of England.


爱德华三世同其祖父爱德华一世很相像,都是强势国王,都有如意婚姻。

爱德华三世之母法兰西的伊莎贝拉与罗杰·莫蒂默合谋废黜爱德华二世后,14岁的爱德华三世于1327年1月25日加冕。一年后,1328年1月24日,15岁的爱德华迎娶13岁的王后Philippa。 二人是second cousins who shared the same great grandparents, 法王菲利三世Philip III of France 是二人的曾祖父。 因二人是四代之内的血亲,得到教皇豁免 Papal dispensation 后,才得以成亲。

做为王后,Philippa 口碑极佳: "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." 较之Philippa, 爱德华一世的王后Eleanor of Castile 无此赞誉: "Eleanor is warmly remembered by history as the queen who inspired the Eleanor crosses, but she was not so loved in her own time. Her reputation was primarily as a keen businesswoman."

Philippa 也像Eleanor 一样,跟着丈夫南征北战。 Philippa 为加莱义民向爱德华三世求情的慈悲善举,最令世人感动赞赏。后面会提。

牛津大学王后学院就是以这位仁慈王后之名而建。



wiki:

Philippa of Hainault (24 June 1314 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.

Philippa married Edward at York Minster, on 24 January 1328, eleven months after his accession to the English throne; although, the de facto rulers of the kingdom were his mother, Queen Dowager Isabella and her avaricious lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, who jointly acted as his regents. Soon after their marriage the couple retired to live at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. Unlike many of her predecessors, Philippa did not alienate the English people by retaining her foreign retinue upon her marriage or by bringing large numbers of foreigners to the English court. As Isabella did not wish to relinquish her own status, Philippa's coronation was postponed for two years. She eventually was crowned queen on 4 March 1330 at Westminster Abbey when she was almost six months pregnant;[14] and she gave birth to her first son, Edward, the following June just nine days before her sixteenth birthday.

In October 1330, King Edward commenced his personal rule when he staged a coup and ordered the arrest of his mother and Mortimer. Shortly afterward, the latter was executed for treason, and Queen Dowager Isabella was sent to Castle Rising in Norfolk, where she spent the remainder of her life.
Joshua Barnes, a medieval writer, said "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." Chronicler Jean Froissart described her as "The most gentle Queen, most liberal, and most courteous that ever was Queen in her days."

Philippa accompanied Edward on his expeditions to Scotland, and the European continent in his early campaigns of the Hundred Years War where she won acclaim for her gentle nature and compassion. She is best remembered as the kind woman who, in 1347, persuaded her husband to spare the lives of the Burghers of Calais, whom he had planned to execute as an example to the townspeople following his successful siege of that city.

She acted as regent in England on several occasions when her husband was away from his kingdom. She also influenced the king to take an interest in the nation's commercial expansion. Philippa was a patron of the chronicler Jean Froissart, and she owned several illuminated manuscripts, one of which currently is housed in the national library in Paris.
        

#5  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

The Provost and Scholars of The Queen's College in the University of Oxford


zt:

王后学院(The Queen's College)是牛津大学的一个学院,位于英国牛津。它由罗伯特·Eglesfield创建于1341年,以纪念王后埃诺的菲利帕。该学院的特点是其新古典主义建筑,其中一些建筑是由克里斯多佛·雷恩爵士和尼古拉斯霍克斯莫尔设计。

The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield (d'Eglesfield) in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault (wife of King Edward III of England). The college is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor.




Architecture of The Queen's College, Oxford: Michael Riordan
        

#6  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
英法之间的第一次百年战争始于爱德华三世在位时。

“百年战争(英语:Hundred Years' War,法语:Guerre de Cent Ans)
1337年-1453年,交战双方是英格兰和法国,后来又加入勃艮地等。它是世界最长的战争之一,长达116年,最后由法胜出,不少新的战术和武器因而发明。

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.”---wiki
        

#7  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
百年战争起因主要有二,一为历史原因,二为王位之争。

1066年征服英格兰的威廉一世为诺曼底公爵。创立金雀花王朝的亨利二世身兼诺曼底公爵、安茹伯爵和曼恩伯爵。亨利二世之子约翰是失地王,诺曼底在他手中丧失,只有他母亲Eleanor of Aquitaine 的阿基坦公国尚属英格兰管辖。失地之痛英格兰历代国王都挥之不去。而历代法王则处心积虑想统一法国,把英格兰人彻底赶走。

wiki:

中世纪前期,法国海岸渔民长期遭受北欧维京海盗打劫侵略。西法兰克王国加洛林王朝的查理三世以协助抵御其他海盗为条件,于公元911年,同意维京人领袖洛罗及其族人定居在英吉利海峡沿岸一块肥沃的土地上,并封洛罗为公爵。由于维京人又称为诺曼人,这块土地称为诺曼底(意思为诺曼人的封土)。维京人在此建立了诺曼底公国,停止海盗行为,并改奉天主教及接受法国文化,但诺曼底公国自此割据一方。

1066年,诺曼底公爵征服者威廉渡海征服英格兰。其后150年内,说法语的诺曼底公爵同时为英格兰王,统治英格兰和诺曼第。可是诺曼底公国却是法国国王的附属国,导致了原来平等的两个国王,变得完全不平等[2]:1。后来,控制着阿基坦公国的法国王后阿基坦的埃莉诺与法国国王路易七世离婚,并且嫁给了作为诺曼底公爵和安茹伯爵的亨利。

1154年,亨利加冕成为英格兰国王。又因为联姻,英格兰王国获得了阿基坦的领土,同时控制了英格兰以及法国近半的地区。

13世纪初,当时的英王约翰失政,法王乘机夺回诺曼底及安茹两地,约翰返回英格兰。

1215年,在当地贵族逼迫之下订立大宪章,才保住英格兰王位。此后百多年,这位法国贵族出身的英王,念念不忘要向法王取回祖宗的失地,而英王亦仍然控有法国西南沿岸一隅的阿基坦,也成为锐意一统全国的法国王室的眼中钉。

14世纪时,法国想赶走仍然盘据西南地区的英格兰,统一法国。后者非但不肯,还想夺回其祖先的土地,如诺曼底、曼恩、安茹等。两国另因法兰德斯的贸易纠纷,加深彼此的冲突。该地位于法国北疆,表面隶属法国,实则独自行政,且与英格兰有很多羊毛贸易。
        

#8  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Coronation of King Philip III


王位之争,先从爱德华三世和菲利琶的曾祖父法王菲利三世Philip III of France 说起。

前面提到十字军第八次东征时,1270年8月法王路易九世准备围攻突尼斯时,染病身亡。随父东征的Philip 当即被宣布继任法王,成为腓力三世。

”腓力三世(勇敢者)(法语:Philippe III le Hardi,1245年4月30日-1285年10月5日)卡佩王朝第10位国王(1270年—1285年在位)。 “

腓力三世有六个子女,其中女儿Margaret是英王爱德华一世的第二任王后。长子Louis 早逝。次子后来继位,即腓力四世。三子Charles,Count of Valois瓦卢瓦伯爵,因是腓力六世之父, 遂成瓦卢瓦王朝的始祖。


Last modified on 11/28/15 20:39
        

#9  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Philip IV of France


美男子腓力四世Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King, 有三子一女,其女即为爱德华三世之母,Isabella of France , She-Wolf of France。 

腓力四世的三个儿子分别为Louis, Philip, and Charles. 后来都登上王位, 成为 Louis X, King of France, Philip V, King of France, and Charles IV, King of France。


腓力四世被但丁称为”France's harm”, 绝非妄加之言。腓力四世在位期间,犹太人被逐,圣殿骑士团被灭。


英王爱德华一世于1290年驱逐犹太人,腓力四世于1306年followed suit,当然这并非法兰西首次驱逐犹太人。 赶走犹太人后,王室收债人负责催债,欲将原归犹太人的欠款吞入王室财库。如意算盘虽打得精明,但王室收债人仗势压人,得罪了不少客户,名声狼藉。不得已,1315年又把犹太人请回法国,许诺他们12年定居期。但1322年,犹太人又遭查理四世驱逐。


zt:

While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306. With the Jews gone, Philip appointed royal guardians to collect the loans made by the Jews, and the money was passed to the Crown. The scheme did not work well. The Jews were regarded to be good businessmen who satisfied their customers, while the king's collectors were universally unpopular. Finally, in 1315, because of the "clamour of the people", the Jews were invited back with an offer of 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the King's successor, who did not honour his commitment.
        

#10  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

圣殿骑士团的徽章,著名的双人骑单马图像,象征他们早期的贫困,内环的希腊文和拉丁文 Sigillum Militum Xpisti,搭配中央的十字架,表示基督的士兵


圣殿骑士团创建于第一次十字军东征后。从维基摘抄与腓力四世相关的部分:

“1241年,蒙古拔都西征入侵波兰。在列格尼卡战役中,圣殿骑士团的参战部队几乎灭绝。其大首领阿尔芒(Armond de Perigord)写信给法国国王路易说,中欧已无任何军事力量可以阻挡蒙古铁骑直抵法国。1291年,卡拉温的继承者卡利尔攻占圣-让-阿克,叙利亚的十字军王国灭亡。圣殿骑士团和医院骑士团撤到塞浦路斯,再返回法国。他们在法国是国王的大债主,拥有几千座城堡和巨额财富,因此受到国王和主教的嫉恨。法国国王腓力四世编织“异端”罪名去铲除他们。

1307年10月13日星期五(这是“黑色星期五”迷信的由来之一),事前并无任何征兆,全法国的圣殿骑士团成员几乎都被逮捕,并被限制使用任何财产,以防止被移转出国。原因是以精明能干著称的“美男子”法王腓力四世先已广发密函,命令各地官员同时打开,执行他的整肃行动。巴黎一地就逮捕了138名,包括其大团长雅克·德·莫莱。他们很多死于审讯,其余处以火刑。

当时教廷位于法国亚维侬的教宗克雷芒五世在圣殿骑士审判中扮演的角色并不单单作为一个帮助迫害者,其多次要求将审判权交付战火浮生,但未得到菲力四世同意。

1307年10月13日星期五(这是“黑色星期五”迷信的由来之一),事前并无任何征兆,全法国的圣殿骑士团成员几乎都被逮捕,并被限制使用任何财产,以防止被移转出国。原因是以精明能干著称的“美男子”法王腓力四世先已广发密函,命令各地官员同时打开,执行他的整肃行动。巴黎一地就逮捕了138名,包括其大团长雅克·德·莫莱。他们很多死于审讯,其余处以火刑。

1314年,莫莱在上火刑架之前,诅咒法王腓力四世和教皇克雷芒五世,说他们会在一年内面临永恒的审判。事实的确与之符合。教皇克雷芒五世一个月后患病而死,“美男子”腓力四世半年后打猎时突然身亡。 ”

Please refer to http://tiny.cc/f0mv6x for more info about Knights Templar.


犹太人及圣殿骑士团的灾难,皆因财富而起。腓力四世为财而驱赶烧杀。



Templars burned at the stake
        

#11  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Some of the principal actors in the Tour de Nesle Affair, depicted in 1315, the year after the scandal broke: Philip IV of France (centre) and his family: l-r: his sons, Charles and Philip, his daughter Isabella, himself, his eldest son and heir Louis, and his brother, Charles of Valois.




果如莫莱所咒,腓力四世于 1314年11月29日猝死。腓力四世死前,另一桩事件也或多或少影响了卡佩王朝的走向和终结。

Tour de Nesle Affair 奈斯尔塔丑闻

1313年英王爱德华二世携王后伊莎贝拉赴巴黎拜访老丈人腓力四世。伊莎贝拉的兄长路易和查理请客人们看了一场木偶戏。过后,伊莎贝将精致的绣花钱包分赠给两位哥哥及他们的太太。爱德华二世同王后返回伦敦后,大设晚宴洗尘。席间,王后留意到两个诺曼骑士所佩钱包正是她前些时赠给两位兄嫂的。于是心中起疑,并在1314年访问巴黎时告与其父。

腓力四世遂派眼线监视,发现长子路易之妻玛格丽特和三子查理之妻布兰奇在奈斯尔塔与人吃酒幽会。二子腓力之妻Joan亦有嫌疑。玛格丽特与布兰奇被国会判罪,罚终身监禁。玛格丽特卒于1315年,布兰奇先被羁囚后入修道院。涉嫌二骑士则被处死。琼因丈夫力保,才被判无罪。

史学家虽不乏对此案存疑者,但大都认为确有其事,并且认为伊莎贝拉告发此事,乃别有用心 --- 想让自己的儿子爱德华三世更有希望登上法王宝座。

zt:

Most accounts of the scandal begin with the visit of the king and queen of England to the queen's father in France during 1313. During the visit, Louis and Charles had had a satirical puppet show put on for their guests, and after this Isabella had given new embroidered purses both to her brothers and to their wives. Later in the year, Isabella and Edward held a large dinner in London to celebrate their return and Isabella apparently noticed that the purses she had given to her sisters-in-law were now being carried by two Norman knights, Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay. Isabella concluded that the pair must have been carrying on an illicit affair, and appears to have informed her father of this during her next visit to France in 1314.

Philip IV placed the knights under surveillance for a period, and the scandal began to take shape. The accusations centred on suggestions that Blanche and Margaret had been drinking, eating and engaging in adultery with Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay in the Tour de Nesle over a period. The Tour de Nesle was an old guard tower in Paris next to the river Seine and had been bought by Philip IV in 1308. The third sister-in-law, Joan, was initially said to have been present on some of these occasions and to have known of the affair; later accusations were extended to have included suggestions that she had also been involved in adultery herself.



A 19th-century representation of the Tour de Nesle, where much of the adulterous activity was alleged to have occurred, by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.



A plaque on the northern wall of the Institut de France shows the ancient location of the Tour de Nesle.
        

#12  BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

路易十世 Louis X of France


腓力四世死后,长子路易继位。路易十世吵架王(Louis X the quarreler)为卡佩王朝第十二位国王。在位不足两年:from November 29 , 1314 – June 5, 1316.

“Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I) andCount of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death. ”

路易继位后,第一任妻子玛格丽特仍被监禁,等于以犯人身份做queen consort 。据说王后是被害的,如此,便清除了国王丈夫顺利再婚的路障。王后于 August 14,1315 归天,5天之后,August 19, 1315, 路易就与Clementia 成亲。

路易十世是网球史上记载的第一位有名有姓的player. 一次对打后,路易豪饮冰镇酒,因急性肺炎或脑膜炎, 猝死于1316年6月5日。路易亡殁时王后正身怀六甲。而玛格丽特所生女儿Joan,其血缘被疑。

当时摄政者为路易之弟Philip。 腓力否决了4岁的Joan的王位继承权,原因有二:一是琼年龄尚幼,二是路易与琼的父女关系值得怀疑。当然年龄问题是次要的。

zt:
When Philip IV of France died, his eldest son, Louis I of Navarre, became King of France. Louis’ wife Margaret had been locked up in Chateau Gaillard since 1314 after being found guilty of adultery by King Philip, on the testimony of, amongst others, Louis's sister Isabella. Since there had been no formal annulment, Margaret technically became queen consort when Louis acceded to the throne upon Philip's death, though she was kept locked up. In 1315, the queen died, allegedly strangled or otherwise murdered to clear the way for her husband to remarry. Louis chose Clementia and they married on 19 August 1315; she was crowned queen at Reims on 24 August.

Louis died in June 1316, leaving Clementia several months pregnant.Louis’ brother Philip became regent, denying the rights of Clementia's stepdaughter Joan, who was too young and whose paternity was questioned; and of Clementia herself, who was considered unsuitable to be regent. She gave birth to a son named John in November 1316. King from the moment of his birth, he lived only four days, whereupon the throne was seized by his uncle, who now became Philip V. Clementia and Philip quarrelled over this and he refused to pay her the income Louis had promised her. She wrote repeatedly to Pope John XXII and to her family for help.


Last modified on 11/30/15 00:16
        

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Funerary convoy of John I.

1316年11月15日,路易的遗腹子出生并当即成为约翰一世John I of France,但这个婴儿国王只活了短短五天。传言说他被叔叔腓力掉包或谋杀。

卡佩王朝首次面临没有男性继承人的局面。约翰一世的叔叔腓力马上自命国王 ---- 腓力五世。

因为支持约翰一世同父异母姐姐Joan继位的不在少数,经过一番斡旋,腓力才争取到叔叔瓦卢瓦伯爵Charles of Valois 的支持,于1317年1月9日在法国东北部的加冕之都兰斯Rheims 匆匆加冕,但大部分贵族拒绝参加,认为腓力是篡权夺位。

1317年2月2日,腓力五世在巴黎临时召集议会,制定规则,指出Joan 作为女性,不能继承法国王位。此举巩固了他既成事实的篡权。自此,萨利克继承法明确规定女性不能继承法国王位,后来延伸为女性的男性后裔也不能继承王位。

如果不是Tour de Nesle Affair ,或是当时能用DNA 确定血缘关系,腓力五世未必能坐上王位宝座,萨利克法也未必会更改。 历史常因许多偶然事件而改变走向。


萨利克法:
http://tinyurl.com/gw8z8ul


zt:

With only his niece between himself and the throne, Philip engaged in some rapid political negotiations and convinced Charles of Valois, who along with Odo IV was championing Joan's rights, to switch sides and support him instead. In exchange for marrying Philip's daughter, Odo IV abandoned his niece's cause, not only her claim to the French throne but also her claim to Navarre's. On the 9 January 1317, with Charles's support, Philip was hastily crowned at . The majority of the nobility, however, refused to attend, there were demonstrations in Champagne, Artois, and Burgundy, and Philip called a rapid assembly of the nobility on 2 February in Paris. Philip laid down the principle that Joan, as a woman, could not inherit the throne of France, played heavily upon the fact that he was now the anointed king, and consolidated what some authors have described as his effective "usurpation" of power. The exclusion of women, and later of their male descendants, was later popularized as the Salic law by the Valois monarchy. Joan, however, did accede in 1328 to the throne of Navarre, which did not hold to the Salic law.
        

#14  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
Trip to Reims in France | Euromaxx City




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兰斯 (法国城市兰斯(Reims))

兰斯历史可以追溯到罗马帝国时代,市中心还存有古罗马时期的遗迹。兰斯在法国历史上扮演着非常重要的角色,因为它是历任法国国王加冕的地方,前后一共16位法国国王在此接受主教加冕。兰斯做为法国的历史文化名城,城市里有许多世界文化遗产,其中包括历任法国国王加冕之处的兰斯圣母院(Cathedral Notre-Dame de Reims,又译作理姆斯大教堂),法国国王于加冕前后居住、召见大臣的所居所陶宫(Palais du Tau),及守护着加冕用圣油瓶的圣雷米教堂及修道院。兰斯圣母院在第一次世界大战期间被德军毁坏,但随即花费20年重建,它在法国的作用相当于英国的威斯敏斯特教堂,巴黎圣母院亦是仿照其建造。

兰斯(Reims,又译汉斯),法国东北部城市,香槟-阿登大区(Région Champagne-Ardenne)马恩省(Marne,51号省)的一个副省会(Sous préfecture),是整个香槟-阿登大区最大的城市,也是全法国最大的副省会城市。兰斯市区的人口数量和城市规模是该大区首府香槟沙隆(Chalons en Champagne)的四倍以上。兰斯是法国著名的宗教文化中心,被称为“王者之城”。

自11世纪起,法国国王都必须到这个“加冕之都”受冕登基。在法国历史上,共有25位国王在兰斯圣母大教堂加冕,其中包括法兰克王国的奠基者克洛维一世(Clovis I)、路易一世(Louis le Pieux)、路易八世(Louis VIII)、查理七世(Charles VII)、路易十三(Louis XIII)等。

也是在这座圣城,纳粹德国于1945年5月7日签署了第二次世界大战投降书,欧洲乃至世界的历史翻开了崭新的一页。兰斯也是世界名酒香槟(Champagne)的产地,兰斯附近有大约两万处葡萄农家和上百家家香槟厂,每年出产约有2亿瓶香槟,是香槟-阿登大区最大的经济支柱产业。



The windows of Marc Chagall at Cathedral Notre-Dame de Reims
        

#15  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Philip the Tall 腓力五世


高大者腓力五世,卡佩王朝第14任国王。现代史学家对其评价相当高,赞扬他有”极富智慧与敏感度 of considerable intelligence and sensitivity", 在三兄弟中”他最明智,最适合搞政治, the wisest and politically most apt of Philip IV's three sons”。 为避免篇幅过长,腓力五世政治上的作为在此略过。

"Philip V (c.1292/1293 – 3 January 1322), the Tall (French: Philippe le Long), was King of France and King of Navarre (as Philip II). He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. "--- wiki



腓力五世在位也只有6年(1316年至1322年),1322年1月3日病逝,年29。

腓力五世身后4朵金花,但并无男嗣。因他1316年修订的萨利克继承法禁止女性继位,他的弟弟查理遂在兰斯大教堂加冕,为查理四世。
        

#16  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Charles the Fair 查理四世


“Charles IV (Clermont 18/19 June 1294 – Vincennes 1 February 1328), called the Fair  ”。

美男子查理四世不擅治国,苛捐杂税令百姓不堪重负。

“1327年,查理四世在其妹、英格兰王后法兰西的伊莎贝拉废黜其丈夫英格兰国王爱德华二世的事件中扮演了合谋的角色。 ”

卡佩王朝最后的国王查理四世在位六年,1328年2月1日去世。

查理四世先后有三位王后。

第一任王后布兰奇Blanche of Burgundy 因Tour de Nesle Affair 被监禁后入修道院。两人育有一女一子,儿子1322年早亡。

查理四世1322年继位后解除与布兰奇的婚姻后,先后迎娶了两位王后。第二任王后生产时死亡,男婴只存活了几小时。第三位王后与查理四世生一女,一岁即夭折,后来又生一遗腹女。

查理四世命中无子继位。
        

#17  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
查理四世无子,卡佩王朝就此终结。谁坐王位?

1328年,查理四世的妹妹伊莎贝拉还在世,身为儿子爱德华三世的regent摄政,实权在握。萨利克继承法禁止女性继位,但伊莎贝拉称她儿子爱德华三世有继承权。

做为查理四世的侄子nephew,爱德华三世是与国王血缘最近的男性亲属。但爱德华三世身份独特。法国贵族岂能让英格兰国王统治法国?! 法国方面因此进步修订萨利克继承法,规定王室女性的后代(不论男女)也不能继承王位。" 1340年,教皇确定在萨利克法下男性不能通过母亲的血统继承王位"。



Philip VI the Fortunate

排除爱德华三世后,即由查理四世的堂兄继位,称腓力六世。幸运王腓力六世的父亲是瓦卢瓦伯爵查理Charles, Count of Valois。瓦卢瓦的查理与查理四世的父亲腓力四世是兄弟,同为腓力三世之子。 腓力六世与查理四世为1st cousin. 因腓力六世之父为瓦卢瓦伯爵,腓力六世遂为瓦卢瓦王朝的第一位国王。瓦卢瓦王朝是卡佩王朝的侧枝,自1328年-1589 年统治法国。

爱德华三世的王后为Philippa of Hainault。 菲利琶的母亲Joan of Valois是菲利六世的妹妹。因此,菲利六世同菲利琶的舅舅。 爱德华三世同菲利六世则是 first cousins once removed.

开始时,爱德华三世倒不反对腓力六世继承王位。但后来由于两国之间的一系列纷争,爱德华三世又声称自己才是法国王位的合法继承人,并以此为借口开打。英法百年战争遂于1337年爆发。

zt:

Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. When King Charles IV the Fair died without a male heir in 1328, the nearest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, who inherited his claim through his mother Isabella of France, the sister of the dead king. It was held in France, however, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the female line according to the ancient Salic Law. At first, Edward seemed to accept Philip's accession as the nearest male relative of Charles IV descended through the male line, however he pressed his claim to the throne of France after a series of disagreements with Philip. The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337.


Last modified on 12/05/15 19:36
        

#18  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
英法之间的主要纷争:

1. Gascony 加斯科涅

约翰王时,英格兰丧失了在法国的大部分领地,只余阿基坦--- 亨利二世的王后Eleanor of Aquitaine 的嫁妆。爱德华三世时,缩为Gascony --- 阿基坦的一部分。法国是想收回Gascony的宗主国,英格兰是又不情愿进贡的诸侯国。英法之间在这方面冲突不断。

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Gascony under the King of England

In the 11th century, Gascony in southwest France had been incorporated into Aquitaine (also known as Guyenne or Guienne) and formed with it the province of Guyenne and Gascony (French: Guyenne-et-Gascogne). The Angevin kings of England became Dukes of Aquitaineafter Henry II married the former Queen of France, Eleanor of Aquitaine, in 1152, from which point the lands were held in vassalage to the French crown. By the 13th century the terms Aquitaine, Guyenne and Gascony were virtually synonymous. At the beginning of Edward III's reign on 1 February 1327, the only part of Aquitaine that remained in his hands was the Duchy of Gascony. The term Gascony came to be used for the territory held by the Angevin (Plantagenet) Kings of England in southwest France, although they still used the title Duke of Aquitaine.

For the first 10 years of Edward III's reign, Gascony had been a major point of friction. The English argued that, as Charles IV had not acted in a proper way towards his tenant, Edward should be able to hold the duchy free of any French suzerainty. However, this line of argument could not be maintained by the English, so in 1329 the 17-year-old Edward III paid homage to Philip VI. Tradition demanded that vassals should approach their liege unarmed with heads uncovered, however Edward demonstrated his reluctance by attending the ceremony by wearing his crown and sword. Despite Edward complying, albeit reluctantly, the French continued to pressure the English administration.


Gascony Tour
        

#19  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back

Map of France with the Loire highlighted



Chateau d'Azay-le-Rideau


说到Gascony, 顺便提下称为法国的花园的世界遗产卢瓦尔河流域(法语:Vallée de la Loire)

百年战争中,英法以卢瓦尔河为界。“During the Hundred Years' War from 1337 to 1453, the Loire River marked the border between the French and the English, who occupied territory to the north.”

"卢瓦尔河(法语:Loire),法国最长的河流,发源于塞文山脉,流程1,020公里(630英里),先向北、西北,后向西注入比斯开湾,两岸有闻名世界的卢瓦尔城堡群。

卢瓦尔河谷城堡(Chateaux of the Loire Valley)是位于法国卢瓦尔河谷地的一个城堡群。卢瓦尔河谷的城堡群大多开始兴建于16世纪中期,现在是法国重要的观光景点。

卢瓦尔河流域(法语:Vallée de la Loire)被称为“法国的花园”和“法语的摇篮”,以其高质量的建筑遗产著称。这些建筑不仅分布在昂布瓦斯、昂热、布卢瓦、希农、南特、奥尔良、索米尔和图尔等历史名城,尤其以众多的城堡世界闻名,例如昂布瓦斯城堡、香波尔城堡、 薇雍德希堡、丽芙城堡和舍农索城堡。

The Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand chateaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. They were originally created as feudal strongholds, over centuries past, in the strategic divide between southern and northern France; now many are privately owned."


France From Above HD - High Definition Views of the Chateaux de la Loire
        

#20  Re: BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国             Go Back
英法纷争之二

法国-苏格兰同盟

The enemy of my enemy is my friend. 英格兰一直想征服苏格兰,苏格兰自然成了法国的盟友。爱德华一世时,苏格兰就同法王腓力四世签订了同盟协约Auld Alliance (Old Alliance),抵抗英格兰入侵。1326年,查理四世又正式续签“老同盟”。

腓力六世为了东征,在马赛港组建了一支庞大的海军舰队。后放弃东征。遂于1336年,将舰队,包括当中的苏格兰海军部分,转至诺曼底,隔着英吉利海峡威胁英格兰。

为应对危机,爱德华三世建议英格兰组建两支军队,一支在“适当时候”对付苏格兰,另一支马上开到Gascony. 同时派大使同法王谈判。


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Franco-Scot alliance

The Kings of England had attempted to subjugate the Scots for some time, which made Scotland a natural ally of France. In 1295 a treaty was signed between France and Scotland during the reign of Philip the Fair. Charles IV formally renewed the treaty in 1326, promising Scotland that if England invaded then France would support the Scots. Similarly, the French would find Scottish support if their own kingdom was attacked. Edward could not succeed in his plans for Scotland if they could count on French support.

Philip VI had assembled a large naval fleet off Marseilles as part of an ambitious plan for a crusade to the Holy Land. However, the plan was abandoned and the fleet, including elements of the Scottish Navy, moved to the English Channel of Normandy in 1336, threatening England. To deal with this crisis, Edward proposed that the English raise two armies, one to deal with the Scots "at a suitable time", the other to proceed at once to Gascony. At the same time ambassadors were to be sent to France with a proposed treaty for the French king.
        

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