The coronation of Philippa of Hainault as Queen of England.
爱德华三世之母法兰西的伊莎贝拉与罗杰·莫蒂默合谋废黜爱德华二世后，14岁的爱德华三世于1327年1月25日加冕。一年后，1328年1月24日，15岁的爱德华迎娶13岁的王后Philippa。 二人是second cousins who shared the same great grandparents, 法王菲利三世Philip III of France 是二人的曾祖父。 因二人是四代之内的血亲，得到教皇豁免 Papal dispensation 后，才得以成亲。
做为王后，Philippa 口碑极佳： "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." 较之Philippa, 爱德华一世的王后Eleanor of Castile 无此赞誉： "Eleanor is warmly remembered by history as the queen who inspired the Eleanor crosses, but she was not so loved in her own time. Her reputation was primarily as a keen businesswoman."
Philippa of Hainault (24 June 1314 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.
Philippa married Edward at York Minster, on 24 January 1328, eleven months after his accession to the English throne; although, the de facto rulers of the kingdom were his mother, Queen Dowager Isabella and her avaricious lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, who jointly acted as his regents. Soon after their marriage the couple retired to live at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. Unlike many of her predecessors, Philippa did not alienate the English people by retaining her foreign retinue upon her marriage or by bringing large numbers of foreigners to the English court. As Isabella did not wish to relinquish her own status, Philippa's coronation was postponed for two years. She eventually was crowned queen on 4 March 1330 at Westminster Abbey when she was almost six months pregnant; and she gave birth to her first son, Edward, the following June just nine days before her sixteenth birthday.
In October 1330, King Edward commenced his personal rule when he staged a coup and ordered the arrest of his mother and Mortimer. Shortly afterward, the latter was executed for treason, and Queen Dowager Isabella was sent to Castle Rising in Norfolk, where she spent the remainder of her life.
Joshua Barnes, a medieval writer, said "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." Chronicler Jean Froissart described her as "The most gentle Queen, most liberal, and most courteous that ever was Queen in her days."
Philippa accompanied Edward on his expeditions to Scotland, and the European continent in his early campaigns of the Hundred Years War where she won acclaim for her gentle nature and compassion. She is best remembered as the kind woman who, in 1347, persuaded her husband to spare the lives of the Burghers of Calais, whom he had planned to execute as an example to the townspeople following his successful siege of that city.
She acted as regent in England on several occasions when her husband was away from his kingdom. She also influenced the king to take an interest in the nation's commercial expansion. Philippa was a patron of the chronicler Jean Froissart, and she owned several illuminated manuscripts, one of which currently is housed in the national library in Paris.
The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield (d'Eglesfield) in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault (wife of King Edward III of England). The college is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Architecture of The Queen's College, Oxford: Michael Riordan
“百年战争（英语：Hundred Years' War，法语：Guerre de Cent Ans）
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.”---wiki
While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306. With the Jews gone, Philip appointed royal guardians to collect the loans made by the Jews, and the money was passed to the Crown. The scheme did not work well. The Jews were regarded to be good businessmen who satisfied their customers, while the king's collectors were universally unpopular. Finally, in 1315, because of the "clamour of the people", the Jews were invited back with an offer of 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the King's successor, who did not honour his commitment.
圣殿骑士团的徽章，著名的双人骑单马图像，象征他们早期的贫困，内环的希腊文和拉丁文 Sigillum Militum Xpisti，搭配中央的十字架，表示基督的士兵
“1241年，蒙古拔都西征入侵波兰。在列格尼卡战役中，圣殿骑士团的参战部队几乎灭绝。其大首领阿尔芒（Armond de Perigord）写信给法国国王路易说，中欧已无任何军事力量可以阻挡蒙古铁骑直抵法国。1291年，卡拉温的继承者卡利尔攻占圣-让-阿克，叙利亚的十字军王国灭亡。圣殿骑士团和医院骑士团撤到塞浦路斯，再返回法国。他们在法国是国王的大债主，拥有几千座城堡和巨额财富，因此受到国王和主教的嫉恨。法国国王腓力四世编织“异端”罪名去铲除他们。
Some of the principal actors in the Tour de Nesle Affair, depicted in 1315, the year after the scandal broke: Philip IV of France (centre) and his family: l-r: his sons, Charles and Philip, his daughter Isabella, himself, his eldest son and heir Louis, and his brother, Charles of Valois.
Most accounts of the scandal begin with the visit of the king and queen of England to the queen's father in France during 1313. During the visit, Louis and Charles had had a satirical puppet show put on for their guests, and after this Isabella had given new embroidered purses both to her brothers and to their wives. Later in the year, Isabella and Edward held a large dinner in London to celebrate their return and Isabella apparently noticed that the purses she had given to her sisters-in-law were now being carried by two Norman knights, Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay. Isabella concluded that the pair must have been carrying on an illicit affair, and appears to have informed her father of this during her next visit to France in 1314.
Philip IV placed the knights under surveillance for a period, and the scandal began to take shape. The accusations centred on suggestions that Blanche and Margaret had been drinking, eating and engaging in adultery with Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay in the Tour de Nesle over a period. The Tour de Nesle was an old guard tower in Paris next to the river Seine and had been bought by Philip IV in 1308. The third sister-in-law, Joan, was initially said to have been present on some of these occasions and to have known of the affair; later accusations were extended to have included suggestions that she had also been involved in adultery herself.
A 19th-century representation of the Tour de Nesle, where much of the adulterous activity was alleged to have occurred, by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.
A plaque on the northern wall of the Institut de France shows the ancient location of the Tour de Nesle.
腓力四世死后，长子路易继位。路易十世吵架王（Louis X the quarreler)为卡佩王朝第十二位国王。在位不足两年：from November 29 , 1314 – June 5, 1316.
“Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I) andCount of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death. ”
路易继位后，第一任妻子玛格丽特仍被监禁，等于以犯人身份做queen consort 。据说王后是被害的，如此，便清除了国王丈夫顺利再婚的路障。王后于 August 14，1315 归天，5天之后，August 19, 1315, 路易就与Clementia 成亲。
When Philip IV of France died, his eldest son, Louis I of Navarre, became King of France. Louis’ wife Margaret had been locked up in Chateau Gaillard since 1314 after being found guilty of adultery by King Philip, on the testimony of, amongst others, Louis's sister Isabella. Since there had been no formal annulment, Margaret technically became queen consort when Louis acceded to the throne upon Philip's death, though she was kept locked up. In 1315, the queen died, allegedly strangled or otherwise murdered to clear the way for her husband to remarry. Louis chose Clementia and they married on 19 August 1315; she was crowned queen at Reims on 24 August.
Louis died in June 1316, leaving Clementia several months pregnant.Louis’ brother Philip became regent, denying the rights of Clementia's stepdaughter Joan, who was too young and whose paternity was questioned; and of Clementia herself, who was considered unsuitable to be regent. She gave birth to a son named John in November 1316. King from the moment of his birth, he lived only four days, whereupon the throne was seized by his uncle, who now became Philip V. Clementia and Philip quarrelled over this and he refused to pay her the income Louis had promised her. She wrote repeatedly to Pope John XXII and to her family for help.
With only his niece between himself and the throne, Philip engaged in some rapid political negotiations and convinced Charles of Valois, who along with Odo IV was championing Joan's rights, to switch sides and support him instead. In exchange for marrying Philip's daughter, Odo IV abandoned his niece's cause, not only her claim to the French throne but also her claim to Navarre's. On the 9 January 1317, with Charles's support, Philip was hastily crowned at . The majority of the nobility, however, refused to attend, there were demonstrations in Champagne, Artois, and Burgundy, and Philip called a rapid assembly of the nobility on 2 February in Paris. Philip laid down the principle that Joan, as a woman, could not inherit the throne of France, played heavily upon the fact that he was now the anointed king, and consolidated what some authors have described as his effective "usurpation" of power. The exclusion of women, and later of their male descendants, was later popularized as the Salic law by the Valois monarchy. Joan, however, did accede in 1328 to the throne of Navarre, which did not hold to the Salic law.
兰斯历史可以追溯到罗马帝国时代，市中心还存有古罗马时期的遗迹。兰斯在法国历史上扮演着非常重要的角色，因为它是历任法国国王加冕的地方，前后一共16位法国国王在此接受主教加冕。兰斯做为法国的历史文化名城，城市里有许多世界文化遗产，其中包括历任法国国王加冕之处的兰斯圣母院（Cathedral Notre-Dame de Reims，又译作理姆斯大教堂），法国国王于加冕前后居住、召见大臣的所居所陶宫（Palais du Tau），及守护着加冕用圣油瓶的圣雷米教堂及修道院。兰斯圣母院在第一次世界大战期间被德军毁坏，但随即花费20年重建，它在法国的作用相当于英国的威斯敏斯特教堂，巴黎圣母院亦是仿照其建造。
兰斯（Reims，又译汉斯），法国东北部城市，香槟-阿登大区（Région Champagne-Ardenne）马恩省（Marne，51号省）的一个副省会（Sous préfecture），是整个香槟-阿登大区最大的城市，也是全法国最大的副省会城市。兰斯市区的人口数量和城市规模是该大区首府香槟沙隆（Chalons en Champagne）的四倍以上。兰斯是法国著名的宗教文化中心，被称为“王者之城”。
自11世纪起，法国国王都必须到这个“加冕之都”受冕登基。在法国历史上，共有25位国王在兰斯圣母大教堂加冕，其中包括法兰克王国的奠基者克洛维一世（Clovis I）、路易一世（Louis le Pieux）、路易八世（Louis VIII）、查理七世（Charles VII）、路易十三（Louis XIII）等。
高大者腓力五世，卡佩王朝第14任国王。现代史学家对其评价相当高，赞扬他有”极富智慧与敏感度 of considerable intelligence and sensitivity", 在三兄弟中”他最明智，最适合搞政治， the wisest and politically most apt of Philip IV's three sons”。 为避免篇幅过长，腓力五世政治上的作为在此略过。
"Philip V (c.1292/1293 – 3 January 1322), the Tall (French: Philippe le Long), was King of France and King of Navarre (as Philip II). He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. "--- wiki
Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. When King Charles IV the Fair died without a male heir in 1328, the nearest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, who inherited his claim through his mother Isabella of France, the sister of the dead king. It was held in France, however, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the female line according to the ancient Salic Law. At first, Edward seemed to accept Philip's accession as the nearest male relative of Charles IV descended through the male line, however he pressed his claim to the throne of France after a series of disagreements with Philip. The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337.
约翰王时，英格兰丧失了在法国的大部分领地，只余阿基坦--- 亨利二世的王后Eleanor of Aquitaine 的嫁妆。爱德华三世时，缩为Gascony --- 阿基坦的一部分。法国是想收回Gascony的宗主国，英格兰是又不情愿进贡的诸侯国。英法之间在这方面冲突不断。
Gascony under the King of England
In the 11th century, Gascony in southwest France had been incorporated into Aquitaine (also known as Guyenne or Guienne) and formed with it the province of Guyenne and Gascony (French: Guyenne-et-Gascogne). The Angevin kings of England became Dukes of Aquitaineafter Henry II married the former Queen of France, Eleanor of Aquitaine, in 1152, from which point the lands were held in vassalage to the French crown. By the 13th century the terms Aquitaine, Guyenne and Gascony were virtually synonymous. At the beginning of Edward III's reign on 1 February 1327, the only part of Aquitaine that remained in his hands was the Duchy of Gascony. The term Gascony came to be used for the territory held by the Angevin (Plantagenet) Kings of England in southwest France, although they still used the title Duke of Aquitaine.
For the first 10 years of Edward III's reign, Gascony had been a major point of friction. The English argued that, as Charles IV had not acted in a proper way towards his tenant, Edward should be able to hold the duchy free of any French suzerainty. However, this line of argument could not be maintained by the English, so in 1329 the 17-year-old Edward III paid homage to Philip VI. Tradition demanded that vassals should approach their liege unarmed with heads uncovered, however Edward demonstrated his reluctance by attending the ceremony by wearing his crown and sword. Despite Edward complying, albeit reluctantly, the French continued to pressure the English administration.
卢瓦尔河谷城堡（Chateaux of the Loire Valley）是位于法国卢瓦尔河谷地的一个城堡群。卢瓦尔河谷的城堡群大多开始兴建于16世纪中期，现在是法国重要的观光景点。
卢瓦尔河流域（法语：Vallée de la Loire）被称为“法国的花园”和“法语的摇篮”，以其高质量的建筑遗产著称。这些建筑不仅分布在昂布瓦斯、昂热、布卢瓦、希农、南特、奥尔良、索米尔和图尔等历史名城，尤其以众多的城堡世界闻名，例如昂布瓦斯城堡、香波尔城堡、 薇雍德希堡、丽芙城堡和舍农索城堡。
The Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand chateaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. They were originally created as feudal strongholds, over centuries past, in the strategic divide between southern and northern France; now many are privately owned."
France From Above HD - High Definition Views of the Chateaux de la Loire
The Kings of England had attempted to subjugate the Scots for some time, which made Scotland a natural ally of France. In 1295 a treaty was signed between France and Scotland during the reign of Philip the Fair. Charles IV formally renewed the treaty in 1326, promising Scotland that if England invaded then France would support the Scots. Similarly, the French would find Scottish support if their own kingdom was attacked. Edward could not succeed in his plans for Scotland if they could count on French support.
Philip VI had assembled a large naval fleet off Marseilles as part of an ambitious plan for a crusade to the Holy Land. However, the plan was abandoned and the fleet, including elements of the Scottish Navy, moved to the English Channel of Normandy in 1336, threatening England. To deal with this crisis, Edward proposed that the English raise two armies, one to deal with the Scots "at a suitable time", the other to proceed at once to Gascony. At the same time ambassadors were to be sent to France with a proposed treaty for the French king.