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#81  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

爱德华二世(16世纪画像)


维基中文:

爱德华二世(英语:Edward II,1284年4月25日-1327年9月21日),英格兰国王(1307年—1327年在位),金雀花王朝成员。他的一生皆为其宠信的弄臣和叛乱的贵族所主宰,以致最后悲惨地死去。葬于格洛斯特大教堂。

爱德华二世为英格兰国王爱德华一世第四子,父王去世后登基。根据各种记载可以推测他是一个同性恋者。他最早宠信的佞臣之一是来自加斯科涅的年轻骑士皮尔斯·加弗斯顿,此人可能是有断袖之癖的国王的男宠。爱德华二世因为把康沃尔伯爵领地赐给加弗斯顿而引起贵族不满。1309年,以爱德华一世的侄子兰卡斯特公爵托马斯为首,贵族们结成同盟反对国王。1310年,该贵族集团成功迫使爱德华二世成立一个改革委员会。委员会拟出一套限制国王权力的条例,并为国会所通过。在贵族的强烈要求下,爱德华二世把加弗斯顿逐出国外,但后来又偷偷接回;结果加弗斯顿在1312年6月被愤怒的贵族们处死。

爱德华二世于1313年力劝教皇克勉五世任命其宠臣伍斯特主教沃尔特·雷诺兹为坎特伯雷大主教。但后来他又与雷诺兹关系决裂。

1314年,爱德华二世率领一支庞大的军队讨伐苏格兰国王罗伯特一世,企图再度将北方邻国置于英格兰统治之下。然而在班诺克本之战中,英格兰大军被苏格兰人打得人仰马翻。爱德华二世名声受损,从此更加受到贵族摆布。到1315年,兰卡斯特的托马斯已是大权在握。该年英格兰竟至面临苏格兰入侵的危险:罗伯特一世带兵进入英格兰境内,并派其弟爱德华·布鲁斯征服英格兰属地爱尔兰。1316年,爱德华·布鲁斯已宣布为爱尔兰国王。

此时爱德华二世又有了两个新的宠臣:德斯彭瑟父子,他为他们分封土地的做法受到贵族们的激烈反对。1321年,国会宣布放逐德斯彭瑟父子,而爱德华以武力支持德斯彭瑟。兰卡斯特的托马斯领导贵族发动叛乱,结果被爱德华二世打败并遭处决(1322年)。爱德华二世因这次军事成功摆脱了贵族长期的控制。1323年,爱德华承认罗伯特一世为独立的苏格兰王国的国王,从而实现了两国的和平。

德斯彭瑟父子的飞扬跋扈引起爱德华二世的王后法兰西的伊莎贝拉不满。1325年伊莎贝拉回法国安排儿子的婚事,在那里她成为一个因反对德斯彭瑟而被爱德华二世放逐的青年贵族罗杰·莫蒂默的情妇。1326年,伊莎贝拉与莫蒂默率领流亡贵族入侵英格兰。他们的活动受到了伊莎贝拉的哥哥法国国王查理四世的支持。入侵者与爱德华二世的国内反对者取得了胜利,他们将德斯彭瑟父子处决。

1327年,国会废黜了爱德华二世。爱德华被迫退位,被放逐到南威尔士。当年在巴克利城堡中遭到杀害。按照传说,爱德华二世被人从肛门插入烧红的烤肉铁叉,死得极其悲惨。爱德华二世年幼的儿子爱德华三世继承了王位。
        

#82  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
King Edward II (1284-1327)

        

#83  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
爱德华三世统治英格兰近20年 (1307--1327),内忧外患,社会动荡,政治斗争血腥残酷。

爱德华一世遗恨归天,寄望于爱德华二世征服苏格兰。

但爱德华二世对打苏格兰并不上心,对马术打猎也兴趣索然,反而钟情音乐,喜欢划船、挖沟做篱笆,跟干力气活的下层人交往。这么不贵族,自然招人诟病。

没有军事天才的爱德华二世在1314年Battle of Bannockburn一役被Robert the Bruce 打得落花流水,英格兰统治苏格兰的梦想遂一夕破灭,打了败仗的爱德华二世因此颜面大失,蒙羞受辱。

祸不单行。1315年---1317年的欧洲大饥荒the Great Famine(持续到1322年)接踵而至,英格兰灾情尤其严重。粮食欠收,物价飙升。爱德华二世呼吁囤仓者放粮, 未果。王室税收也因灾荒锐减。

Robert the Bruce 获胜之后,扬鞭南下,打到约克郡 ,兵临约克城(电影《Braveheart》中华莱士占领约克城与史相悖)。Robert the Bruce 的弟弟Edward Bruce更于1315年趁虚攻入对英格兰称臣的爱尔兰,自封爱尔兰国王, 但于1318年败给爱德华二世的爱尔兰司法官Edmund Butler ,首级被枭。

爱德华一世于1319年率大军北上讨伐苏格兰,因大饥荒,兵士口粮都无法保障,自然败北。

大饥荒,加上败给苏格兰,这岂非上帝对英格兰的双重惩罚?坊间乃怨声载道,将一切归罪于爱德华二世。时有名曰John of Powderham 者,现身牛津, 声称他才是真正的爱德华二世,但出生时被掉包,而头戴王冠的那个低能儿是假爱德华。当时确有不少人指责爱德华追求乡野情趣,缺乏帝王风范,不是稳健的领袖。爱德华二世在宠臣问题上,更是备受指责,最终因此丧命。

zt:

He was not particularly interested in hunting or falconry, both popular activities in the 14th century. He enjoyed music, including Welsh music and the newly invented crwth instrument, as well as musical organs. He did not take part in jousting, either because he lacked the aptitude or because he had been banned from participating for his personal safety, but he was certainly supportive of the sport.

Edward grew up to be tall and muscular, and was considered good looking by the standards of the period. He had a reputation as a competent public speaker and was known for his generosity to his household staff. Unusually, he enjoyed rowing, as well as hedging and ditching, and enjoyed associating with labourers and other lower-class workers. This behaviour was not considered normal for the nobility of the period and attracted criticism from contemporaries


English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King's reign mounted.

The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315–1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the fourteenth century. Most of continental Europe (extending east to Russia and south to Italy) and Great Britain were affected.[1] The famine caused millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marked a clear end to the period of growth and prosperity from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries.
The Great Famine started with bad weather in spring 1315. Universal crop failures lasted through 1316 until the summer harvest in 1317, and Europe did not fully recover until 1322. The period was marked by extreme levels of crime, disease, mass death, and evencannibalism and infanticide. The crisis had consequences for the Church, state, European society, and for future calamities to follow in the fourteenth century.


Edward's difficulties were exacerbated by prolonged problems in English agriculture, part of a wider phenomenon in northern Europe known as the Great Famine. It began with torrential rains in late 1314, followed by a very cold winter and heavy rains the following spring that killed many sheep and cattle. The bad weather continued, almost unabated, into 1321, resulting in a string of bad harvests. Revenues from the exports of wool plummeted and the price of food rose, despite attempts by Edward II's government to control prices.  Edward called for hoarders to release food, and tried to encourage both internal trade and the importation of grain, but with little success. The requisitioning of provisions for the royal court during the famine years only added to tensions.

Meanwhile, Robert the Bruce exploited his victory at Bannockburn to raid northern England, initially attacking Carlisle and Berwick, and then reaching further south into Lancashire and Yorkshire, even threatening York itself. Edward undertook an expensive but unsuccessful campaign to stem the advance in 1319, but the famine made it increasingly difficult to keep his garrisons supplied with food. Meanwhile, a Scottish expedition led by Robert's brother successfully invaded Ireland in 1315, where Edward Bruce declared himself the King of Ireland. He was finally defeated in 1318 by Edward II's Irish justiciar, Edmund Butler, at the Battle of Faughart, and Edward Bruce's decapitated head was sent back to the King. Revolts also broke out in Lancashire andBristol in 1315, and in Glamorgan in Wales in 1316, but were suppressed.
The famine and the Scottish policy were felt to be a punishment from God, and complaints about Edward multiplied, one contemporary poem describing the "Evil Times of Edward II".Many criticised Edward's "improper" and ignoble interest in rural pursuits. In 1318, a mentally ill man named John of Powderha mappeared in Oxford, claiming that he was the real Edward II, and that Edward was a changeling, swapped at birth. John was duly executed, but his claims resonated with those criticising Edward for his lack of regal behaviour and steady leadership. Opposition also grew around Edward's treatment of his royal favourites.
        

#84  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

An 1872 painting by English artist Marcus Stone shows Edward II cavorting with Gaveston while nobles and courtiers look on with concern.


“根据各种记载可以推测他是一个同性恋者。他最早宠信的佞臣之一是来自加斯科涅的年轻骑士皮尔斯·加弗斯顿,此人可能是有断袖之癖的国王的男宠。爱德华二世因为把康沃尔伯爵领地赐给加弗斯顿而引起贵族不满。1309年,以爱德华一世的侄子兰卡斯特公爵托马斯为首,贵族们结成同盟反对国王。1310年,该贵族集团成功迫使爱德华二世成立一个改革委员会。委员会拟出一套限制国王权力的条例,并为国会所通过。在贵族的强烈要求下,爱德华二世把加弗斯顿逐出国外,但后来又偷偷接回;结果加弗斯顿在1312年6月被愤怒的贵族们处死。” ---- wiki


最给文人灵感的是爱德华二世的同性恋情结。1991年的电影Edward II 就是根据16世纪Christopher Marlowe 同名剧本所编,被疑有同性恋倾向的Marlowe 在剧本中写有这样一段(摘自维基):

Music and poetry is his delight;
Therefore I'll have Italian masques by night,
Sweet speeches, comedies, and pleasing shows;
And in the day, when he shall walk abroad,
Like sylvan nymphs my pages shall be clad;
My men, like satyrs grazing on the lawns,
Shall with their goat-feet dance an antic hay.
Sometime a lovely boy in Dian's shape,
With hair that gilds the water as it glides,
Crownets of pearl about his naked arms,
And in his sportful hands an olive tree
To hide those parts which men delight to see,
Shall bathe him in a spring; and there, hard by,
One like Actaeon, peeping through the grove,
Shall by the angry goddess be transformed,
And running in the likeness of a hart
By yelping hounds pulled down and seem to die.
Such things as these best please his majesty. (I.i.53–70)


十四世纪的同性恋国王被处死。二十一世纪黑人入主白宫,美国是否会出现女总统,尚是未知数,从今晚的debate 看还是有希望的,当然本人更倾向Bernie Sanders。如今同性恋婚姻合法了,但同性恋总统似乎还not on the horizon.


有意思的是,爱德华二世都不是纯同性恋者。爱德华本人婚前就有私生子。爱德华安排自己的侄女嫁给 Piers Gaveston,二人亦育有子女。爱德华二世到底是否同性恋,也只是世人猜测而已。

Gaveston 被放逐三次,每次都被爱德华二世接回英格兰。第三次放逐回来,是1311年圣诞。爱德华宣布对Gaveston 的判罚不合法,并将所有没收的领地归还,那些领地当然是爱德华二世赐封的。

Gaveston 1312年在Scarborough 安顿下来,并加固城堡。5月19日被围,后被带走,在Lancaster 伯爵的领地上被处死。

初知Scarborough,自然是从歌中。当然歌同Gaveston 并无关联。



Zt:

Edward bestowed the Earldom of Cornwall on Gaveston, and arranged for him to marry his nieceMargaret de Clare, sister of the powerful Earl of Gloucester.

It is not quite clear where Gaveston spent his time abroad; the conditions of his exile banned him from staying in any of the lands of the English king. This precluded both Aquitaine and Ireland, where he had spent his previous exiles. There is some evidence that he might have gone to France initially, but considering the French king's hostile attitude towards him, he is not likely to have stayed there long. Flanders is a much more likely candidate for Gaveston's third and final exile. This time his absence was even shorter than the second time, lasting no more than two months. Returning around Christmas 1311, he was reunited with the King early in 1312, probably at Knaresborough on 13 January.The reason for his quick return might have been the birth of his child, a daughter named Joan, around this time. On 18 January, Edward declared the judgement against Gaveston unlawful, and restored all lands to him.

The royal and baronial parties now both began preparations for war. In March, Gaveston settled at Scarborough, and began to fortify the castle. Around the same time, he was pronounced excommunicate by Archbishop Winchelsey at St Paul's. At the same meeting the barons – under the leadership of Lancaster – divided up the realm to oppose the King. Pembroke and Warenne were given the responsibility of capturing Gaveston. On 4 May, the King and Gaveston were at Newcastle, and barely escaped a force led by Lancaster, Henry Percy andRobert Clifford. Gaveston then returned to Scarborough, while the King left for York. Scarborough was soon besieged by Pembroke, Warenne, Percy and Clifford, and on 19 May Gaveston surrendered to the besiegers. The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king. If an agreement could not be reached by 1 August, Gaveston would be allowed to return to Scarborough. The three swore an oath to guarantee his safety. After an initial meeting with the King in York, Gaveston was left in the custody of Pembroke, who escorted him south for safekeeping.

On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at Deddington in Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife. When Warwick found out about Gaveston's whereabouts, he immediately rode out to capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at Warwick. Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for justice both to Gaveston's brother-in-law Gloucester and to the University of Oxford, but to no avail. At Warwick, Gaveston was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances, before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel. On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of Lancaster's land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and beheaded him.



Scarborough Castle
        

#85  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Isabella's French family, depicted in 1315: l-r: Isabella's brothers, Charles and Philip, Isabella herself, her father, Philip IV, her brother Louis, and her uncle, Charles of Valois.



1308年1月25日,年将24岁的爱德华二世 (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327) ,将王室交给Gaveston 打理,度过英吉利海峡,前往法国迎娶尚未成年的Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358) 。

这桩婚事早在1303年就写在Treaty of Paris (1303)  中了。意在结盟的peace treaty, 却引发了1337年的英法百年战争。

伊莎贝拉是法国卡佩王朝腓力四世的女儿,查理四世的妹妹。 菲利四世三子一女,分别是 路易十世, 腓力五世,查理四世, 和法兰西的伊莎贝拉 。 路易十世的儿子夭折,菲利五世和查理四世均无嗣。 而爱德华二世与伊沙贝拉的儿子爱德华三世与舅舅查理四世血缘最近,自封法兰西国王。这个话题留给英国史之五。

被称作She-Wolf of France 的伊莎贝拉,”个性坚毅果敢,是个相当有魄力的女性”, 且才华非凡,擅长外交,美貌无比,是 "the beauty of beauties... in the kingdom if not in all Europe." 这样风华绝代的倾国美人却偏偏被嫁给同性恋国王。

据说伊莎贝拉并不介意 Piers Gaveston 皮尔斯·加弗斯顿, 且与他有良好的工作关系。

Gaveston 于1312年死于贵族之手后,爱德华二世又有了新宠Hugh Despenser the younger。此人树敌颇多,伊莎贝拉也看他不顺眼,与爱德华二世的婚姻因此濒于破裂。


zt:

Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife ofEdward II. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.

In 1308, Edward's marriage to Isabella of France proceeded. Edward crossed the English Channel to France in January, leaving Gaveston as his custos regni in charge of the kingdom in his absence. This arrangement was unusual, and involved unprecedented powers being delegated to Gaveston, backed by a specially engraved Great Seal. Edward probably hoped that the marriage would strengthen his position in Gascony and bring him much needed funds. The final negotiations, however, proved challenging: Edward and Philip IV did not like each other, and the French King drove a hard bargain over the size of Isabella's dower and the details of the administration of Edward's lands in France. As part of the agreement, Edward gave homage to Philip for the Duchy of Aquitaine and agreed to a commission to complete the implementation of the 1303 Treaty of Paris。


Isabella and Edward were finally married at Boulogne-sur-Mer on 25 January 1308. Isabella's wardrobe gives some indications of her wealth and style – she had gowns of baudekyn, velvet, taffeta and cloth, along with numerous furs; she had over 72 headdresses and coifs; she brought with her two gold crowns, gold and silver dinnerware and 419 yards of linen. At the time of her marriage, Isabella was probably about twelve and was described by Geoffrey of Paris as "the beauty of beauties... in the kingdom if not in all Europe." This description was probably not simply flattery by a chronicler, since both Isabella's father and brothers were considered very handsome men by contemporaries, and her husband was to nickname her "Isabella the Fair".Isabella was said to resemble her father, and not her mother, queen regnant of Navarre, a plump, plain woman. This indicates that Isabella was slender and pale-skinned, although the fashion at the time was for blonde, slightly full-faced women, and Isabella may well have followed this stereotype instead. Throughout her career, Isabella was noted as charming and diplomatic, with a particular skill at convincing people to follow her courses of action. Unusual for the medieval period, contemporaries also commented on her high intelligence.

Isabella arrived in England at the age of 12 during a period of growing conflict between the king and the powerful baronial factions. Her new husband was notorious for the patronage he lavished on hisfavourite, Piers Gaveston, but the queen supported Edward during these early years, forming a working relationship with Piers and using her relationship with the French monarchy to bolster her own authority and power. After the death of Gaveston at the hands of the barons in 1312, however, Edward later turned to a new favourite,Hugh Despenser the younger, and attempted to take revenge on the barons, resulting in the Despenser War and a period of internal repression across England. Isabella could not tolerate Hugh Despenser and by 1325 her marriage to Edward was at a breaking point.
        

#86  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Killer Queens - 4 - Isabella “She Wolf of France”

        

#87  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

The 1823 Gaveston monument at Blacklow Hill.


Gaveston 1312年6月丧命,但因他被教会开除,所以无法下葬。直到1315年1月,爱德华二世恳求教皇开恩,Gaveston 才在死后被赦罪,得以落土为安。


zt:

Gaveston's body was simply left behind at the site of his execution. One chronicle tells of how four shoemakers brought it to Warwick, who refused to accept it, and ordered them to take it back outside his jurisdiction. Eventually, a group ofDominican friars brought it to Oxford.[84] A proper burial could not be arranged while Gaveston was still excommunicate, and it was not until 2 January 1315, after the King had secured a papal absolution for his favourite, that he could have his body buried in an elaborate ceremony at the Dominican foundation of King's Langley Priory; the tomb is now lost. In 1823, a cross with inscription was erected at Blacklow Hill by local squire, Bertie Greathead, at the place believed to be the location of Gaveston's execution
        

#88  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Piers Gaveston 被以Thomas, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster  为首的贵族们处死后,爱德华二世敢怒不敢言,因为当时反对他的贵族势力非常强大。这个Lancaster家族的Thomas, 和爱德华二世都同是Henry III of England 的直系孙子。

爱德华二世的新宠得斯宾塞Hugh le Despenser the Younger 也同爱德华二世有亲戚关系。Hugh le Despenser the Younger 的妻子是Eleanor de Clare, 埃莉诺的外祖父是Edward I, 舅舅是Edward II. 凭借裙带关系,Hugh le Despenser the Younger 进入了王室圈子,于1318年当上爱德华二世的王室大总管royal chamberlain 。

爱德华二世对得斯宾塞父子俩言听计从,得斯宾塞权力愈来愈大,不仅飞扬跋扈,而且贪得无厌。

Hugh le Despenser the Younger 在威尔士攫取了很多土地,大大损害了很多Marcher Lords (威尔士/英格兰交界处领主)的利益,兰开斯特家族和Mortimer family 莫提摩家族都是他的死对头。Roger Mortimer 在威尔士的领地被爱德华二世转赐给德宾斯塞。Mortimer即伊莎贝拉后来的情人,两人最终联手打败爱德华二世。

Hugh le Despenser the Younger 敛财无度,连自己的亲戚也不放过。他的内兄(妻子埃莉诺的哥哥)Gilbert 在Battle of Bannockburn 战死后,原该分到两个小舅子名下的产业也被他抢到自己手中。

仗着国王的宠爱和权势,Hugh le Despenser the Younger 很快从无地的穷骑士,摇身而为坐拥大量土地的巨富。

王后伊莎贝拉也非常憎恨Hugh le Despenser the Younger ,一是因为爱德华二世被德氏所左右,二是据说德氏曾强暴过她(这只是当今一作家的推测speculation)。

Hugh le Despenser the Younger 很不得人心,从贵族到平民都对他非常痛恨。据说他的蜡像上扎满了针,人们以此witchcraft 诅咒他。这同中国的巫术倒是很相像。


zt:

Hugh le Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286 – 24 November 1326), also referred to as "the younger Despenser", was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser), and Isabella daughter of William, 9th Earl of Warwick.[3] He rose to national prominence as royal chamberlain and a favourite of Edward II of England.

When Eleanor's brother, Gilbert, was killed in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn, she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right, Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties. In just a few years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom

Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh le Despenser the younger. (Froissart wrote that "he was a sodomite.") Alison Weir, in her 2005 book Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. 



Hugh le Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. Despenser seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law. He forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, to give up her lands, cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk, and allegedly had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfatherhad killed Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a plot to kill Despenser by sticking his wax likeness with pins.

Mortimer became disaffected with his king and joined the growing opposition to Edward II and the Despensers. After the younger Despenser was granted lands belonging to him, he and the Marchers began conducting devastating raids against Despenser property in Wales.
        

#89  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Despenser War 得斯宾塞战争

一个宠臣引起的战争。

1321年8月,贵族们终于迫使爱德华二世将宠臣得斯宾塞父子流放。老得斯宾塞逃到法国 Bordeaux波尔多,得斯宾塞自己落魄到在英吉利海峡当海盗。

把德氏父子赶跑后,贵族联盟内部却分崩离析,勾心斗角。国王趁机把德氏父子召回英格兰。

爱德华二世打不过苏格兰的Robert the Bruce,但打内战对付本国贵族们倒是很有一套。1322年1月,率领Marcher lords对抗爱德华的叛军领袖Roger Mortimer 在Shrewsbury 被迫投降。莫提摩被关在伦敦塔,德宾斯塞再三施压,要爱德华二世将莫氏处死。但莫氏用计(给狱卒下药by drugging the constable),于1323年8月逃到法国。爱德华二世随后下令,不管死活都要拿下莫氏,但为时已晚。3年后,莫氏携复仇心卷土重来,取命又丧命。

爱德华二世的头号敌人,他的堂兄Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 也在1322年3月的Battle of Boroughbridge 中战败,被俘后被斩首。

至此,爱德华二世在英格兰的主要敌人或死或逃。爱德华的统治得以苟延残喘,直到1326年伊莎贝拉同莫提摩联手而来。

Zt:

Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. His father fled to Bordeaux, and Despenser became a pirate in the English Channel, "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed the sea". Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favourite. His time in exile had done nothing to quell his greed, his rashness, or his ruthlessness. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. They grew rich from their administration and corruption. This period is sometimes referred to as the "Tyranny".This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer, who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.

The Battle of Boroughbridge was a battle fought on 16 March 1322 between a group of rebellious barons and KingEdward II of England, near Boroughbridge, north-west ofYork. The culmination of a long period of antagonism between the King and Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his most powerful subject, it resulted in Lancaster's defeat and execution. This allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority, and hold on to power for another five years.
        

#90  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Despenser War得斯宾塞战争后,德氏更受爱德华青睐,亲信加断背的身份不可撼动。接下来的四年,爱德华二世和德氏在英格兰实施残酷统治,对叛乱者全面报复,没收领地,关押监禁,处决惩罚,甚至加害其家庭人员,包括妇女老者。伊莎贝拉对此甚为不满,因为有些受害的遗孀就是她的朋友。

这里特别提一下Roger Mortimer 的妻子 Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville 。这位贵妇真是太倒霉了。她丈夫逃到法国后,她和几个孩子都被爱德华二世关押,每天只有一马克生活费。后来莫提摩因篡权罪被处死后,做为traitor的妻子,她和她的孩子们又被软禁。直到1336年,爱德华三世才彻底赦免她,并将她的土地全部归还。

伊莎贝拉同德氏的关系持续恶化。德氏父子拒绝归还欠她的债务和城堡。有些作者言之凿凿,说德氏企图性侵王后有证可查。王后与国王之间也罅隙渐深。1322年3月爱德华二世在Boroughbridge 一战打败堂兄Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster 之后,竟然没有将任何战利品赠与王后。

1322年秋,爱德华二世再次发兵打苏格兰,王后同行。但英军失利后,爱德华二世听从德氏,弃王后于危境,不救不援,只管自己遁退。幸好王后有侍从们相助,才得以逃生,但她的两位侍女却不幸丧命。 经此劫难,伊莎贝拉对德氏的憎恶已转为仇恨,对爱德华二世几乎义断情绝。

1324年末,英格兰与伊莎贝拉的母国法兰西关系又紧张起来。爱德华二世和德氏父子转嫁仇恨。王后的所有田产遭没收,她所有的法国侍从被监禁,更有甚者,年幼的孩子们也被迫离开母亲,由德氏监护。 The last straw broke the camel's back。


zt:

Hugh Despenser the younger was now firmly ensconced as Edward's new favourite and lover, and together over the next four years Edward and the Despensers imposed a harsh rule over England, a "sweeping revenge" characterised by land confiscation, large-scale imprisonment, executions and the punishment of extended family members, including women and the elderly. This was condemned by contemporary chroniclers, and is felt to have caused concern to Isabella as well;some of those widows being persecuted included her friends. 


As a result of her husband's insurrection against King Edward II of England, Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville ,was imprisoned in Skipton Castle for two years. Following the execution of her husband in 1330 for usurping power in England, Joan was once more taken into custody. In 1336, her lands were restored to her after she received a full pardon for her late husband's crimes from Edward II's son and successor, Edward III of England.

Isabella's relationship with Despenser the younger continued to deteriorate; the Despensers refused to pay her monies owed to her, or return her castles at Marlborough andDevizes. Indeed, various authors have suggested that there is evidence that Hugh Despenser the younger may have attempted to assault Isabella herself in some fashion. Certainly, immediately after the battle of Boroughbridge, Edward began to be markedly less generous in his gifts towards Isabella, and none of the spoils of the war were awarded to her. Worse still, later in the year Isabella was caught up in the failure of another of Edward's campaigns in Scotland, in a way that permanently poisoned her relationship with both Edward and the Despensers.

Isabella and Edward had travelled north together at the start of the autumn campaign; before the disastrous battle of Old Byland, Edward had ridden south, apparently to raise more men, sending Isabella east to Tynemouth Priory. With the Scottish army marching south, Isabella expressed considerable concern about her personal safety and requested assistance from Edward. Her husband initially proposed sending Despenser forces to secure her, but Isabella rejected this outright, instead requesting friendly troops. Rapidly retreating south with the Despensers, Edward failed to grip the situation, with the result that Isabella found herself and her household cut off from the south by the Scottish army, with the coastline patrolled by Flemish naval forces allied to the Scots. The situation was precarious and Isabella was forced to use a group of squires from her personal retinue to hold off the advancing army whilst other of her knights commandeered a ship; the fighting continued as Isabella and her household retreated onto the vessel, resulting in the death of two of her ladies-in-waiting. Once aboard, Isabella evaded the Flemish navy, landing further south and making her way to York. Isabella was furious, both with Edward for, from her perspective, abandoning her to the Scots, and with Despensers for convincing Edward to retreat rather than sending help. For his part, Edward blamed Lewis de Beaumont, the Bishop of Durham and an ally of Isabella, for the fiasco.

At the end of 1324, as tensions grew with Isabella's homeland of France, Edward and the Despensers confiscated all of Isabella's lands, took over the running of her household and arrested and imprisoned all of her French staff. Isabella's youngest children were removed from her and placed into the custody of the Despensers. At this point, Isabella appears to have realised that any hope of working with Edward was effectively over and begun to consider radical solutions.
        

#91  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

An imaginative medieval interpretation of Edward's arrest by Isabella, seen watching from the right.


1325年,伊莎贝拉的哥哥法王查理四世没收了爱德华二世在法国的财产。她返回法国,起初是代表英王负责两国的和平条约谈判。但众多反爱德华的贵族们都聚到了她身边。其中之一就是逃亡到法国的Roger Mortimer。 莫提摩与伊莎贝拉一拍即合,既是同志又是情人,计划反叛。据说德氏试图贿赂法国人暗杀伊莎贝拉。

1326年10月, 莫提摩和伊莎贝拉联手进攻英格兰。 起初只是1500人左右的雇佣军,但沿途大多数贵族都聚到他们旗下,因为憎恨德氏。支持爱德华二世的贵族为数甚少。德氏携带大量金银财宝同国王弃伦敦西逃,路上众叛亲离,两人在11月中被俘。被囚的爱德华二世被迫让位于儿子爱德华三世。

Hugh le Despenser the younger 11月24日在莫提摩和王后面前受审,然后被处以残忍的极刑,莫提摩/王后和他们的支持者们边看边宴。Hugh le Despenser the younger 分头逃跑的父亲老德斯宾塞Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester在10月被俘后已被处绞刑。

zt:

When her brother, King Charles IV of France, seized Edward's French possessions in 1325, she returned to France, initially as a delegate of the King charged with negotiating a peace treaty between the two nations. However, her presence in France became a focal point for the many nobles opposed to Edward's reign. Isabella gathered an army to oppose Edward, in alliance with Roger Mortimer, whom she took as a lover. Isabella and Mortimer returned to England with a mercenary army, seizing the country in a lightning campaign. The Despensers were executed and Edward was forced to abdicate – his eventual fate and possible murder remains of considerable historical debate. Isabella ruled as regent until 1330, when her son,Edward deposed Mortimer in turn and ruled directly in his own right.

Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused. The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizeable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial.

Hugh le Despenser the younger tried to starve himself before his trial,[9] but he did face trial on 24 November 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. In Froissart's account of the execution, Despenser was then tied to a ladder, and —in full view of the crowd— had his genitals sliced off and burned (in his still-conscious sight) then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Froissart (or rather Jean le Bel's chronicle, on which he relied) is the only source to describe castration, where all other contemporary accounts have Despenser quartered, hanged, and beheaded.
        

#92  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
爱德华二世虽然被俘了,但名义上仍是英格兰的合法国王和伊莎贝拉的合法丈夫。

做为权宜之计,爱德华二世暂由Henry of Lancaster (其兄Thomas 被爱德华二世处死)看管。局势仍相当紧张,伊莎贝拉生怕爱德华的死党反扑。她召集贵族和教会人士组成委员会,商讨如何处置爱德华。委员会决定,应当将爱德华二世合法废黜,并终身软禁。

1327年1月,由王后和莫提摩支持者掌控的英格兰国会通过了委员会的决议。国会指出,爱德华二世的个人过失给王国带来了灾难,他根本不是做国王那块料,因此由14岁的爱德华王子取代不称职的父亲,成为爱德华三世Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) ,并指定他的母亲伊莎贝拉为摄政者。

之后,贵族代表团去说服爱德华二世放弃王位,说他如果拒绝,国会就要另选他人做国王。爱德华二世含泪同意。1327年2月2日,爱德华三世在西敏寺加冕。 但母后伊莎贝拉的执政宝座依然充满变数,因为罢免爱德华二世的法律依据实在不堪一击。这种局势随时都会逆转,而爱德华二世是出名的复仇君王。

这是英格兰历史上国王第一次被废黜。 后世对此看法不一,有的说这是宪政革命,而有的则认为这是一场闹剧,无异于宫廷政变。

1173年,亨利二世软禁王后埃莉诺。150多年后的1326年,王后伊莎贝拉关押国王爱德华二世。但爱德华二世不只是被囚禁,伊莎贝拉的命运几年后也变了风向。


zt:

As an interim measure, Edward II was held in the custody of Henry of Lancaster, who surrendered Edward's Great Seal to Isabella.The situation remained tense, however; Isabella was clearly concerned about Edward's supporters staging a counter-coup, and in November she seized the Tower of London, appointed one of her supporters as mayor and convened a council of nobles and churchmen in Wallingford to discuss the fate of Edward.The council concluded that Edward would be legally deposed and placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. This was then confirmed at the Parliament of England, dominated by Isabella and Mortimer's followers. The session was held in January 1327, with Isabella's case being led by her supporter Adam Orleton, Bishop of Hereford. Isabella's son, Prince Edward, was confirmed as Edward III, with his mother appointed regent.Isabella's position was still precarious, as the legal basis for deposing Edward was minimal and many lawyers of the day maintained that Edward was still the rightful king, regardless of the declaration of the Parliament. The situation could be reversed at any moment and Edward was known to be a vengeful ruler.

On 12 January the leading barons and clergy agreed that Edward II should be removed and replaced by his son. The following day it was presented to an assembly of the barons, where it was argued that Edward's weak leadership and personal faults had led the kingdom into disaster, and that he was incompetent to lead the country.

Shortly after this, a representative delegation of barons, clergy and knights was sent to Kenilworth to speak to the King. On 20 January 1327, Henry of Lancaster and the bishops of Winchester and Lincoln met privately with Edward in the castle. They informed Edward that if he were to resign as monarch, his son Prince Edward would succeed him, but if he failed to do so, his son might be disinherited as well, and the crown given to an alternative candidate. In tears, Edward agreed to abdicate, and on 21 January, Sir William Trussell, representing the kingdom as a whole, withdrew his homage and formally ended Edward's reign. A proclamation was sent to London, announcing that Edward, now known just as Edward of Caernarvon, had freely resigned his kingdom and that Prince Edward would succeed him. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 2 February 1327.
        

#93  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Edward II's tomb at Gloucester Cathedral


1327年4月5日左右,爱德华二世被转到英格兰西南部威尔士边境处的Gloucestershire郡,囚禁于Berkeley Castle 伯克莱城堡,由莫提摩的brother-in-law Thomas Berkeley 负责看守,以防反对新政府的势力劫持爱德华二世。至于狱中待遇如何,后人只能推测。有一首诗Lament of Edward II, 曾被认为是爱德华狱中所作,但也有学者对此质疑。

“Have mercy, God. Help me, oh angels dear.
I long to hear your voice that speaks to me.
Your sweet and blissful words I long to hear.
My heart is cold, my soul is all torment.
Oh Lord, I need your love, your helping hand. ”

爱德华二世企盼的上帝和天使没有现身,那些营救策划也未能付诸行动,厄运终于降临。1327年9月23日,爱德华三世和伊莎贝拉被告知,爱德华二世于21日夜晚死于Berkeley Castle,死因是"fatal accident".

爱德华二世的死因,以及伊莎贝拉在其中所扮演的角色,后世莫衷一是。

坊间传说之一,杀手将烧得通红的铁棍插入爱德华二世肛门中,爱德华惨叫而死,但这只是传说legend而已,并没有任何根据。还有一种说法,爱德华二世并没有死,而是从伯克莱城堡逃走了,后来隐名埋姓住在欧洲某地,也有说逃到罗马受教皇保护,这些也都只是谣言rumor。现在史学家通常认为,爱德华二世的确死于伯克莱城堡,或被伊莎贝拉下令处死,或因狱中健康恶化而病卒。

爱德华二世葬于Gloucester Cathedral,装有他心脏的骨灰盒交给了伊莎贝拉。31年后,根据伊莎贝拉的要求,爱德华二世的心脏与身穿结婚斗篷的她同葬于伦敦。


zt:


Those opposed to the new government began to make plans to free Edward, and Roger Mortimer decided to move Edward to the more secure location of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, where the former King arrived around 5 April 1327. Once at the castle, Edward was kept in the custody of Mortimer's brother-in-law, Thomas Berkeley, and John Maltravers, who were given £5 a day for Edward's maintenance. It is unclear how well cared for Edward was; the records show luxury goods being bought on his behalf, but some chroniclers suggest that he was often mistreated. A poem, the Lament of Edward II, was once thought to have been written by Edward during his imprisonment, although modern scholarship has cast doubt on this.

On 23 September Edward III was informed that his father had died at Berkeley Castle during the night of 21 September. Most historians agree that Edward II did die at Berkeley on that date, although there is a minority view, described below, that he died much later. Edward's death was, as Mark Ormrod notes, "suspiciously timely", as it simplified Mortimer's political problems considerably, and most historians believe that Edward probably was murdered on the orders of the new regime, although it is impossible to be certain. Several of the individuals suspected of involvement in the death, including Sir Thomas Gurney, Maltravers and William Ockley, later fled. If Edward did die from natural causes, his death may have been hastened by depression following his imprisonment.

Edward II's subsequent fate, and Isabella's role in it, remains hotly contested by historians. The minimally agreed version of events is that Isabella and Mortimer had Edward moved from Kenilworth Castle in the Midlands to the safer location of Berkeley Castle in the Welsh borders, where he was put into the custody of Lord Berkeley. On 23 September, Isabella and Edward III were informed by messenger that Edward had died whilst imprisoned at the castle, because of a "fatal accident". Edward's body was apparently buried at Gloucester Cathedral, with his heart being given in a casket to Isabella. After the funeral, there were rumours for many years that Edward had survived and was really alive somewhere in Europe, some of which were captured in the famous Fieschi Letter written in the 1340s, although no concrete evidence ever emerged to support the allegations. There are, however, various historical interpretations of the events surrounding this basic sequence of events.

According to legend, Isabella and Mortimer famously plotted to murder Edward in such a way as not to draw blame on themselves, sending a famous order (in Latin: Eduardum occidere nolite timere bonum est) which, depending on where the comma was inserted, could mean either "Do not be afraid to kill Edward; it is good" or "Do not kill Edward; it is good to fear". In actuality, there is little evidence of anyone deciding to have Edward assassinated, and none whatsoever of the note having been written. Similarly, accounts of Edward being killed with a red-hot poker have no strong contemporary sources to support them. The conventional 20th-century view has been that Edward did die at Berkeley Castle, either murdered on Isabella's orders or of ill-health brought on by his captivity, and that subsequent accounts of his survival were simply rumours, similar to those that surrounded Joan of Arc and other near contemporaries after their deaths.


——————————————————————————————————————————————

EDWARD II

LAMENT OF THE KING


The sun is up. The day is warm and bright.
So tender; blissful spring has come anew.
Alas, my heart is cold. I see no light.
My friend, belov’d, oh why did death take you
Away from me and separate our paths?
I am a king no more; so sad but true.
This is my fate. I feel an inward wrath.
Oh God, are there no angels who do care,
No helpful guardians of my fate aware?

Bannockburn, name of bane and name of doom.
Deep engraved in my heart: disgrace and shame.
Those brave and great men fell; all killed too soon.
The fault is mine. The king, he is to blame.
In vain I do lament the step I took.
The battle’s lost and England is laid low.
The peers despise me; Edward II, a crook.
They seek to bring him down, their deadly foe.
My life’s forfeited; fate has cast a pall.
My death’s decided; doom will soon befall.

I cannot hear the angels’ soothing voice.
I do not sense a god comforting me.
I cannot see the light of Paradise.
Nor do I know how to escape and flee.
I only hear the voice of my belov’d;
My dearest friend, lost to the realm of death.
I hear his tender voice just from afar.
He calls my name; tempts me to join his path.
Shall I give in to his enticing words?
I feel I must for my sad life – it hurts.

The sun is up. The day is warm and bright.
So tender; blissful spring has come anew.
But all I see is everlasting night.
The shadows haunt me; charge my memory.
So many years ago I did rejoice;
Was happy with my love Piers Gaveston.
All that remain’d is his so distant voice.
I cling to it; I seek its soothing sound.
Is there a hope for me, the battered king?
Where are those angels that sweet Psalters sing?

I wish for one more chance, one happy day.
I wish for my spoilt life to shift and change.
I fold my hands; I speak to you and pray.
The angels only know how to arrange
A wondrous change. Oh Lord, I beseech thee.
Have mercy, God. Help me, oh angels dear.
I long to hear your voice that speaks to me.
Your sweet and blissful words I long to hear.
My heart is cold, my soul is all torment.
Oh Lord, I need your love, your helping hand.
        

#94  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Gloucester Cathedral

zt:

格洛斯特座堂(Gloucester Cathedral)是英国的一座教堂,位于英格兰格洛斯特的市区北部,邻近塞文河。格洛斯特座堂的前身是一座献给圣彼得的修道院,始建于678年或679年(后由亨利八世解散)。现在的教堂建筑则是修建于1089年至1499年期间,是罗曼式建筑。建筑最长处达130米,宽44米,中央的高塔则高达69米。塔上有4个小的尖塔。

Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn. It originated in 678 or 679 with the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter (dissolved by King Henry VIII).

(Robert Curthose, eldest son of William the Conqueror, was also buried at Gloucester Cathedral)


Gloucester Cathedral Documentary



Harry Potter and Gloucester Cathedral
        

#95  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

The Seizure of Roger de Mortimer in Nottingham Castle, 19th October 1330 undated


1327年1月废黜爱德华二世后,14岁的爱德华三世年纪尚幼,伊莎贝拉和莫提摩二人大权在握。
 
没收的田产被归还后,伊莎贝拉已相当富有,但她却不满足,greed is part of human nature and it has no limits. 刚执政的头几个月,她就把近1万2千英镑划到自己名下。当发现爱德华二世的国库里还有6万英镑,她随即又奖励自己2万英镑,还声称这笔钱是拿去归还外债。她还攫取土地,成为英格兰最大的大地主之一。爱德华三世1328年迎娶王后Philippa of Hainault. 按当时习俗,伊莎贝拉应当把她陪嫁过来的地产(dower lands) 转给儿媳,但伊莎贝拉哪里肯。
 
莫提摩起先还比较收敛,但后来也开始大肆掠夺土地,主要在英格兰和苏格兰交界地带(the Marcher territories)。他的野心令众人惶惶,连他自己的儿子Geoffrey 都讥笑他为”the king of folly 愚蠢之王”。人心不足蛇吞象, “Greed is a bottomless pit which exhausts the person in an endless effort to satisfy the need without ever reaching satisfaction”.
 
1327年8月,第一次出征的爱德华三世由莫提摩陪伴,北伐苏格兰,但在Battle of Stanhope Park中吃了败仗。1328年,两国签订了和平协约Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton ,英格兰承认苏格兰完全独立,第一次苏格兰独立战争正式结束。莫提摩因此颜面大失,更加不得人心。
 
废黜了宠信佞臣的国王,取而代之的伊/莫二人却贪财无能。英格兰真是出了油锅又进火坑jumping from the frying pan into the fire。一些曾经支持伊/莫的贵族,包括Henry of Lancaster和Edmund, Earl of Kent(爱德华二世的同父异母弟弟),开始倒向爱德华三世。
 
1330年3月,反对莫提摩的Edmund, Earl of Kent 被处死。在Henry of Lancaster 的说服下,爱德华三世终于决定铲除莫提摩, 独立执政。
 

zt:

Isabella's reign as regent lasted only four years, before the fragile political alliance that had brought her and Mortimer to power disintegrated. 1328 saw the marriage of Isabella's son, Edward III to Philippa of Hainault, as agreed before the invasion of 1326; the lavish ceremony was held in London to popular acclaim.Isabella and Mortimer had already begun a trend that continued over the next few years, in starting to accumulate huge wealth. With her lands restored to her, Isabella was already exceptionally rich, but she began to accumulate yet more. Within the first few weeks, Isabella had granted herself almost £12,000; finding that Edward's royal treasury contained £60,000, a rapid period of celebratory spending then ensued. Isabella soon awarded herself another £20,000, allegedly to pay off foreign debts.  At Prince Edward's coronation, Isabella then extended her land holdings from a value of £4,400 each year to the huge sum of £13,333, making her one of the largest landowners in the kingdom. Isabella also refused to hand over her dower lands to Philippa after her marriage to Edward III, in contravention of usual custom. Isabella's lavish lifestyle matched her new incomes. Mortimer, as her lover and effective first minister, after a restrained beginning, also began to accumulate lands and titles at a tremendous rate, particularly in the Marcher territories.
 
Rich estates and offices of profit and power were now heaped on Mortimer. He was made constable of Wallingford Castle and in September 1328 he was created Earl of March. However, although in military terms he was far more competent than the Despensers, his ambition was troubling to all. His own son Geoffrey, the only one to survive into old age, mocked him as "the king of folly." During his short time as ruler of England he took over the lordships of Denbigh, Oswestry, and Clun (the first of which belonged to Despenser, the latter two had been the Earl of Arundel's). He was also granted the marcher lordship of Montgomery by the queen
  
The jealousy and anger of many nobles were aroused by Mortimer's use of power. Henry, Earl of Lancaster, one of the principals behind Edward II's deposition, tried to overthrow Mortimer, but the action was ineffective as the young king passively stood by. Then, in March 1330, Mortimer ordered the execution of Edmund, Earl of Kent, the half-brother of Edward II. After this execution Henry Lancaster prevailed1 upon the young king, Edward III, to assert his independence.
        

#96  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
到了1330年中,伊/莫政权风雨飘摇,二人移住峭壁之上易守难攻的Nottingham Castle 诺丁汉城堡。

1330年10月19日晚,爱德华三世的心腹Montague率23人经秘密通道,突袭城堡主楼,抓获了措手不及的莫提摩。伊莎贝拉扑到爱德华三世脚下,求儿子饶莫提摩一命, "Fair son, have pity on gentle Mortimer!"   但爱德华三世只对母亲网开一面。 当时爱德华三世Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377)将满18岁。
 
1330年11月29日,莫提摩以篡权罪在泰伯恩行刑场 Tyburn 被处绞刑。

Tyburn 从前是个小村子, 在今伦敦大理石拱门(Marble Arch) 附近。很多世纪,Tyburn 等同于capital punishment,就如中国从前的法场北京菜市口和上海龙华。 1661年奥利弗·克伦威尔(Oliver Cromwell 死后,尸体也挂在"Tyburn Tree"上。


The "Tyburn Tree"


zt:

Shortly before his 18th birthday, King Edward III, with the help of a few trusted companions, led by Sir William Montagu, staged a coup d'état at Nottingham Castle (19 October 1330) against his mother Isabella of France, and her lover, Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Both were acting as Regents during Edward's minority following their murder of his father Edward II at Berkeley Castle. William Montigu and his companions, were accompanied by William Eland, castellan and overseer of Mortimer's castle, who knew the location of a secret tunnel which would take them up to a locked door higher up in the castle to a normally locked door. In the dark of night on 19 October 1330, Montagu and his companions entered the tunnel, climbed up to the door, which had now been unlocked either by Edward III or a trusted servant, overpowered Mortimer, killing Mortimer's personal guards. Mortimer was bound and gagged, led out of the tunnel and arrested, along with Queen Mother Isabella. Mortimer was sent to theTower of London, and hanged a month later. Isabella of France was forced into retirement at Castle Rising Castle. With this dramatic event, the personal reign of Edward began.

Tyburn was a village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch in present-day London. It took its name from theTyburn Brook, a tributary of the River Westbourne. The name Tyburn, from Teo Bourne meaning 'boundary stream',[1] is quite widely occurring, and the Tyburn Brook should not be confused with the better known River Tyburn, which is the next tributary of the River Thames to the east of the Westbourne.

For many centuries, the name Tyburn was synonymous with capital punishment, it having been the principal place for execution of London criminals and convicted traitors, including many religious martyrs.
        

#97  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Nottingham Castle – The Castle Gate Hous

zt:

Nottingham Castle is a castle in Nottingham, England. It is located in a commanding position on a natural promontory known as "Castle Rock", with cliffs 130 feet (40 m) high to the south and west. In the Middle Ages it was a major royal fortress and occasional royal residence.

诺丁汉城(Nottingham Castle)是英国的一座城堡,位于英格兰诺丁汉。在中世纪时,这座城堡曾经是一座大型皇家城堡,也是皇室不定期的住所。在16世纪时,诺丁汉城严重受损。在1831年,诺丁汉城被暴徒烧毁。在现在诺丁汉城仍有部分建筑保留,并且作为博物馆对公众开放。

After the restoration of Charles II in 1660, the present 'Ducal Mansion' was built by Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle between 1674 and 1679 on the foundations of the previous structure. Despite the destruction of the keep and fortifications of the upper bailey, some rock cut cellars and medieval pointed arches survive beneath the mansion, together with a long passage to the bottom of the rock, commonly known as Mortimer's Hole, through which guided tours take place, starting at the Castle and ending at Brewhouse Yard.


Nottingham Castle and museum
        

#98  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Castle Rising, Norfolk, England

身为母后的伊莎贝拉,只在温莎城堡Windsor Castle被软禁了两年,之后就迁到她自己在Norfolk诺福克的城堡Castle Rising, 过着养尊处优的贵族生活,还曾被儿子派到法国参与和平谈判。

1358年8月22日,曾经的Isabella the Fair 美人伊莎贝拉(1295 – 22 August 1358) ,后世称为She-Wolf of France 法兰西母狼的她,于63岁离世。Castle Rising传给她心爱的孙子黑太子爱德华。

Castle Rising 是英格兰幽灵城堡(haunted castles)之一。传说伊莎贝拉死后,在夜晚,一只白狼会向月而嚎。

文学作品中的伊莎贝拉通常集美丽与邪恶于一身。 Christopher Marlowe 1592年创作了剧本《Edward II 爱德华二世》。18世纪英国诗人Thomas Gray 别出心裁,在他1757年的长诗《The Bard 吟游诗人》中,将Marlowe 剧中的伊莎贝拉,与莎翁《Henry VI 亨利六世》剧中的Margaret of Anjou, 捏合成了伊莎贝拉She-Wolf of France,自此伊莎贝拉成了法兰西母狼。而亨利六世的王后玛格丽特,与She-Wolf of France这个称号也很匹配,此为后话,留待玫瑰战争再提。

She-wolf of France, with unrelenting fangs,
That tear'st the bowels of thy mangled mate,
----from The Bard by Thomas Gray

Richard Plantagenet (Duke of Gloucester). 
She-wolf of France, but worse than wolves of France, 
Whose tongue more poisons than the adder's tooth! 
--- from Henry VI by Shakespeare


zt:

After the coup, Isabella was initially transferred to Berkhamsted Castle, and then held under house arrest at Windsor Castle until 1332, when she then moved back to her own Castle Rising in Norfolk. Agnes Strickland, a Victorian historian, argued that Isabella suffered from occasional fits of madness during this period but modern interpretations suggest, at worst, a nervous breakdown following the death of her lover. Isabella remained extremely wealthy; despite being required to surrender most of her lands after losing power, in 1331 she was reassigned a yearly income of £3000, which increased to £4000 by 1337. She lived an expensive lifestyle in Norfolk, including minstrels, huntsmen, grooms and other luxuries, and was soon travelling again around England. In 1342, there were suggestions that she might travel to Paris to take part in peace negotiations, but eventually this plan was quashed. She was also appointed to negotiate with France in 1348 and was involved in the negotiations with Charles II of Navarre in 1358.

Queen Isabella appeared with a major role in Christopher Marlowe's playEdward II (c. 1592) and thereafter has been frequently used as a character in plays, books, and films, often portrayed as beautiful but manipulative or wicked. Thomas Gray, the 18th-century poet, combined Marlowe's depiction of Isabella with William Shakespeare's description of Margaret of Anjou (the wife of Henry VI) as the "She-Wolf of France", to produce the anti-French poem The Bard (1757), in which Isabella rips apart the bowels of Edward II with her "unrelenting fangs". The "She-Wolf" epithet stuck, and Bertolt Brecht re-used it in The Life of Edward II of England(1923).
        

#99  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
(Haunted) Castle Rising, Norfolk, England

        

#100  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
英格兰天璜贵胄的前世后代:

1. Isabella of France

伊莎贝拉的血缘可追溯到英格兰的最后一个撒克逊国王Harold Godwinson.

1066年10月黑斯廷斯战役Battle of Hastings 后,征服者威廉击败英格兰军队,哈罗德二世战死。哈罗德的母亲Gytha Thorkelsdóttir 带着哈罗德的妻子Edith Swannesha 和孩子,到丹麦投靠她的弟弟---丹麦国王Sweyn II of Denmark。 哈罗德二世的女儿Gythia of Wessex 后来嫁给了基辅大公弗拉基米尔·莫诺马赫 Владимир Мономах,而伊莎贝拉就是Gythia 的后代的后代。不过,Gythia是否远嫁俄国皇族,尚有争议。


zt:

Isabella is descended from Gytha of Wessex through King Andrew II of Hungary and thus brought the bloodline of the last Saxon King of England, Harold Godwinson, back into the English Royal family.

Gytha of Wessex (died 1098 or 1107) (Old English: Gȳe) was one of several daughters of Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, by his consort, Edith Swannesha.
        



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