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#41  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales


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Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales and Lady of Snowdon (1252 – 19 June 1282) was a daughter of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England. She was also the second woman who can be shown to have used the title Princess of Wales.

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爱德华一世有两个借口攻打卢埃林。 其一是卢埃林娶了叛军首领Simon de Montfort的女儿埃莉诺, 虽然埃莉诺是爱德华一世的表妹。
在英格兰第二次伯爵战争中,亨利三世于Battle of Lewes 失利并被俘。 之后, 卢埃林与西蒙。得蒙福尔谈判,通过支付三万马克换取永久和平,于6/22/1265 签订了Treaty of Pipton, 与西蒙结为同盟。西蒙并将幼女Eleanor de Montfort许配给卢埃林。但西蒙不久即死于Battle of Evesham, 其时埃莉诺年仅13岁。

Battle of Evesham之后,亨利三世复位。 西蒙夫人,即Eleanor of England(约翰王之女,亨利三世之妹)携女儿Eleanor de Montfort逃亡法国。

而卢埃林并未因西蒙失势而取消婚约,这自然冒犯了爱德华一世。1275年, 卢埃林与埃莉诺married by proxy (由代理人代表缺席的卢埃林)。

代理婚礼非常有名的一例是拿破仑与第二任妻子 Marie Louise 1810年3月11日的盛大proxy wedding. 直到1810年3月27日两人才首次见面。Marie said to Napoleon, "You are much better-looking than your portrait." 当然两人于4月1日举行了civil wedding.

爱德华一世起先反对表妹Eleanor de Montfort与卢埃林的婚事。代理婚礼后,埃莉诺由哥哥 Amaury 陪同,从法国走水路驶往威尔士,避免走陆路经过英格兰。但在 Isles of Scilly 锡利群岛附近,还是被爱德华一世雇用的海盗俘获了。埃莉诺被囚禁在温莎城堡近三年。 1277年, 卢埃林做出让步, 与爱德华一世签订了Treaty of Aberconwy 。1278年埃莉诺获释,并与卢埃林在Worcester Cathedral 举行婚礼,爱德华一世出席婚礼。 而她的哥哥Amaury 一直被关押到1282年4 月,才获释返法国,兄妹再未见面。埃莉诺也于那年6月难产而死。


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In England, Simon de Montfort (the Younger) defeated the king's supporters at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, capturing the king and Prince Edward. Llywelyn began negotiations with de Montfort, and in 1265, offered him 30,000 marks in exchange for a permanent peace, in which Llywelyn's right to rule Wales would be acknowledged. The Treaty of Pipton, 22 June 1265, established an alliance between Llywelyn and de Montfort, but the very favourable terms given to Llywelyn in this treaty were an indication of de Montfort's weakening position. De Montfort was to die at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, a battle in which Llywelyn took no part.

When Eleanor was thirteen years old, her father Earl Simon and brother Lord Henry were killed at the Battle of Evesham (4 August 1265). According to the chroniclers, Nicholas Trivet, William Rishanger and others, Earl Simon had earlier made an alliance with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, whereby it was agreed that Llywelyn and Eleanor would marry. After Earl Simon's death, his family was forced to flee the Kingdom of England: Countess Eleanor took her daughter to the safety of the Dominican nunnery at Montargis, France, a Montfort foundation.

Llywelyn also made an enemy of King Edward by continuing to ally himself with the family of Simon de Montfort, even though their power was now greatly reduced. Llywelyn sought to marry Eleanor de Montfort, born in 1252, Simon de Montfort's daughter. They were married by proxy in 1275, but King Edward took exception to the marriage, in part because Eleanor was his first cousin: her mother was Eleanor of England, daughter of King John and princess of the House of Plantagenet. When Eleanor sailed from France to meet Llywelyn, Edward hired pirates to seize her ship and she was imprisoned at Windsor Castle until Llywelyn made certain concessions.
        

#42  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
爱德华一世出兵威尔士的另一个借口是,卢埃林拒绝朝见英王拒绝进贡。

1274年,卢埃林的弟弟Dafydd 与 Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys Wenwynwyn 及其儿子 Owain 联手,密谋暗害卢埃林。 Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn 的父亲被Llywelyn the Great 驱逐出自己的领地,于流亡中丧命。 Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn 一直支持英格兰国王,包括后来爱德华一世入侵威尔士。

刺杀未遂之后, Dafydd 和 Gruffudd 逃到英格兰,在爱德华一世的庇护下,袭击卢埃林的领地。

1275年爱德华一世招卢埃林去Chester朝见他,遭到拒绝。 卢埃林不去的另一原因是怕其中有诈,不想赴鸿门宴。


zt:

In early 1274, there was a plot by Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd, and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys Wenwynwyn and his son, Owain, to kill Llywelyn. Dafydd was with Llywelyn at the time, and it was arranged that Owain would come with armed men on 2 February to carry out the assassination; however, he was prevented by a snowstorm. Llywelyn did not discover the full details of the plot until Owain confessed to the Bishop of Bangor. He said that the intention had been to make Dafydd prince of Gwynedd, and that Dafydd would reward Gruffudd with lands. Dafydd and Gruffudd fled to England where they were maintained by the king and carried out raids on Llywelyn's lands, increasing Llywelyn's resentment. When Edward called Llywelyn to Chester in 1275 to pay homage, Llywelyn refused to attend.
        

#43  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
卢埃林不仅娶叛军首领之女为妻,还拒绝朝见英王拒绝进贡。这不是反了么? 我爱德华一世岂能容你如此冒犯!1276年,爱德华一世大举进犯威尔士。卢埃林哪里是对手,加上妻子埃莉诺被扣,遂屈膝让步,于1277年签订了前面提到的 Treaty of Aberconwy。 如此,妻子获释,威尔士也暂得和平。 但代价极大。 卢埃林的领地大大缩小。协约并说,卢埃林去世后,威尔士将失去自主权。这实质上是亡国协约。

但到了1282年,许多原先曾支持爱德华一世的威尔士贵族对英格兰的勒索大为不满。为首的便是曾预谋刺杀哥哥卢埃林的Dafydd。那年的Palm Sunday(棕枝主日),Dafydd 率兵进攻英军,威尔士贵族群起响应,不少英军城堡受到攻击,或被攻取,或被火烧。

卢埃林本来并未参与密谋叛乱,但他觉得支持弟弟抗英,是义不容辞的责任。1282年6月19日爱妻埃莉诺不幸难产而亡, 女儿Gwenllian 幸存。 国仇家难恨与愁。

爱德华一世再次大军压境。 坎特伯雷大主教出面斡旋,只要卢埃林投降,便可在英格兰获封大片庄园。但卢埃林断然拒绝苟存于世,选择与威尔士祖先留下的斯土斯民同生死。


Zt:

In 1276, Edward declared Llewelyn a rebel and gathered an enormous army to march against him. By the summer of 1277, Edward's forces had reached the heart of Gwynedd. Edward's men confiscated the harvest in Anglesey, which deprived Llewelyn and his men of food, forcing Llewelyn to surrender.

The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside. The treaty granted peace between the two, but also essentially guaranteed that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death and represented the completion of the first stage of the Conquest of Wales by Edward I.

By early 1282, many of the lesser princes who had supported Edward against Llywelyn in 1277 were becoming disillusioned with the exactions of the royal officers. On Palm Sunday that year, Dafydd ap Gruffudd attacked the English at Hawarden Castle and then laid siege to Rhuddlan. The revolt quickly spread to other parts of Wales, with Aberystwyth castle captured and burnt and rebellion in Ystrad Tywi in south Wales, also inspired by Dafydd according to the annals, where Carreg Cennen castle was captured.

Llywelyn, according to a letter he sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury John Peckham, was not involved in the planning of the revolt. He felt obliged, however, to support his brother and a war began for which the Welsh were ill-prepared. Personal tragedy also struck him at this time when, on or about 19 June 1282, his wife Eleanor de Montfort, died shortly after giving birth to their daughter Gwenllian.

Events followed a similar pattern to 1277, with Edward's forces capturing Gwynedd Is Conwy, Anglesey and taking the harvest. The force occupying Anglesey were defeated, however, when trying to cross to the mainland in the Battle of Moel-y-don. The Archbishop of Canterbury tried mediating between Llywelyn and Edward, and Llywelyn was offered a large estate in England if he would surrender Wales to Edward, while Dafydd was to go on crusade and not return without the king's permission. In an emotional reply, which has been compared to the Declaration of Arbroath, Llywelyn said he would not abandon the people whom his ancestors had protected since "the days of Kamber son of Brutus". The offer was refused.
        

#44  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
根据狄更斯所讲,威尔士山民原本热情好客,但英格兰人到了威尔士,傲慢无礼,俨然以主人的姿态凌驾于威尔士人之上,令威尔士人自尊受挫。加上当时有传言,说是老梅林(威尔士神话传说中的魔术师和先知)曾预言,当英国钱币变成圆形时, 一个威尔士王子就会在伦敦加冕。 爱德华一世那时正好刚提倡圆形硬币。 于是威尔士人以为时机已到,揭竿而起。


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But the Welsh, although they were naturally a gentle, quiet, pleasant people, who liked  to receive strangers in their cottages among the mountains, and to set before them with  free hospitality whatever they had to eat and drink, and to play to them on their harps,  and sing their native ballads to them, were a people of great spirit when their blood was up. Englishmen, after this affair, began to be insolent in Wales, and to assume the air of masters; and the Welsh pride could not bear it. Moreover, they believed in that unlucky  old Merlin, some of whose unlucky old  prophecies somebody always seemed doomed to  remember when there was a chance of its doing harm; and just at this time some blind  old  gentleman with a harp and a long white beard, who was an excellent person, but had  become of an unknown age and tedious, burst out  with a declaration that Merlin had  predicted that when English money had become round, a Prince of Wales would be  crowned in London. Now, King Edward had recently forbidden the English penny to be  cut into halves and quarters for halfpence and farthings, and  had actually introduced a round coin; therefore, the Welsh people  said this was the time Merlin meant, and rose  accordingly.
---- A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens
        

#45  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

The Llywelyn Monument at Cilmeri near Builth Wells


卢埃林让弟弟Dafydd(也称Prince David)留守Gwynedd ,自己则带一部分兵力向南进发,试图集结威尔士中/南部力量,开辟抗英新战场。

但1282年12月11 日发生在威尔士中部的Battle of Orewin Bridge,卢埃林不幸被杀。这场战斗的失败对威尔士是致命一击。威尔士自此失去了独立。

12月11日那天,卢埃林的军队在Irfon River 北岸的山坡上扎兵,以抗击从南面经Orewin Bridge而来的英军。威尔士方面有7千步兵,包括160个保护卢埃林的骑兵。但卢埃林自己当时前去与当地首领会面,并没有与自己的大部队在一起。

在主帅缺席的情况下,威尔士军受到两面夹击:边界领主纠集的弓箭手从侧面进攻(转移了威尔士人的注意力),英军的披甲兵趁机冲过无设防的桥,杀向威尔士兵。威尔士兵阵脚大乱溃不成军。

卢埃林闻讯,匆匆折返,却在战场外围被一英军骑兵以长矛刺倒。

另一说法是, Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn(前面提到的忠英贵族,曾与卢埃林弟弟合谋刺杀卢埃林)等贵族佯装支持卢埃林,诱骗卢埃林前去议事,却在路上设下埋伏,将手无寸铁的卢埃林杀害。

卢埃林的头被爱德华一世送往伦敦,在伦敦颈手枷上挂了一天,并被戴上常春藤,以此嘲讽威尔士流传的梅林预言。后又被悬于伦敦塔的城门上,长达15年之久。


zt:

The Battle of Orewin Bridge (also known as the Battle of Irfon Bridge) was fought between English (led by theMarcher Lords) and Welsh armies on 11 December 1282 near Builth Wells in mid-Wales. It was a decisive defeat for the Welsh because their leader, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was killed, and this effectively ended the independence of Wales.

On 11 December, Llywelyn's army occupied a hillside north of the Irfon River near the village of Cilmeri, placed to repel any attack from the south across Orewin Bridge. The army is thought to have consisted of a few thousand spearmen and javelinmen from North Wales, with some men-at-arms from Llywelyn's own teulu (household), and some local archers from Brecon (who had betrayed their former English allies and joined Llywelyn, having been disappointed in the English failure at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr). Altogether, the army is thought to have added up to around 7000 infantry and 160 Cavalry (Llywelyn's Teulu). Llywelyn himself was not present, having gone to speak with local leaders (possibly at Builth Castle).

A local inhabitant had told the Marchers about a ford across the Irfon two miles downstream, near its confluence with the River Wye, and they sent most of their archers across it to attack the Welsh in the flank. The Welsh army turned to face them, and the English mounted men-at-arms charged across the now undefended bridge.
Meanwhile the English archers shot into the Welsh spear schiltrons, weakening and disorganising the troops. The English heavy cavalry then charged the rear of the army. The leaderless and demoralised Welsh were routed.

As the Welsh army fled, Llywelyn returned in haste. On the outskirts of the fighting, he was attacked and cut down by an English man-at-arms named Stephen de Frankton, an English centenar from Ellesmere, Shropshire.

An alternative version of events written in the east of England by monks in contact with Llywelyn's exiled daughter, Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, and niece, Gwladys ferch Dafydd, states that Llywelyn, at the front of his army, approached the combined forces of Edmund and Roger Mortimer, Hugo Le Strange and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn on the promise that he would receive their homage. This was a deception. His army was immediately engaged in fierce battle during which a significant section of it was routed, causing Llywelyn and his eighteen retainers to become separated. At around dusk, Llywelyn and a small group of his retainers (which included clergy), were ambushed and chased into a wood at Aberedw. Llywelyn was surrounded and struck down. As he lay dying, he asked for a priest and gave away his identity. He was then killed and his head hewn from his body. His person was searched and various items recovered, including a list of "conspirators", (which may well have been faked), and his privy seal.

Llywelyn turned to rejoin his forces and was pursued by a lone lancer who struck him down. It was not until some time later that an English knight recognised the body as that of the prince. This version of events was written in the north of England some fifty years later and has suspicious similarities with details about the Battle of Stirling Bridge in Scotland. An alternative version of events written in the east of England by monks in contact with Llywelyn's exiled daughter, Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, and niece, Gwladys ferch Dafydd, states that Llywelyn, at the front of his army, approached the combined forces of Edmund and Roger Mortimer, Hugo Le Strange and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn on the promise that he would receive their homage. This was a deception. His army was immediately engaged in fierce battle during which a significant section of it was routed, causing Llywelyn and his eighteen retainers to become separated. At around dusk, Llywelyn and a small group of his retainers (which included clergy), were ambushed and chased into a wood at Aberedw. Llywelyn was surrounded and struck down. As he lay dying, he asked for a priest and gave away his identity. He was then killed and his head hewn from his body. His person was searched and various items recovered, including a list of "conspirators", (which may well have been faked), and his privy seal.

There are legends surrounding the fate of Llywelyn's severed head. It is known that it was sent to Edward at Rhuddlan and after being shown to the English troops based in Anglesey, Edward sent the head on to London. In London, it was set up in the city pillory for a day, and crowned with ivy (i.e. to show he was a "king" of Outlaws and in mockery of the ancient Welsh prophecy, which said that a Welshman would be crowned in London as king of the whole of Britain). Then it was carried by a horseman on the point of his lance to the Tower of London and set up over the gate. It was still on the Tower of London 15 years later.
        

#46  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Llywelyn the Last 身后留下幼女Gwenllian of Wales(Llywelyn the Last 无私生子),由他的弟弟Dafydd 抚养。 Dafydd继续领导游击队抗击英格兰军队,坚持了六个月。因为叛徒出卖, 于1283年6月22日与儿子Owain ap Dafydd 一起在藏身处被俘。

同时被俘的还有Dafydd 的妻子以及他们的女儿,连同他的六个私生子,以及侄女Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn。6月28日,Dafydd 的长子 Llywelyn ap Dafydd 也被抓获。

爱德华一世得意洋洋地宣布,这个动乱国家的王子们, 这个背信弃义家族的最后血脉(the last of the "treacherous lineage", princes of the "turbulent nation"), 都落入了他的掌心。威尔士的抵抗运动暂时终止。

爱德华一世将Dafydd 交由英格兰国会审判。9月30日, 威尔士王子Dafydd 被判死刑, 罪名是叛国罪。这是英格兰历史上第一起叛国罪。 后来审判苏格兰的威廉·华莱士时,如法炮制,同样以叛国罪处死。威廉·华莱士反驳这项指控,"I could not be a traitor to Edward, for I was never his subject." 爱德华命令将Dafydd处以绞刑,然后五马分尸,极其残忍。威廉·华莱士的死刑类似。

Dafydd 的女儿Gwladys, 以及侄女Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn ( 也是爱德华一世的表侄女), 被送往林肯郡的女修道院,严密看护,终生未婚,以防她们生下威尔士王室后代。这两位公主的待遇远远不及被囚禁的布列塔尼的埃莉诺 --- 爱德华一世的祖父约翰王的侄女。 Dafydd 的两个儿子死于狱中, 一个私生子可能幸存。


zt:

He left only an infant daughter, Gwenllian of Wales, and leadership of the Welsh fell on Dafydd, who led a guerrilla resistance for some months but was soon betrayed, captured and executed as a traitor. Edward was able to formally end the existence of an organised resistance to English rule in the Welsh regions.
Whatever Llywelyn's own faults, Edward could not deny his claims as a legitimate ruler of Wales. Had Llywelyn lived and Edward suffered further reverses, it is theoretically possible that the war might have ended with Edward leaving at least part of an independent Wales (though it is unlikely that Wales could have resisted English encroachment indefinitely).

On 22 June, Dafydd and his younger son Owain ap Dafydd were captured at Nanhysglain, a secret hiding place in a bog by Bera Mountain to the south of Abergwyngregyn. Dafydd, seriously wounded (graviter vulneratus) in the struggle, was brought to King Edward's camp at Rhuddlan that same night (Cotton Vesp. B xi, f30). Dafydd was taken from here to Chester and then on to Shrewsbury. Dafydd's wife Elizabeth de Ferrers, their daughter Gwladys, infant niece Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, and Dafydd's six illegitimate daughters were also taken prisoner at the same time. Whether they were with Dafydd and Owain at Bera is not recorded, but it is likely.
On 28 June, Llywelyn ap Dafydd was captured. Edward triumphantly proclaimed that the last of the "treacherous lineage", princes of the "turbulent nation", was now in his grasp, captured by men of his own nation (per homines linguae suae).

Welsh resistance to the invasion temporarily came to an end. On 28 June, Edward issued writs to summon a parliament to meet at Shrewsbury, to discuss Dafydd's fate.
On 30 September, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, was condemned to death, the first person known to have been tried and executed for what from that time onwards would be described as high treason against the King. Edward ensured that Dafydd's death was to be slow and agonising, and also historic; he became the first prominent person in recorded history to have been hanged, drawn and quartered, preceded by a number of minor knights earlier in the thirteenth century. Dafydd was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury attached to a horse's tail then hanged alive, revived, then disembowelled and his entrails burned before him for "his sacrilege in committing his crimes in the week of Christ's passion", and then his body cut into four-quarters "for plotting the king's death". Geoffrey of Shrewsbury was paid 20 shillings for carrying out the gruesome task on 3 October 1283.

Dafydd's daughter Gwladys, like her cousin Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, was sent to a convent in Lincolnshire – Gwenllian to Sempringham and Gwladys to Sixhills, where she died in 1336. Dafydd's sons were both imprisoned at Bristol Castle; Llywelyn ap Dafydd died at Bristol Castle in mysterious circumstances in 1287 or 1288, whileOwain ap Dafydd is last found living in August 1325. Dafydd may have had another (illegitimate) son, Dafydd Goch, who survived.
        

#47  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

卡那封城堡


之后,威尔士就失去主权,沦为英格兰的殖民地(亨利八世时期将威尔士并入英格兰。 爱德华一世并开始大规模移民运动---英格兰人到威尔士定居,以巩固对威尔士的统治。在英格兰人定居的新城中,除了禁止威尔士人入内,还围以城墙保护。

爱德华一世在威尔士总共建筑了八座城堡做为防御工事兼王室行宫,以示英格兰永久统治威尔士的决心。

当中四座城堡的设计皆出自同一建筑大师--- James of Saint George from Savoy of France, 爱德华在十字军东征返途中与他结识。James 设计的四座城堡(the castles of Beaumarisand Harlech and the castles and town walls of Caernarfon and Conwy)如今都成为联合国世界遗产 --- Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd。

特别提下Caernarfon Castle 卡那封城堡。爱德华一世与第一任妻子埃莉诺的幼子, 后来的爱德华二世即于1284年4月25日在卡那封城堡出世, 因此也被称作 Edward of Caernarfon,  爱德华二世成为第一个被册封为Prince of Wales 的 English prince。 爱德华二世出生后不久,他的哥哥阿方索即于同年8月19日夭折(不满11周岁),于是爱德华二世自然成为王位继承人。 自爱德华二世开始,英格兰的王储也同时被赐威尔士亲王的头衔。

“根据传说,爱德华一世出兵征服威尔士后,他答应反抗的威尔士人会有“一位在威尔士出生、不会讲英语、生下来第一句话说威尔士语的亲王”作为他们的领袖。之后爱德华一世把行将分娩的埃莉诺王后接到了刚修建的卡纳冯城堡,不久,他就抱着自己新生的四子小爱德华出现在威尔士贵族们的面前,宣布将威尔士亲王的名号封给这个儿子。而且小爱德华不会说英语,他的哭声也和刚出生的威尔士人一模一样。然而这个传说可能并不是真的,因为这一故事的源头只能追溯到16世纪,而不是14世纪初。认为这一传说不可信的另一个理由是当时的英国王室都说诺曼底法语,而非英语。而且爱德华二世的哥哥阿方索当时还在世,他不可能被立为王储。

威尔士亲王的称号并不是王储自动拥有,而需要在位君主的正式册封。

威尔士王妃是给威尔士亲王的妻子的头衔。但现任威尔士亲王查尔斯王子与现任妻子卡米拉属贵贱通婚,卡米拉只能得到较低阶的头衔康沃尔公爵夫人,而非威尔士王妃。”---- 摘自维基



威尔士亲王纹章冠饰


Zt:

By the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, the Principality of Wales was incorporated into England and was given an administrative system like the English, with counties policed by sheriffs.[84] English law was introduced in criminal cases, though the Welsh were allowed to maintain their own customary laws in some cases of property disputes.[85] After 1277, and increasingly after 1283, Edward embarked on a full-scale project of English settlement of Wales, creating new towns like Flint, Aberystwyth and Rhuddlan.[86] Their new residents were English migrants, with the local Welsh banned from living inside them, and many were protected by extensive walls.[87]
An extensive project of castle-building was also initiated, under the direction of Master James of Saint George, a prestigious architect whom Edward had met in Savoy on his return from the crusade.[88] These included the castles of Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy and Harlech, intended to act both as fortresses and royal palaces for the King.[89] His programme of castle building in Wales heralded the introduction of the widespread use of arrowslits in castle walls across Europe, drawing on Eastern influences.[90] Also a product of the Crusades was the introduction of the concentric castle, and four of the eight castles Edward founded in Wales followed this design.[91] The castles made a clear, imperial statement about Edward's intentions to rule North Wales permanently, and drew on imagery associated with the Byzantine Roman Empire and King Arthur in an attempt to build legitimacy for his new regime.[92]
In 1284, King Edward had his son Edward (later Edward II) born at Caernarfon Castle, probably to make a deliberate statement about the new political order in Wales.[93] David Powel, a 16th-century clergyman, suggested that the baby was offered to the Welsh as a prince "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", but there is no evidence to support this account.[94] In 1301 at Lincoln, the young Edward became the first English prince to be invested with the title of Prince of Wales, when King Edward granted him the Earldom of Chester and lands across North Wales.[95] The King seems to have hoped that this would help in the pacification of the region, and that it would give his son more financial independence
        

#48  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd (UNESCO/NHK)

        

#49  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Caernarfon Castle, Wales - Visit Britain - Unravel Travel TV

        

#50  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back



zt:

威尔士国旗(又称红龙旗,英语:The Red Dragon)是威尔士的官方旗帜,上半部为白色,下半部为绿色,中间则是一条红色的龙。旗帜长宽比例为3:5。该旗帜于1959年起开始使用。

威尔士有幸拥有世界上最古老最独特的国旗。人们多年来一想到威尔士就会想到红龙。 采纳红龙作为代表标志的原因至今为后人所不知。有一种说法是因为罗马人在占领英国时将这种图象带到威尔士,但实际上红龙的历史还可以追溯到更远的时期。这种说法的根据来自英语中的“龙”这一单词和威尔士语中的一个单词都同样来源于拉丁文Draco。无论如何,龙变成了威尔士的一个重要标志。

许多传奇故事都与威尔士龙有关。最有名的莫过于梅林对红龙和白龙打斗的预言。红龙代表威尔士,另一条白色龙代表撒克逊。两条龙彼此对抗,梅林预言红龙终将战胜白龙,待此日来临,亦是威尔士人战胜撒克逊人之日。根据他的预言,白龙首先先占据优势,但最终获得胜利的会是红龙。到了1485 年,威尔士皇族亨利七世(Henry VII)继承王位,被认为将完成他的预言。这是一个关于威尔士和英格兰之间多年斗争的寓言。

亨利七世1485年的伯斯沃斯之战胜利后绿白背景上的红龙在皇室纹章上出现。在圣保罗大教堂挂着的军旗上,红色的龙作为都铎家族的象征盘旋在白色的背景上。红龙旗也出现在了都铎时期君主葬礼队伍上。

在1800年绿白背景下的红龙被指定为威尔士的皇家标志。并且在1953年,女王正式将红龙旗指定为威尔士的国旗。

如果你到威尔士旅游你就回发现红龙旗飘扬在威尔士的每一个角落,无论是政府机关、商业场所或是体育赛场。许多驻外国的英国大使馆在每年的3月1日也就是圣大卫节上都会挂起红龙旗,以庆祝威尔士的国庆日。
        

#51  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国国旗


圣乔治十字 16世纪(英格兰)


圣安德鲁十字 16世纪(苏格兰)


圣帕特里克十字 17世纪(爱尔兰)


大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国国旗没有威尔士元素,大概是因为威尔士被爱德华一世征服后,成为Principality of Wales威尔士公国,属于臣服地位。
        

#52  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

The Flag of Saint David is sometimes used as an alternative to the national flag (and used in part of Crusaders' crest), and is flown on St David's Day.

圣戴维日

zt:

每年3月1日是圣戴维日( St David’s Day)。按照基督教传统,圣戴维是威尔士的所谓“主保圣人”,就是说,人们认为他特别照顾威尔士。这里所纪念的是公元第二世纪到威尔士传教的僧人戴维,并非《圣经》中的戴维王。

这一天是威尔士的重要节日,不少公司、办公室都放假。

在这一天以及这天的前后,在英国街头上会看到不少人衣襟上有一朵黄色的水仙花,这是因为威尔士的标记是黄水仙和韭葱。当然在衣襟上插一把韭葱不大好看吧!




        

#53  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back


The leek is also a national emblem of Wales. According to legend, Saint David (the patron saint of Wales[2]) ordered his Welsh soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. It is still worn on St David's Day each 1 March



The daffodil is the national flower of Wales, and is worn on St David's Day each 1 March. (In Welsh, the daffodil is known as "Peter's Leek", cenhinen Bedr/Cenin pedr.)
        

#54  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
        

#55  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
苏格兰历史上有两次独立战争。 《勇敢的心》的背景是苏格兰第一次独立战争。

电影有好几处与史实相悖,受到历史学家们的指摘,但这并不妨碍票房值,更不妨碍Mel Gibson 捧得奥斯卡最佳导演奖。

《勇敢的心》的剧作家 Randall Wallace 为苏格兰后裔。 他在祖先之土旅游时,听到 William Wallace 的故事(Randall Wallace 没有血缘关系),回来后提起生花妙笔便写出了剧本,与爱尔兰后裔 Mel Gibson 一拍即合。


电影开头有这么一段话:
“Historians from England will say I am a liar, but history is written by those who have hanged heroes.”



把精彩的电影摆在一旁,这里还是贴点枯燥的历史。至于真实性,本搬运工一无所知。
        

#56  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
威尔士被征服后,北邻苏格兰自然成了长腿爱德华一世觊觎的目标。而苏格兰的王位继承战争给了爱德华一个天赐良机。

假如 Margaret, Maid of Norway, 登上苏格兰王位宝座,成为苏格兰第一个女王 Queen Regnant (非 Queen consort),那么历史将迥然不同,but....


Margaret, Lerwick Town Hall stained glass window depicting "Margaret, queen of Scotland and daughter of Norway"

zt:

玛格丽特(盖尔语:Mairead或Maighread,1283年4月9日-1290年9月26日)是苏格兰女王(1286年11月25日–1290年9月26日在位)及挪威公主,也被称为苏格兰的玛格丽特(挪威语:Margrete av Skottland)和挪威的女孩(挪威语:Jomfruen av Norge)。她死在航向苏格兰途中,她的死引发了苏格兰王位继承战争。


她是挪威国王埃里克二世和苏格兰的玛格丽特的女儿,苏格兰国王亚历山大三世的外孙女。1283年4月9日玛格丽特在滕斯贝格出生。她的母亲死于难产。


背景

1281年6月25日,亚历山大三世在罗克斯堡签署了埃里克与玛格丽特的婚姻条约。1281年6月,亚历山大三世的次子大卫死亡后只剩下一个合法儿子亚历山大。因此,条约中有一项是关于埃里克和玛格丽特的孩子继承苏格兰王位继承权的:
如果苏格兰国王死后没有合法的儿子,并且国王的儿子没有任何合法的后代。玛格丽特和她与挪威国王生育的后代为苏格兰合法王位继承人...如果她也没有后代,苏格兰王位根据旧制继承。

亚历山大大概在1281年也如此安排了其长子亚历山大与佛兰德伯爵盖·德·当皮埃尔之女玛格丽特的婚姻。该条约在1281年12月签订,包括一个复杂而长的继承权与海关文件以及原则声明,附件包括玛格丽特孩子的具体继承权及其在特定情况下的孩子继承权。 这些文件极为复杂混乱,似乎是为保护长子继承制来让直系男性后代继承王位,而直系男性后代断绝则由血缘最近的女性后代继承。

当亚历山大王子在1284年1月28日去世时,她的外祖父在世的后代只有玛格丽特一人。亚历山大三世召集了13个苏格兰的伯爵,14个男爵和3个重要的西盖尔族的首领阿盖尔郡的亚历山大、艾莱的Aonghas Mór和Garmoran的Alan MacRuari于1284年2月5日在斯昆签署了条约,册封玛格丽特为预备王位继承人,签署人同意当亚历山大死后没有留下孩子时,将由玛格丽特继承苏格兰王位。然而,这是可能不是让玛格丽特作为女王单独统治,而是让玛格丽特和未来的丈夫共同统治。册封玛格丽特为预备王位继承人只是亚历山大做的一手准备,亚历山大不久后与约兰德·德·德勒结婚,但1286年3月19日亚历山大死于一场意外事故,并且和第二任妻子没有任何子女。
        

#57  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Margaret, Maid of Norway, “是苏格兰的玛格丽特的女儿,苏格兰国王亚历山大三世的外孙女”。

挪威公主的外祖母Margaret, Queen consort of Scots, 是亨利三世的女儿,爱德华一世的妹妹。

爱德华一世应该算是挪威公主的舅公吧。 那么爱德华二世就是挪威公主的表舅吧。

也就是把3岁多的挪威公主许配给6岁的表舅爱德华二世。这门政治联姻因为挪威公主真相不明的死亡而未果。

"Her death left no obvious heir to the Scottish throne and the matter of succession was resolved in the Great Cause of 1291–2"

挪威公主玛格丽特死后,苏格兰王位竞争者们剑拔弩张。 Guardian of Scotland 便请来了爱德华一世-- 玛格丽特未婚夫的父亲,来做仲裁。实在是引狼入室。

竞争者No. 1 即为爱德华一世自己。他确实与苏格兰王室有关联。没有留下后嗣的苏格兰国王亚历山大三世,正是爱德华一世的妹夫。

"There were fourteen nobles who put themselves forward as candidates for the throne, as follows:

1.Edward I of England.

Edward never made a claim to the throne but as Overlord, this was based on his descent from Malcolm III's daughter Edith, the wife of Henry I of England, whose daughter Adelaide (aka Matilda) had been the mother of Edward's great-grandfather, Henry II of England. Edward was also brother-in-law of Alexander III, who had married Edward's sister Margaret of England."
--https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competitors_for_the_Crown_of_Scotland



zt:

Queen Margaret died in early October in Orkney on her way to Scotland, leaving the throne vacant. The Guardians called upon her fiancé's father, Edward I of England, to decide between various competitors for the Scottish throne in a process known as the Great Cause. One of the strongest claimants, John Balliol, Lord of Galloway, forged an alliance with the powerful Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, the representative of Edward I in Scotland and began styling himself 'heir of Scotland',[2] while another, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, turned up to the site of Queen Margaret's supposed inauguration with a force of soldiers amidst rumours that his friends the Earl of Mar and the Earl of Atholl were also raising their forces. Scotland looked to be headed for civil war.
        

#58  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
王位竞争者第14 是 Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, 电影《勇敢的心》中 Robert the Bruce 的祖父。

"14.Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, son of Isabella, second daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I.

This Robert Bruce was regent of Scotland sometime during the minority of King Alexander III and was occasionally recognized as a tanist of the Scottish throne. In the succession dispute, he pleaded tanistry and proximity in degree of kinship to the deceased King."
--https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competitors_for_the_Crown_of_Scotland


Robert the Bruce, 后来成为苏格兰国王罗伯特一世, 在Battle of Bannockburn 一战中击败英军,取得苏格兰第一次独立战争的胜利。


电影中将 William Wallace 的被俘归罪于 Robert the Bruce的父亲 Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale (那个麻风病患者)。 这与史实不符,因为在那之前一年,效忠爱德华一世的 Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale 已过世:

“He was portrayed (as a leper) by Ian Bannen in the 1995 film Braveheart. Braveheart inaccurately portrays Robert de Brus as being involved in the capture of William Wallace in Edinburgh; as noted above Robert de Brus died in 1304 and William Wallace was captured on 3 August 1305 by Sir John de Menteith in Glasgow. Menteith was a son-in-law to Gartnait, Earl of Mar and Christina Bruce.”
        

#59  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale 的主要对手 约翰·巴里奥(John de Balliol)最后被选为苏格兰国王, 在位仅四年。
“约翰·巴里奥血缘上是近一百五十年前去世的国王大卫一世的第五代外孙”。


约翰·巴里奥(John de Balliol), 苏格兰国王。 在位1292年 - 1296年


“巴里奥当选,于1292年11月30日圣安德鲁日在斯昆加冕。

但是爱德华一世因为吞并苏格兰的野性,用各种手段削弱巴里奥的权威,甚至羞辱这位新国王。苏格兰的权贵不堪忍受巴里奥的懦弱,计划对抗英格兰。1295年10月23日,苏格兰与法兰西王国在巴黎签署协议,共同对付英格兰,开始了历史上著名的长达两百多年的“老同盟”(Auld Alliance)。

1296年,爱德华一世闻讯后对苏格兰实行报复,派大军入侵苏格兰,连续攻占苏格兰心腹要地。7月8日,巴里奥签订文书,同意退位,并由人将苏格兰的国徽从他穿的长袍上撕去。

退位后的巴里奥先被送到伦敦塔监禁了一段时间,但是1299年被准许前往法国他家族的封土。到达法国后,他基本受到软禁,直到1314年去世。

巴里奥退位后的几年,正是苏格兰王国和民族最危难的时刻,面临着被英格兰彻底征服的危险。因为巴里奥可以说是被逼退位,民族英雄威廉·华莱士等人起兵反抗英军时,都是打着“国王约翰”的名义。苏格兰王位的空缺持续了10年,直到1306年反抗运动领袖罗伯特·布鲁斯被接受为新国王。

另一方面,巴里奥本人似乎从来没有做过任何意图支援或者声援苏格兰反抗运动的事。” ---wiki


电影中老Robert无法释怀的就是他父亲败给John de Balliol,与王位失之交臂的憾事。
        

#60  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Tales of William Wallace [Full Documentary]

        



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