Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales and Lady of Snowdon (1252 – 19 June 1282) was a daughter of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England. She was also the second woman who can be shown to have used the title Princess of Wales.
爱德华一世有两个借口攻打卢埃林。 其一是卢埃林娶了叛军首领Simon de Montfort的女儿埃莉诺， 虽然埃莉诺是爱德华一世的表妹。
在英格兰第二次伯爵战争中，亨利三世于Battle of Lewes 失利并被俘。 之后， 卢埃林与西蒙。得蒙福尔谈判，通过支付三万马克换取永久和平，于6/22/1265 签订了Treaty of Pipton, 与西蒙结为同盟。西蒙并将幼女Eleanor de Montfort许配给卢埃林。但西蒙不久即死于Battle of Evesham， 其时埃莉诺年仅13岁。
Battle of Evesham之后，亨利三世复位。 西蒙夫人，即Eleanor of England（约翰王之女，亨利三世之妹）携女儿Eleanor de Montfort逃亡法国。
而卢埃林并未因西蒙失势而取消婚约，这自然冒犯了爱德华一世。1275年， 卢埃林与埃莉诺married by proxy （由代理人代表缺席的卢埃林）。
代理婚礼非常有名的一例是拿破仑与第二任妻子 Marie Louise 1810年3月11日的盛大proxy wedding. 直到1810年3月27日两人才首次见面。Marie said to Napoleon, "You are much better-looking than your portrait." 当然两人于4月1日举行了civil wedding.
爱德华一世起先反对表妹Eleanor de Montfort与卢埃林的婚事。代理婚礼后，埃莉诺由哥哥 Amaury 陪同，从法国走水路驶往威尔士，避免走陆路经过英格兰。但在 Isles of Scilly 锡利群岛附近，还是被爱德华一世雇用的海盗俘获了。埃莉诺被囚禁在温莎城堡近三年。 1277年， 卢埃林做出让步， 与爱德华一世签订了Treaty of Aberconwy 。1278年埃莉诺获释，并与卢埃林在Worcester Cathedral 举行婚礼，爱德华一世出席婚礼。 而她的哥哥Amaury 一直被关押到1282年4 月，才获释返法国，兄妹再未见面。埃莉诺也于那年6月难产而死。
In England, Simon de Montfort (the Younger) defeated the king's supporters at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, capturing the king and Prince Edward. Llywelyn began negotiations with de Montfort, and in 1265, offered him 30,000 marks in exchange for a permanent peace, in which Llywelyn's right to rule Wales would be acknowledged. The Treaty of Pipton, 22 June 1265, established an alliance between Llywelyn and de Montfort, but the very favourable terms given to Llywelyn in this treaty were an indication of de Montfort's weakening position. De Montfort was to die at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, a battle in which Llywelyn took no part.
When Eleanor was thirteen years old, her father Earl Simon and brother Lord Henry were killed at the Battle of Evesham (4 August 1265). According to the chroniclers, Nicholas Trivet, William Rishanger and others, Earl Simon had earlier made an alliance with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, whereby it was agreed that Llywelyn and Eleanor would marry. After Earl Simon's death, his family was forced to flee the Kingdom of England: Countess Eleanor took her daughter to the safety of the Dominican nunnery at Montargis, France, a Montfort foundation.
Llywelyn also made an enemy of King Edward by continuing to ally himself with the family of Simon de Montfort, even though their power was now greatly reduced. Llywelyn sought to marry Eleanor de Montfort, born in 1252, Simon de Montfort's daughter. They were married by proxy in 1275, but King Edward took exception to the marriage, in part because Eleanor was his first cousin: her mother was Eleanor of England, daughter of King John and princess of the House of Plantagenet. When Eleanor sailed from France to meet Llywelyn, Edward hired pirates to seize her ship and she was imprisoned at Windsor Castle until Llywelyn made certain concessions.
In early 1274, there was a plot by Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd, and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys Wenwynwyn and his son, Owain, to kill Llywelyn. Dafydd was with Llywelyn at the time, and it was arranged that Owain would come with armed men on 2 February to carry out the assassination; however, he was prevented by a snowstorm. Llywelyn did not discover the full details of the plot until Owain confessed to the Bishop of Bangor. He said that the intention had been to make Dafydd prince of Gwynedd, and that Dafydd would reward Gruffudd with lands. Dafydd and Gruffudd fled to England where they were maintained by the king and carried out raids on Llywelyn's lands, increasing Llywelyn's resentment. When Edward called Llywelyn to Chester in 1275 to pay homage, Llywelyn refused to attend.
In 1276, Edward declared Llewelyn a rebel and gathered an enormous army to march against him. By the summer of 1277, Edward's forces had reached the heart of Gwynedd. Edward's men confiscated the harvest in Anglesey, which deprived Llewelyn and his men of food, forcing Llewelyn to surrender.
The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside. The treaty granted peace between the two, but also essentially guaranteed that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death and represented the completion of the first stage of the Conquest of Wales by Edward I.
By early 1282, many of the lesser princes who had supported Edward against Llywelyn in 1277 were becoming disillusioned with the exactions of the royal officers. On Palm Sunday that year, Dafydd ap Gruffudd attacked the English at Hawarden Castle and then laid siege to Rhuddlan. The revolt quickly spread to other parts of Wales, with Aberystwyth castle captured and burnt and rebellion in Ystrad Tywi in south Wales, also inspired by Dafydd according to the annals, where Carreg Cennen castle was captured.
Llywelyn, according to a letter he sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury John Peckham, was not involved in the planning of the revolt. He felt obliged, however, to support his brother and a war began for which the Welsh were ill-prepared. Personal tragedy also struck him at this time when, on or about 19 June 1282, his wife Eleanor de Montfort, died shortly after giving birth to their daughter Gwenllian.
Events followed a similar pattern to 1277, with Edward's forces capturing Gwynedd Is Conwy, Anglesey and taking the harvest. The force occupying Anglesey were defeated, however, when trying to cross to the mainland in the Battle of Moel-y-don. The Archbishop of Canterbury tried mediating between Llywelyn and Edward, and Llywelyn was offered a large estate in England if he would surrender Wales to Edward, while Dafydd was to go on crusade and not return without the king's permission. In an emotional reply, which has been compared to the Declaration of Arbroath, Llywelyn said he would not abandon the people whom his ancestors had protected since "the days of Kamber son of Brutus". The offer was refused.
But the Welsh, although they were naturally a gentle, quiet, pleasant people, who liked to receive strangers in their cottages among the mountains, and to set before them with free hospitality whatever they had to eat and drink, and to play to them on their harps, and sing their native ballads to them, were a people of great spirit when their blood was up. Englishmen, after this affair, began to be insolent in Wales, and to assume the air of masters; and the Welsh pride could not bear it. Moreover, they believed in that unlucky old Merlin, some of whose unlucky old prophecies somebody always seemed doomed to remember when there was a chance of its doing harm; and just at this time some blind old gentleman with a harp and a long white beard, who was an excellent person, but had become of an unknown age and tedious, burst out with a declaration that Merlin had predicted that when English money had become round, a Prince of Wales would be crowned in London. Now, King Edward had recently forbidden the English penny to be cut into halves and quarters for halfpence and farthings, and had actually introduced a round coin; therefore, the Welsh people said this was the time Merlin meant, and rose accordingly.
---- A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens
The Battle of Orewin Bridge (also known as the Battle of Irfon Bridge) was fought between English (led by theMarcher Lords) and Welsh armies on 11 December 1282 near Builth Wells in mid-Wales. It was a decisive defeat for the Welsh because their leader, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was killed, and this effectively ended the independence of Wales.
On 11 December, Llywelyn's army occupied a hillside north of the Irfon River near the village of Cilmeri, placed to repel any attack from the south across Orewin Bridge. The army is thought to have consisted of a few thousand spearmen and javelinmen from North Wales, with some men-at-arms from Llywelyn's own teulu (household), and some local archers from Brecon (who had betrayed their former English allies and joined Llywelyn, having been disappointed in the English failure at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr). Altogether, the army is thought to have added up to around 7000 infantry and 160 Cavalry (Llywelyn's Teulu). Llywelyn himself was not present, having gone to speak with local leaders (possibly at Builth Castle).
A local inhabitant had told the Marchers about a ford across the Irfon two miles downstream, near its confluence with the River Wye, and they sent most of their archers across it to attack the Welsh in the flank. The Welsh army turned to face them, and the English mounted men-at-arms charged across the now undefended bridge.
Meanwhile the English archers shot into the Welsh spear schiltrons, weakening and disorganising the troops. The English heavy cavalry then charged the rear of the army. The leaderless and demoralised Welsh were routed.
As the Welsh army fled, Llywelyn returned in haste. On the outskirts of the fighting, he was attacked and cut down by an English man-at-arms named Stephen de Frankton, an English centenar from Ellesmere, Shropshire.
An alternative version of events written in the east of England by monks in contact with Llywelyn's exiled daughter, Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, and niece, Gwladys ferch Dafydd, states that Llywelyn, at the front of his army, approached the combined forces of Edmund and Roger Mortimer, Hugo Le Strange and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn on the promise that he would receive their homage. This was a deception. His army was immediately engaged in fierce battle during which a significant section of it was routed, causing Llywelyn and his eighteen retainers to become separated. At around dusk, Llywelyn and a small group of his retainers (which included clergy), were ambushed and chased into a wood at Aberedw. Llywelyn was surrounded and struck down. As he lay dying, he asked for a priest and gave away his identity. He was then killed and his head hewn from his body. His person was searched and various items recovered, including a list of "conspirators", (which may well have been faked), and his privy seal.
Llywelyn turned to rejoin his forces and was pursued by a lone lancer who struck him down. It was not until some time later that an English knight recognised the body as that of the prince. This version of events was written in the north of England some fifty years later and has suspicious similarities with details about the Battle of Stirling Bridge in Scotland. An alternative version of events written in the east of England by monks in contact with Llywelyn's exiled daughter, Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, and niece, Gwladys ferch Dafydd, states that Llywelyn, at the front of his army, approached the combined forces of Edmund and Roger Mortimer, Hugo Le Strange and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn on the promise that he would receive their homage. This was a deception. His army was immediately engaged in fierce battle during which a significant section of it was routed, causing Llywelyn and his eighteen retainers to become separated. At around dusk, Llywelyn and a small group of his retainers (which included clergy), were ambushed and chased into a wood at Aberedw. Llywelyn was surrounded and struck down. As he lay dying, he asked for a priest and gave away his identity. He was then killed and his head hewn from his body. His person was searched and various items recovered, including a list of "conspirators", (which may well have been faked), and his privy seal.
There are legends surrounding the fate of Llywelyn's severed head. It is known that it was sent to Edward at Rhuddlan and after being shown to the English troops based in Anglesey, Edward sent the head on to London. In London, it was set up in the city pillory for a day, and crowned with ivy (i.e. to show he was a "king" of Outlaws and in mockery of the ancient Welsh prophecy, which said that a Welshman would be crowned in London as king of the whole of Britain). Then it was carried by a horseman on the point of his lance to the Tower of London and set up over the gate. It was still on the Tower of London 15 years later.
Llywelyn the Last 身后留下幼女Gwenllian of Wales（Llywelyn the Last 无私生子），由他的弟弟Dafydd 抚养。 Dafydd继续领导游击队抗击英格兰军队，坚持了六个月。因为叛徒出卖， 于1283年6月22日与儿子Owain ap Dafydd 一起在藏身处被俘。
同时被俘的还有Dafydd 的妻子以及他们的女儿，连同他的六个私生子，以及侄女Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn。6月28日，Dafydd 的长子 Llywelyn ap Dafydd 也被抓获。
爱德华一世得意洋洋地宣布，这个动乱国家的王子们， 这个背信弃义家族的最后血脉（the last of the "treacherous lineage", princes of the "turbulent nation"), 都落入了他的掌心。威尔士的抵抗运动暂时终止。
爱德华一世将Dafydd 交由英格兰国会审判。9月30日， 威尔士王子Dafydd 被判死刑， 罪名是叛国罪。这是英格兰历史上第一起叛国罪。 后来审判苏格兰的威廉·华莱士时，如法炮制，同样以叛国罪处死。威廉·华莱士反驳这项指控，"I could not be a traitor to Edward, for I was never his subject." 爱德华命令将Dafydd处以绞刑，然后五马分尸，极其残忍。威廉·华莱士的死刑类似。
Dafydd 的女儿Gwladys， 以及侄女Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn ( 也是爱德华一世的表侄女）， 被送往林肯郡的女修道院，严密看护，终生未婚，以防她们生下威尔士王室后代。这两位公主的待遇远远不及被囚禁的布列塔尼的埃莉诺 --- 爱德华一世的祖父约翰王的侄女。 Dafydd 的两个儿子死于狱中， 一个私生子可能幸存。
He left only an infant daughter, Gwenllian of Wales, and leadership of the Welsh fell on Dafydd, who led a guerrilla resistance for some months but was soon betrayed, captured and executed as a traitor. Edward was able to formally end the existence of an organised resistance to English rule in the Welsh regions.
Whatever Llywelyn's own faults, Edward could not deny his claims as a legitimate ruler of Wales. Had Llywelyn lived and Edward suffered further reverses, it is theoretically possible that the war might have ended with Edward leaving at least part of an independent Wales (though it is unlikely that Wales could have resisted English encroachment indefinitely).
On 22 June, Dafydd and his younger son Owain ap Dafydd were captured at Nanhysglain, a secret hiding place in a bog by Bera Mountain to the south of Abergwyngregyn. Dafydd, seriously wounded (graviter vulneratus) in the struggle, was brought to King Edward's camp at Rhuddlan that same night (Cotton Vesp. B xi, f30). Dafydd was taken from here to Chester and then on to Shrewsbury. Dafydd's wife Elizabeth de Ferrers, their daughter Gwladys, infant niece Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, and Dafydd's six illegitimate daughters were also taken prisoner at the same time. Whether they were with Dafydd and Owain at Bera is not recorded, but it is likely.
On 28 June, Llywelyn ap Dafydd was captured. Edward triumphantly proclaimed that the last of the "treacherous lineage", princes of the "turbulent nation", was now in his grasp, captured by men of his own nation (per homines linguae suae).
Welsh resistance to the invasion temporarily came to an end. On 28 June, Edward issued writs to summon a parliament to meet at Shrewsbury, to discuss Dafydd's fate.
On 30 September, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, was condemned to death, the first person known to have been tried and executed for what from that time onwards would be described as high treason against the King. Edward ensured that Dafydd's death was to be slow and agonising, and also historic; he became the first prominent person in recorded history to have been hanged, drawn and quartered, preceded by a number of minor knights earlier in the thirteenth century. Dafydd was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury attached to a horse's tail then hanged alive, revived, then disembowelled and his entrails burned before him for "his sacrilege in committing his crimes in the week of Christ's passion", and then his body cut into four-quarters "for plotting the king's death". Geoffrey of Shrewsbury was paid 20 shillings for carrying out the gruesome task on 3 October 1283.
Dafydd's daughter Gwladys, like her cousin Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, was sent to a convent in Lincolnshire – Gwenllian to Sempringham and Gwladys to Sixhills, where she died in 1336. Dafydd's sons were both imprisoned at Bristol Castle; Llywelyn ap Dafydd died at Bristol Castle in mysterious circumstances in 1287 or 1288, whileOwain ap Dafydd is last found living in August 1325. Dafydd may have had another (illegitimate) son, Dafydd Goch, who survived.
当中四座城堡的设计皆出自同一建筑大师--- James of Saint George from Savoy of France, 爱德华在十字军东征返途中与他结识。James 设计的四座城堡（the castles of Beaumarisand Harlech and the castles and town walls of Caernarfon and Conwy）如今都成为联合国世界遗产 --- Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd。
特别提下Caernarfon Castle 卡那封城堡。爱德华一世与第一任妻子埃莉诺的幼子， 后来的爱德华二世即于1284年4月25日在卡那封城堡出世， 因此也被称作 Edward of Caernarfon, 爱德华二世成为第一个被册封为Prince of Wales 的 English prince。 爱德华二世出生后不久，他的哥哥阿方索即于同年8月19日夭折（不满11周岁），于是爱德华二世自然成为王位继承人。 自爱德华二世开始，英格兰的王储也同时被赐威尔士亲王的头衔。
By the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, the Principality of Wales was incorporated into England and was given an administrative system like the English, with counties policed by sheriffs. English law was introduced in criminal cases, though the Welsh were allowed to maintain their own customary laws in some cases of property disputes. After 1277, and increasingly after 1283, Edward embarked on a full-scale project of English settlement of Wales, creating new towns like Flint, Aberystwyth and Rhuddlan. Their new residents were English migrants, with the local Welsh banned from living inside them, and many were protected by extensive walls.
An extensive project of castle-building was also initiated, under the direction of Master James of Saint George, a prestigious architect whom Edward had met in Savoy on his return from the crusade. These included the castles of Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy and Harlech, intended to act both as fortresses and royal palaces for the King. His programme of castle building in Wales heralded the introduction of the widespread use of arrowslits in castle walls across Europe, drawing on Eastern influences. Also a product of the Crusades was the introduction of the concentric castle, and four of the eight castles Edward founded in Wales followed this design. The castles made a clear, imperial statement about Edward's intentions to rule North Wales permanently, and drew on imagery associated with the Byzantine Roman Empire and King Arthur in an attempt to build legitimacy for his new regime.
In 1284, King Edward had his son Edward (later Edward II) born at Caernarfon Castle, probably to make a deliberate statement about the new political order in Wales. David Powel, a 16th-century clergyman, suggested that the baby was offered to the Welsh as a prince "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", but there is no evidence to support this account. In 1301 at Lincoln, the young Edward became the first English prince to be invested with the title of Prince of Wales, when King Edward granted him the Earldom of Chester and lands across North Wales. The King seems to have hoped that this would help in the pacification of the region, and that it would give his son more financial independence
The leek is also a national emblem of Wales. According to legend, Saint David (the patron saint of Wales) ordered his Welsh soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. It is still worn on St David's Day each 1 March
The daffodil is the national flower of Wales, and is worn on St David's Day each 1 March. (In Welsh, the daffodil is known as "Peter's Leek", cenhinen Bedr/Cenin pedr.)
"There were fourteen nobles who put themselves forward as candidates for the throne, as follows:
1.Edward I of England.
Edward never made a claim to the throne but as Overlord, this was based on his descent from Malcolm III's daughter Edith, the wife of Henry I of England, whose daughter Adelaide (aka Matilda) had been the mother of Edward's great-grandfather, Henry II of England. Edward was also brother-in-law of Alexander III, who had married Edward's sister Margaret of England."
Queen Margaret died in early October in Orkney on her way to Scotland, leaving the throne vacant. The Guardians called upon her fiancé's father, Edward I of England, to decide between various competitors for the Scottish throne in a process known as the Great Cause. One of the strongest claimants, John Balliol, Lord of Galloway, forged an alliance with the powerful Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, the representative of Edward I in Scotland and began styling himself 'heir of Scotland', while another, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, turned up to the site of Queen Margaret's supposed inauguration with a force of soldiers amidst rumours that his friends the Earl of Mar and the Earl of Atholl were also raising their forces. Scotland looked to be headed for civil war.
王位竞争者第14 是 Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale， 电影《勇敢的心》中 Robert the Bruce 的祖父。
"14.Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, son of Isabella, second daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I.
This Robert Bruce was regent of Scotland sometime during the minority of King Alexander III and was occasionally recognized as a tanist of the Scottish throne. In the succession dispute, he pleaded tanistry and proximity in degree of kinship to the deceased King."
Robert the Bruce, 后来成为苏格兰国王罗伯特一世， 在Battle of Bannockburn 一战中击败英军，取得苏格兰第一次独立战争的胜利。
电影中将 William Wallace 的被俘归罪于 Robert the Bruce的父亲 Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale （那个麻风病患者）。 这与史实不符，因为在那之前一年，效忠爱德华一世的 Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale 已过世：
“He was portrayed (as a leper) by Ian Bannen in the 1995 film Braveheart. Braveheart inaccurately portrays Robert de Brus as being involved in the capture of William Wallace in Edinburgh; as noted above Robert de Brus died in 1304 and William Wallace was captured on 3 August 1305 by Sir John de Menteith in Glasgow. Menteith was a son-in-law to Gartnait, Earl of Mar and Christina Bruce.”