拾乐园 Paradise Found  

#21  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Happy Bastille Day 2015 | July 14th Fireworks Display



Happy Bastille Day!

wiki:

Bastille Day is the name given in English-speaking countries to the French National Day, which is celebrated on 14 July each year. In France, it is formally called La Fête nationale (French pronunciation: [la fɛːt nasjɔˈnal]; The National Celebration) and commonly Le quatorze juillet (French pronunciation: [lə.katɔʁz.ʒɥiˈjɛ]; the fourteenth of July).

巴士底日,又称法国国庆日,是在每年的7月14日,以纪念在1789年7月14日巴黎群众攻克了象征封建统治的巴士底狱,从而揭开法国大革命序幕。

1789年7月14日,巴黎民众与军队攻陷巴士底监狱释放囚犯,揭开了法国大革命的序幕。到了1879年,为了纪念法兰西第一共和国的建立,法国政府宣布把7月14日定为国庆日。


Casablanca La Marseillaise
        

#22  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
btw, 英国没有国庆日National Day, 但有烟火夜(篝火夜)Firework Night/Bonfire Night, Nov. 5 (起源于詹姆士六世和一世时的历史事件)

wiki:

Britain has no unique national day. It has a number of days of celebration which go largely uncelebrated, and others which are associated with the constituent countries of Britain. The latter category includes St George's Day in England, St Andrew's Day in Scotland, St David's Day in Wales and St Patrick's Day in Northern Ireland.

__________________________________________________________________________


wiki:

Guy Fawkes Night

Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain. Its history begins with the events of 5 November 1605, when Guy Fawkes, a member of the Gunpowder Plot, was arrested while guarding explosives the plotters had placed beneath the House of Lords. Celebrating the fact that King James I had survived the attempt on his life, people lit bonfires around London, and months later the introduction of the Observance of 5th November Act enforced an annual public day of thanksgiving for the plot's failure.


Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night - Pocket History 1
        

#23  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
亨利三世 Henry III (1207年10月1日-1272年11月16日)

亨利1272年去世,"死后他的遗体一度放在圣爱德华的墓中,因为他本人的棺材还没有造好。"
他的继承人爱德华王子从东征返回已是1274年。


wiki:

Edward left for the Eighth Crusade, led by Louis of France, in 1270, but Henry became increasingly ill; concerns about a fresh rebellion grew and the next year the King wrote to his son asking him to return to England, but Edward did not turn back. Henry recovered slightly and announced his renewed intention to join the crusades himself, but he never regained his full health and on the evening of 16 November 1272, Henry died in Westminster, probably with Eleanor in attendance. He was succeeded by Edward, who slowly made his way back to England via Gascony, finally arriving in August 1274.



Henry's tomb in Westminster Abbey, London
        

#24  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Edward I of England

        

#22  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

爱德华一世,根据以前的艺术品的临摹,1902年


自从1066 年诺曼征服以来,English Kings 很大程度上是法国人,或说法语,或法英双语。到了爱德华一世,据说是自幼即学英文。如维基指出,前面已有三位爱德华国王,但都是盎格鲁撒克逊人。 爱德华一世是征服者威廉后代中第一位爱德华国王。在他之后,又有七位,最后一位是1972年过世的爱德华八世。




wiki:

爱德华一世(英文:Edward I,1239年6月17日-1307年7月7日),英格兰国王,俗称“长腿(Longshanks)”“长腿爱德华”、又称“苏格兰人之锤(Hammer of the Scots)”,因征服威尔士和几乎征服苏格兰而闻名。然而他的死使得他儿子爱德华二世(Edward II)即位,并最终未能征服苏格兰。“长腿”在位35年(1272年-1307年),于1272年11月20日,他的父亲,国王亨利三世去世后即位,他的母亲就是普罗旺斯的埃莉诺。

按照诺曼人(不是盎格鲁撒克逊人)对君主的称号排序习惯,“长腿”爱德华被称为爱德华一世(Edward I),尽管他是英格兰第四位爱德华国王,前三位分别是:长者爱德华、殉教者爱德华和忏悔者爱德华。
        

#23  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
爱德华的生平简介。这么读一遍这一章也就算过了。

wiki:

爱德华一世是英格兰国王亨利三世的长子,1239年6月17日生于威斯敏斯特。

1254年,15岁从父王手中得到自己的领地,并与莱昂国王阿方索十世之妹埃莉诺结婚。

不久他就卷入13世纪60年代英格兰的内战,并在其中发挥重要作用。爱德华之父亨利三世由于奉行一系列不得人心的政策,受到以大贵族为首、包括市民和富裕农民的尖锐反对。英格兰贵族于1258年迫使亨利三世签署了牛津条例,在国内实际形成了贵族寡头统治。亨利三世拒绝遵守牛津条例,导致了他于1263年与诸侯开战。1264年,由贵族首领西蒙·蒙特福特(法语原名西蒙·孟福尔)率领的义勇队(包括骑士、市民和农民)在刘易斯战役中击溃了亨利三世,亨利三世被迫交权且以爱德华为人质。

1265年,爱德华一世以其智勇成功逃走。

1265年8月,爱德华一世独自率军与蒙特福特在伊夫哈姆交锋获胜,蒙特福特阵亡。亨利三世恢复了权力,但他把实权交给了爱德华,命其监国。

1268年,爱德华试图参加法国国王路易九世率领的第八次十字军东征而去法国。这次东征完全失败。路易九世于1270年进攻突尼斯时死于瘟疫,爱德华滞留东方无处可去。

1272年亨利三世去世,英格兰贵族一致拥护爱德华继位。但爱德华直到第三年才回到国内,于1274年8月加冕。

1277年—1284年,在爱德华一世的统治之下,英格兰征服了威尔士,使之处于英国的王权之下。

1284年的“威尔士法”使威尔士处于英国法律之下。爱德华一世又把威尔士亲王之爵位封给自己新出生的儿子,此后该称号一直由王位继承人沿用至今。

1295年,为了筹措军费而召集“模范议会”(Model Parliament),包含大主教、主教、修道院院长、伯爵、男爵、以及各郡与各自治镇代表,总计人数达四百名以上。

爱德华的晚年生活充满了坎坷,他失去了心爱的第一任妻子埃莉诺,而他的继承人并不具备预期的王者之气。

1305年,爱德华捕获苏格兰叛军将领威廉·华勒斯,并将其处决枭首示众,却无助慑服苏格兰当地风起云涌的反叛势力。

1307年,年近七十的爱德华在再次征讨由罗伯特·布鲁斯领导下的苏格兰的途中,死在苏格兰边界布鲁夫(Burgh by Sands, Cumberland)。根据后来的记载,爱德华要求把他的骨头带到之后在苏格兰的军事战役中。而更可靠的记载以及当代作家的报告中,国王最后的要求是把他的心脏带到圣地。可以肯定的是,爱德华安葬在威斯敏斯特大教堂内的一座纯黑大理石陵墓中,被称作“Edwardus Primus Scottorum malleus hic est, pactum serva(爱德华一世,苏格兰之锤,坚守忠诚)”。
        

#25  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
爱德华一世与埃莉诺Eleanor of Castile 是近亲结婚。

Eleanor of England是亨利二世的女儿, 取其母阿基坦的埃莉诺之名。 Eleanor of England 与 King John 是姐弟。
爱德华一世是约翰王的孙儿。Eleanor of Castile 是Eleanor of England 的 great-granddaughter.
所以论辈份,爱德华一世比Eleanor of Castile 高一辈呢 。


Eleanor of England, Queen consort of Castile

Eleanor of England 的婚姻也是政治联姻,“ Her parents' purpose in arranging the marriage was to secure Aquitaine’s Pyrenean border”。 Castile 卡斯蒂利亚最终成为西班牙王国。

Eleanor of England 的女儿Blanche 嫁给了路易八世,成为 Queen Consort of France。

wiki:

英格兰的埃莉诺(1162年10月13日-1214年10月31日),亨利二世和阿基坦女公爵埃莉诺的次女,卡斯蒂利亚国王阿方索八世的妻子。

Eleanor of England (Spanish: Leonor; 13 October 1162 – 31 October 1214) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and received her first name as a namesake of her mother.

When she was 14 years old, before 17 September 1177, Eleanor was married to King Alfonso VIII of Castile in Burgos. The marriage had been arranged some years earlier; the couple were betrothed in 1170 but, because of Eleanor’s youth at that time, the wedding was delayed. Her parents' purpose in arranging the marriage was to secure Aquitaine’s Pyrenean border, while Alfonso was seeking an ally in his struggles with his uncle, Sancho VI of Navarre. In 1177, this led to Henry overseeing arbitration of the border dispute.



sing wrote: (7/18/2015 16:51)

wiki:

1254年,15岁从父王手中得到自己的领地,并与莱昂国王阿方索十世之妹埃莉诺结婚。


        

#25  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of England


Eleanor of Castille 是爱德华一世的第一任王后。这当然也是一桩政治婚姻。

埃莉诺的half brother, 卡斯蒂利亚 国王Alfonso 原对这片地区有争议。但埃莉诺嫁给爱德华后,亨利三世就不必为此头痛了, 因为埃莉诺的嫁妆就是阿基坦南部的Gascony加斯科涅地区。

英格兰和卡斯蒂利亚后来在很长时期内都是同盟国,王室之间并有通婚, 如1348年,爱德华三世的女儿 Joan of England 被许配给Castile 国王Peter of Castile 佩德罗一世,但在从英格兰去Castile 的途中染上黑死病而死去。佩德罗一世的女儿Constance of Castile 是爱德华三世之子冈特的约翰的第二任妻子。

(In December 1259, Louis IX of France ceded to Henry land north and east of Gascony.[5] In return, Henry renounced his claim to many of the territories that had been lost by King John.
In May 1286, King Edward I paid homage before the new king, Philip IV of France, for the lands in Gascony. However, in May 1295, Philip "confiscated" the lands. Between 1295 and 1298, Edward sent three expeditionary forces to recover Gascony, but Philip was able to retain most of the territory until the Treaty of Paris in 1303 --- wiki)


Wiki:

Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.

In 1252, Alfonso X had also resurrected another ancestral claim, this time to the duchy of Gascony, in the south of Aquitaine, last possession of the Kings of England in France, which he claimed had formed part of the dowry of Eleanor of England. Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonso's claims with both diplomatic and military moves. Early in 1254 the two kings began to negotiate; after haggling over the financial provision for Eleanor, Henry and Alfonso agreed she would marry Henry's son Edward, and Alfonso would transfer his Gascon claims to Edward. Henry was so anxious for the marriage to take place that he willingly abandoned elaborate preparations already made for Edward's knighting in England, and agreed that Alfonso would knight Edward before the wedding took place.

The young couple married at the monastery of Las Huelgas, Burgos, on 1 November 1254. Edward and Eleanor were second cousins once removed, as Edward's grandfather King John of England and Eleanor's great-grandmother Eleanor of England were the son and daughter of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Following the marriage they spent nearly a year in Gascony, with Edward ruling as lord of Aquitaine. During this time Eleanor, aged thirteen and a half, almost certainly gave birth to her first child, a short lived daughter. She was summoned by Henry III to England alone in late summer of 1255. Edward followed her a few months later. 


Gascony Tour



wiki:

加斯科涅(奥克语:Gasconha gasˈkunjɔ)指法国西南部的一个地区,位于今阿基坦大区及南部-比利牛斯大区。

在罗马人征服以前,加斯科涅的居民是阿基坦人,他们说的语言可能与现代的巴斯克语有关连。阿基坦人的定居范围从大西洋海岸起,在东面和北面直抵加龙河,南至比利牛斯山。

前50年代,罗马军征服加斯科涅。前27年,阿基坦高卢行省成立。


        

#26  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas
"The abbey was founded in 1187 by Alfonso VIII of Castile, at the behest of his wife, Eleanor of England, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine." -- wiki



1254年11月, 15岁的Edward (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307)与13岁的埃莉诺(1241 – 28 November 1290) 于 the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas in Castile 举行婚礼。

虽是政治联姻,却是一桩好姻缘。两人情深意笃。自诺曼人入主英格兰,爱德华一世大概是继征服者威廉之后第二个没有私生子的国王。二人共生育16个子女,第16个孩子是爱德华二世,是在爱德华一世征服威尔士时生于Caernarfon Castle。

埃莉诺夫唱妇随,跟随爱德华东征。1272年,穆斯林刺客带毒的匕首刺伤了爱德华的胳膊,医生割掉化脓部位的肉,才保住了爱德华的性命。 坊间后来传成是埃莉诺将毒吮吸出来,丈夫才因此活命。
埃莉诺1290年49岁时病逝于Lincoln 附近的 Harby. 灵柩运回伦敦的西敏寺,路经12处夜晚歇脚。爱德华一世后命修建12座Eleanor Crosses矗立各歇脚地, 以悼亡妻。


wiki:
He was wounded in the arm by a dagger that was thought to be poisoned. The wound soon became seriously inflamed, and a surgeon saved him by cutting away the diseased flesh, but only after Eleanor was led from his bed, "weeping and wailing." Later storytellers embellished this incident, claiming Eleanor sucked poison from the wound, thereby saving Edward's life, but this fanciful tale has no foundation.

Upon her death in 1290 at Harby, near the city of Lincoln, the body of Queen Eleanor was carried to Lincoln where she was embalmed, probably either at the Gilbertine priory of St. Catherine, Lincoln in the south of Lincoln, or at the priory of the Dominicans. Her viscera, less her heart, were sent to the Angel Choir of Lincoln Cathedral for burial, where they still rest. Her body was then sent to London, taking 12 days to reach Westminster Abbey. The crosses were erected at the places where her funeral procession stopped overnight.
        

#27  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Eleanor cross in the town centre of Waltham Cross, Hertfordshire


1290年49岁的埃莉诺病逝于Lincoln 附近的 Harby,灵柩运回伦敦的西敏寺,路上要走12天。爱德华一世后命修建12座Eleanor Crosses(建于1291-1294年),矗立于12处夜间歇脚地, 以悼亡妻。现仅存3座:Geddington, Hardingstone和Waltham Cross。


wiki:

The Eleanor crosses were a series of twelve lavishly decorated stone monuments topped with tall crosses of which three survive nearly intact in a line down part of the east of England. King Edward I had the crosses erected between 1291 and 1294 in memory of his wife Eleanor of Castile, marking the nightly resting-places along the route taken when her body was transported to London. Several artists worked on the crosses, as the "Expense Rolls" of the Crown show, with some of the work being divided between the main figures, sent from London, and the framework, made locally. "Alexander of Abingdon" and "William of Ireland", both of whom had worked at Westminster Abbey were apparently the leading sculptors of figures.

Upon her death in 1290 at Harby, near the city of Lincoln, the body of Queen Eleanor was carried to Lincoln where she was embalmed, probably either at the Gilbertine priory of St. Catherine, Lincoln in the south of Lincoln, or at the priory of the Dominicans. Her viscera, less her heart, were sent to the Angel Choir of Lincoln Cathedral for burial, where they still rest. Her body was then sent to London, taking 12 days to reach Westminster Abbey. The crosses were erected at the places where her funeral procession stopped overnight.

At Westminster she was buried at the feet of her father-in-law King Henry III. Her heart travelled with the body and was buried in the abbey church at the London Dominicans' priory at Blackfriars, along with that of her son Alphonso.

The only three crosses still standing are those at Geddington, Hardingstone, just outside Northampton, and Waltham Cross, although remnants of the lost ones can also be seen at other sites.


Eleanor Cross, Geddington Kettering Northamptonshire
        

#28  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
King Charles Statue - London

        

#29  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Charing Cross Roundabout, showing the Statue of Charles I, situated on the site of the original Eleanor Cross


从Lincoln 到London 的最后一站是Charing.

一说Charing 源于古英语"cierring", 当时泰晤士河转弯处的一座小村庄。

还有一种说法, Charing 源自法文" chère reine" — "dear queen" , 即“亲爱的王后”。 问题是,早在埃莉诺过世至少一百年前,原来的名字就存在了。


wiki:

"Erect a rich and stately carved cross,
Whereon her statue shall with glory shine;
And henceforth see you call it Charing Cross."
George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First (1593)

The name of the hamlet of Charing is derived from the old English word "cierring", referring to the nearby bend in the River Thames.

The addition of the name "Cross" to the area's name originates from the Eleanor cross erected in 1291–94 by King Edward I as a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile, and placed between the former hamlet of Charing and the entrance to the Royal Mews of the Palace of Whitehall (today the top of Whitehall on the south side of Trafalgar Square). Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — "dear queen" in French — but the original name pre-dates Eleanor's death by at least a hundred years.

查令十字(Charing Cross,英语发音:/ˌtʃærɨŋ ˈkrɔːs/),或译查灵歌斯、查灵十字、查宁阁等,是位于伦敦西敏市的一个交汇路口,是伦敦的传统中心点,也是英国习惯上的铁路、公路里程零基准点。

查令十字的准确位置是河岸街、白厅和科克斯勃街(Cockspur Street)三条道路的交汇处,位于特拉法加广场正南。查令十字得名于古时立于此的一座埃莉诺十字(Eleanor cross)。埃莉诺十字是13世纪末,英王爱德华一世为纪念死去的埃莉诺王后所建的12座顶端为十字架的纪念碑。其中这座纪念碑当时坐落于伦敦城西郊的查令村内,因而被称作“查令十字”。查令村的埃莉诺十字在1647年英国内战中被革命派的议会政府下令拆毁,直至王室复辟后的1675年,一座被保皇党保护下来的查理一世骑马铜像被放置在原来埃莉诺十字的位置上,直至今日。

1864年,位于查令十字附近的查令十字火车站和相连的查令十字饭店建成,第二年铁路运营商在车站饭店建筑前重建了埃莉诺十字。新的埃莉诺十字位于原建筑遗址以东49米,比原建筑要精美、高大得多。

伦敦著名的书店街,查令十字路(Charing Cross Road),因通往查令十字火车站而得名,但并不连接查令十字本身,且街上的书店离查令十字火车站有相当距离,实际位于毗邻的莱斯特广场地区以及以北路段。查令十字街上有各种专业书店及二手书店坐落,其中最为闻名的是蜉蝣肆书店(Foyles)。西敏市政府所办的查宁阁图书馆(Charing Cross Library)位于查令十字路上,包含伦敦最大的公共中文图书馆,位置靠近查令十字并以此得名。



查令十字车站前的重建的埃莉诺十字。
        

#30  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Platform 9¾ is in the western departures concourse, close to platforms 9 and 10, below the walkway leading to the main building.


顺便提一下King's Cross. 小孩子到了伦敦,肯定要到King's Cross 找Platform 9 3/4.

"传说国王十字站是在布迪卡最后战斗的遗址上修建的,或有说遗址可能埋在了第8、第9或第10站台站台下面。车站下面还有布迪卡的阴魂作祟的通道。

King's Cross 的原意是纪念英王乔治四世。

国王十字火车站(英文:King's Cross Railway Station)是一个1852年启用的大型铁路终点站,位于伦敦市中心的国王十字地区,在卡姆登区与伊斯林顿区的交界线靠卡姆登区一侧。由A501、尤斯顿路和约克路连接。" --- wiki


Harry Potter scene 1 - Platform 9 3/4
        

#31  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Margaret of France, Queen consort of England
爱德华一世的第二任王后


埃莉诺过世后,爱德华一世悲恸不已,但为了确保与苏格兰交战时法兰西不从背后袭击,遂决定与法兰西政治联姻。另则因素是王位继承人。爱德华一世与埃莉诺虽生育16个子女,但存活率并不高,当时仅存的儿子是6岁的爱德华王子。

1291年,爱德华一世的儿子爱德华王子与Blanche of France--法兰西国王King Philip IV‘s half sister订婚。 但1293年,当爱德华一世得知布兰奇美貌无比后,遂请King Philip IV 将布兰奇许配给自己。

法王答应了,条件:
1. A truce would be concluded between the 2. two countries; and
Edward would cede the province of Gascony to France.

爱德华一世遣弟埃德蒙去法国迎新娘,却发现被法王tricked. 新娘是布兰奇11岁的妹妹Margaret。爱德华一世拒婚,并向法国宣战。

1298年,爱德华一世同腓力四世达成协议,订下两桩政治婚姻:Edward I would marry Margaret and his son would marry Isabella of France(法兰西母狼), Philip's youngest surviving child.

美人布兰奇红颜薄命,1300年出嫁,5年后香消玉殒。

1299年20岁的Margaret 与60岁的爱德华一世成婚,育有二子。 1307年爱德华去世。

wiki:

The death of Edward's beloved first wife, Eleanor of Castile, at the age of 49 in 1290, left him reeling in grief. However, it was much to Edward's benefit to make peace with France to free him to pursue his wars in Scotland. Additionally, with only one surviving son, Edward was anxious to protect the English throne with additional heirs. In summer of 1291, the English king had betrothed his son and heir, Edward, to Blanche of France in order to achieve peace with France. However, hearing of her renowned beauty, Edward decided to have his son's bride for his own and sent emissaries to France. Philip agreed to give Blanche to Edward on the following conditions: that a truce would be concluded between the two countries and that Edward would give up the province of Gascony. Edward agreed to the conditions and sent his brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, to fetch the new bride. Edward had been deceived, for Blanche was to be married to Rudolph III of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Albert I of Germany. Instead, Philip offered her younger sister Margaret to marry Edward (then 55). Upon hearing this, Edward declared war on France, refusing to marry Margaret. After five years, a truce was agreed upon under the influence of Pope Boniface VIII. A series of treaties in the first half of 1299 provided terms for a double marriage: Edward I would marry Margaret and his son would marry Isabella of France, Philip's youngest surviving child. Additionally, the English monarchy would regain the key city of Guienne and receive £15,000 owed to Margaret as well as the return of Eleanor of Castile's lands in Ponthieu and Montreuil as a dower first for Margaret, and then Isabella of France.

Edward was then 60 years old, at least 40 years older than his bride. The wedding took place at Canterbury on 8 September 1299. Margaret was never crowned, being the first uncrowned queen since the Conquest. This in no way lessened her dignity as the king's wife, however, for she used the royal title in her letters and documents, and appeared publicly wearing a crown even though she had not received one during a formal rite of investiture.

Margaret never remarried after Edward's death in 1307, despite being only 26 when widowed. She was alleged to have stated that "when Edward died, all men died for me".
        

#32  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
第二次伯爵战争后,亨利三世复位。王子爱德华不久参加法王路易九世领导的第八次东征。



sing wrote: (7/18/2015 16:51)

wiki:


不久他就卷入13世纪60年代英格兰的内战,并在其中发挥重要作用。爱德华之父亨利三世由于奉行一系列不得人心的政策,受到以大贵族为首、包括市民和富裕农民的尖锐反对。英格兰贵族于1258年迫使亨利三世签署了牛津条例,在国内实际形成了贵族寡头统治。亨利三世拒绝遵守牛津条例,导致了他于1263年与诸侯开战。1264年,由贵族首领西蒙·蒙特福特(法语原名西蒙·孟福尔)率领的义勇队(包括骑士、市民和农民)在刘易斯战役中击溃了亨利三世,亨利三世被迫交权且以爱德华为人质。

1265年,爱德华一世以其智勇成功逃走。

1265年8月,爱德华一世独自率军与蒙特福特在伊夫哈姆交锋获胜,蒙特福特阵亡。亨利三世恢复了权力,但他把实权交给了爱德华,命其监国。

1268年,爱德华试图参加法国国王路易九世率领的第八次十字军东征而去法国。这次东征完全失败。路易九世于1270年进攻突尼斯时死于瘟疫,爱德华滞留东方无处可去。

        

#33  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Death of Louis IX during the siege of Tunis


小布什打伊拉克是为父报仇。路易九世发动第八次东征是报第七次东征兵败被俘之仇。

第七次东征,路易九世的弟弟阿图瓦伯爵丧命。第八次东征,路易九世染病身亡。

wiki:

第七次十字军东征(1248年-1254年),由法国国王路易九世发动,教皇英诺森四世支持,远征埃及。十字军很快便攻取了埃及杜姆亚特,但却陷入被瘟疫折磨的境况。熬过瘟疫后,十字军进攻开罗,但是被由将领拜巴尔率领的钦察奴隶骑兵(马穆路克)打败。结果,路易九世的弟弟阿图瓦伯爵被杀,路易九世在曼苏拉(Mansura)被俘。

1250年,当时的苏丹被其马穆路克军官推翻,故法国以大笔赎金赎回路易九世。但直到1254年,路易九世和与他的士兵才能被释放回国。

_______________________________________________


wiki:

第八次十字军东征(1270年)由法国国王路易九世为报1250年兵败之仇,不听法兰西贵族及近臣的劝阻,领导雇佣骑士,进军突尼斯穆斯林哈夫斯王朝。十字军在突尼斯登陆不久,全军染上瘟疫,一路上有大批士兵死亡,路易九世亦染病身亡。路易九世的儿子兼继承人腓力三世马上下令撤退。十字军撤退而告失败收场,此后,教皇曾多次号召组织十字军,都未能实现。

十字军东征前后八次,历时近200年,原占领的领土,逐一被穆斯林收复,从北非、小亚细亚,一直到东南欧,都成了穆斯林的势力范围。1291年最后据点阿卡城(今巴勒斯坦北部)被埃及马木留克王朝占领,耶路撒冷王国灭亡,标志着十字军东征彻底失败。另一方面,十字军东征增进了西方基督教国家的团结,为13世纪以后的文艺复兴运动开启大门。
        

#34  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Edward I kills his attempted assassin.


第九次东征是第八次东征的延续。至此,十字军东征已是强弩之末。
路易九世1270年在突尼斯身亡。“英格兰的爱德华王子赶来前战争已经结束。于是他继续向耶路撒冷进发。以支援安条克公爵、的黎波里伯爵博希蒙德六世,抵抗马穆鲁克对的黎波里伯国,和耶路撒冷王国残部的入侵。”


亨利三世于1272年11月16日驾崩。 爱德华闻讯启程返国,于1274年8月19日加冕为英格兰国王。


wiki:

经过商议,爱德华王子和路易九世之弟安茹的查理决定将军队带到耶路撒冷王国残余部分的首都阿卡城。这座城市同时也是拜巴尔的最终目标。正当拜巴尔正在围攻充斥着海量基督徒难民的的黎波里时,联军于1271年总算赶到了。凭借塞浦路斯和阿卡作为后盾,爱德华和查理成功打击了拜巴尔的补给线,解除了的黎波里之围。

爱德华一赶到阿卡城,便立即着手建立一个法蒙联盟,向伊儿汗国的统治者、穆斯林之敌阿八哈派遣信使。使团由雷金纳德·罗塞尔(Reginald Rossel)、Waus的戈德弗鲁瓦(Godefroi of Waus)和派克的约翰(John of Parker),意在寻求蒙古的军事援助。 在一份日期标注为1271年9月4日的回复中, 阿八哈同意合作并询问他应该何时向穆斯林下手。

新的一波来自英格兰和休三世统治下的塞浦路斯的援军赶到,为首的是爱德华之弟兰开斯特伯爵埃德蒙(Edmund)。援军的到来使王子吃下了定心丸。此时的他正忙于袭击夸昆(Qaqun)1271年10月末,一支蒙古军队到达叙利亚,并在阿勒颇以南地区四处掠夺。然而,阿八哈主力却陷入与土耳其人作战的泥潭,只能从安纳托利亚抽出萨马加(Samagar)率领的一万骑兵和塞尔柱辅助部队增援基督徒们。尽管规模不大,这些蒙古人仍给南到开罗地区的穆斯林民众带来了巨大的恐慌(他们还记得怯的不花的赫赫威名)。

但蒙古人没有能够停留多久,拜巴尔在11月12日发动了一次反攻,蒙古人的军团被赶回了幼发拉底河彼岸。

在中间这段时间,拜巴尔怀疑十字军可能对他的大后方埃及发动海陆联合进攻。觉得局势岌岌可危,他决定建造一支舰队来破坏这一策略。造完舰队之后,他企图登陆塞浦路斯以破坏十字军的后勤基地并将塞浦路斯国王休三世的舰队引出阿卡城来孤立呆在圣地的爱德华王子及其统领的十字军而非直接进攻十字军。然而,在海战中,拜巴尔的舰队遭受重创,他的军队不得不撤回出发地。

这次胜利后,爱德华明白想要平息十字军国家内的不安,就得建立一支足以光复耶路撒冷的军队,因此他试图调解休和他手下缺乏热情的塞浦路斯骑士之间的矛盾。与此同时,爱德华王子和休开始和拜巴尔苏丹谈判;1272年5月,双方于凯撒里亚签订了一份有效期为10年10个月又10天的和平协议。条约一签订完,埃德蒙王子便立即动身赶回英格兰,而爱德华则留下观察合约的执行情况。在合约签订之后的第二个月,拜巴尔试图暗杀爱德华。爱德华手刃了刺客,却被淬毒武器所伤,伤口溃烂。返回英格兰的计划不得不推迟。1272年9月,王子离开阿卡驶向西西里,在岛上修养的那段时间,他先听到他儿子约翰的死讯,几个月过后,他又得到了父王亨利三世去世的噩耗。1273年,爱德华取道意大利、加斯科尼和巴黎返回故土。最终,于1274年夏,他总算回到了阔别已久的故国,并在1274年8月19日加冕为英格兰之王。



Operations during the Ninth Crusade.
        

#35  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

sing wrote: (7/18/2015 16:51)

wiki:

...........

1272年亨利三世去世,英格兰贵族一致拥护爱德华继位。但爱德华直到第三年才回到国内,于1274年8月加冕。

1277年—1284年,在爱德华一世的统治之下,英格兰征服了威尔士,使之处于英国的王权之下。

1284年的“威尔士法”使威尔士处于英国法律之下。爱德华一世又把威尔士亲王之爵位封给自己新出生的儿子,此后该称号一直由王位继承人沿用至今。
...............



继续爱德华一世的年表。

爱德华一世1274年8月加冕后,开始放眼邻国---威尔士与苏格兰。第一目标是征服英格兰的西南邻威尔士。


威尔士历史 from 百度 :

威尔士王国的历史要比英格兰更加古老。公元前1000年时,就有凯尔特人从欧洲大陆中部来到这里。此后,威尔士的西北部地区最早出现称霸势力,其祖先是西留尔人;西南方被爱尔兰人侵占,建立布莱秦尼奥克王国;中部地区的主要势力则是科诺伟部族。这些势力,后来都被罗马帝国攻灭。

公元43年~410年,威尔士是罗马帝国不列颠尼亚行省的一部分。后因日耳曼蛮族侵犯欧洲,罗马帝国被迫抽调不列颠尼亚的军队前去迎战,致当地防守空虚,东南沿岸屡屡遭受苏格兰地区皮克特人的侵扰。当地的罗马贵族雇佣日耳曼人中的盎格鲁人和撒克逊人帮忙防守,谁知这些外籍兵突然哗变,反而开始攻打罗马贵族的统治区;而欧洲大陆的罗马帝国则对这一情况视而不见,不肯派兵救援。如此混战到公元6世纪初,不列颠人陆续退往岛西威尔士地区的群山之中,其中的布立吞人开始自称威尔士人,同时建立格温内斯王国(Kingdom of Gwynedd)这一罗马帝国继承国,其国王享有“不列颠人之王”(King of the Britons)的尊称。威尔士人不断抗击盎格鲁-撒克逊人一事,孕育了亚瑟王的精彩传说。

此后,英格兰地区由盎格鲁-撒克逊人主导,开始所谓“七国割据”的历史阶段。威尔士则同样群雄林立,格温内斯王国和先后出现的德赫巴斯王国(Deheubarth)、格温特王国(Kingdom of Gwent)、布雷切尼奥格王国(Brycheiniog)互有胜负。公元784年,英格兰七国之一的麦西亚国王奥发(Offa)在英格兰和威尔士之间的海域筑堤,这个奥发堤坝是两地间第一个永久性边界。

大概从公元865年开始,维京人渡海攻打不列颠岛,称霸东南地带,直到878年方被英格兰南部威塞克斯王国的阿尔弗雷德大王挥师击破,订立和约。阿尔弗雷德不断进取,将势力范围推至英格兰的东部和北部,后更以英格兰国王自称。其子爱德华(长者爱德华)继承父业,几乎将维京人彻底赶出英格兰地区,只留下诺森布里亚南部的约克地区尚存一息,史称斯堪的纳维亚约克王国。威尔士的小国王纷纷向他称臣。

公元924年,长者爱德华去世,其继承者艾塞斯坦灭亡约克的维京人王国。公元927年7月12日,苏格兰国王和格温内斯国王等出席会议,都表示追随艾塞斯坦。会后,艾塞斯坦陈兵赫德福德地区的威河沿岸,迫使威尔士其余割据势力向他称臣纳贡,同时首次规定以威河作为威尔士和英格兰的边境。威尔士由此得到一段和平安稳的时光,诸侯基本服从格温内斯国王指挥。

公元1066年,诺曼底公爵威廉一世征服英格兰,建立诺曼底王朝。他援引艾塞斯坦的史事降伏威尔士诸侯。由此以降,威尔士诸侯长久附庸英格兰国王。

公元1216年,格温内斯王国的罗埃林大王(Llywelyn the Great)征得英格兰国王亨利三世同意,把威尔士境内的全部王国撤销,同时成立威尔士公国(Principality of Wales)并由罗埃林大王统治。



Offa's Dyke near Clun, Shropshire, England.

英格兰与威尔士以奥法堤为界

"奥法堤(英语:Offa's Dyke,威尔士语:Clawdd Offa)是英格兰和威尔士边界上的线状军事工事,从塞文河畔的切普斯托向北延伸270公里至迪河三角洲。建于麦西亚国王奥法在位时的8世纪末,目的是防御威尔士人的进攻,因为奥法占领了很多威尔士人的土地。奥法堤在数个世纪都是英格兰和威尔士的分界线。奥法堤大部分是平坦的堤坝,个别地方高18米,在威尔士一侧有深约3.7米的深沟。有些部分至今仍然可见,成为一些徒步旅行者徒步的路线"--- wiki
        

#36  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
亨利三世时,威尔士公国(Principality of Wales)向英格兰进贡,俯首称臣,以期保全国家。
但爱德华一世继位后,并不满足威尔士臣服的状况。他发兵征服威尔士,令威尔士丧失主权,沦为英格兰的殖民地。


百度:

公元1277年,亨利三世的后继者爱德华一世动兵攻打威尔士,至1284年征服全境,同年颁行“威尔士法”。爱德华一世接受威尔士人的要求,同意由一位在威尔士出生、不会讲英语、生下来第一句话说威尔士语的亲王来管理威尔士人。他把即将分娩的王后接到威尔士,生下的王子便是第一位“威尔士亲王”爱德华二世。由此以降,英格兰国王和后来的大不列颠国王总是把“威尔士亲王”的头衔赐给长子。久而久之,这个头衔就成了“英国王储”的同义词。
        

#37  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Conquest of Wales - Timelines.tv History of Britain C01

        

#37  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Statue of Llywelyn the Great, Conwy


威尔士历史上有两位"the Great", 一位是 Rhodri ap Merfyn (c. 820–878), later known as Rhodri the Great 。 另一位就是罗埃林大王。罗埃林大王在威尔士历史上的地位若不是最高,也是非常之高。 网上关于罗埃林大王的中文文字非常有限,有兴趣者可参阅英文维基。

罗埃林大王(英文:Llywelyn the Great 威尔士语:Llywelyn Fawr 1172年-1240年4月11日)是威尔士西北部格温内斯王国之主,主导威尔士地区四十余年。公元1216年,他征得宗主国英格兰的国王亨利三世允许,把威尔士地区的各王国统合为威尔士公国并由他进行管理。---- 中文维基

罗埃林大王统治时期,对内巩固政权,对外联合法国以及英格兰的反国王贵族势力,并迎娶King John的Natural daughter, 得以在强邻之侧,扩大疆土,独立为政。


罗埃林大王统治时期(1195–1240), 英格兰国王分别为King John( 6 April 1199 – 19 October 1216 在位), 和 Henry III(19 October 1216 – 16 November 1272 在位).


wiki:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llywelyn_the_Great

Llywelyn the Great (Welsh: Llywelyn Fawr, [ɬəˈwɛlɨn vaur]), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 1172 – 11 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for 40 years.

During Llywelyn's boyhood, Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who split the kingdom between them, following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200 and made a treaty with King John of England that year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's natural daughter Joan in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208, Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210, relations deteriorated, and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover them the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216, he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

。。。。。。。


Llywelyn consolidated his position in 1205 by marrying Joan, the natural daughter of King John. He had previously been negotiating with Pope Innocent III for leave to marry his uncle Rhodri's widow, daughter of Rǫgnvaldr Guerøearson, King of the Isles. However this proposal was dropped.

In 1208 Gwenwynwyn of Powys fell out with King John who summoned him to Shrewsbury in October and then arrested him and stripped him of his lands. Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys and northern Ceredigion and rebuild Aberystwyth castle. In the summer of 1209 he accompanied John on a campaign against King William I of Scotland.


This was the low point of Llywelyn's reign, but he quickly recovered his position. The other Welsh princes, who had supported King John against Llywelyn, soon became disillusioned with John's rule and changed sides. Llywelyn formed an alliance with Gwenwynwyn of Powys and the two main rulers of Deheubarth, Maelgwn ap Rhys and Rhys Gryg, and rose against John. They had the support of Pope Innocent III, who had been engaged in a dispute with John for several years and had placed his kingdom under an interdict. Innocent released Llywelyn, Gwenwynwyn and Maelgwn from all oaths of loyalty to John and lifted the interdict in the territories which they controlled. Llywelyn was able to recover all Gwynedd apart from the castles of Deganwy and Rhuddlan within two months in 1212.

John planned another invasion of Gwynedd in August 1212. According to one account, he had just commenced by hanging some of the Welsh hostages given the previous year when he received two letters. One was from his daughter Joan, Llywelyn's wife, the other from William I of Scotland, and both warned him in similar terms that if he invaded Wales his magnates would seize the opportunity to kill him or hand him over to his enemies. The invasion was abandoned, and in 1213 Llywelyn took the castles of Deganwy and Rhuddlan. Llywelyn made an alliance with Philip II Augustus of France, then allied himself with the barons who were in rebellion against John, marching on Shrewsbury and capturing it without resistance in 1215. When John was forced to sign Magna Carta, Llywelyn was rewarded with several favourable provisions relating to Wales, including the release of his son Gruffydd who had been a hostage since 1211. The same year Ednyfed Fychan was appointed seneschal of Gwynedd and was to work closely with Llywelyn for the remainder of his reign.
        

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Wales c. 1217. Yellow: areas directly ruled by Llywelyn; Grey: areas ruled by Llywelyn's client princes; Green: Anglo-Norman lordships.


罗埃林大王的威尔士王国 the Principality of Wales or Pura Wallia, 以西北部的Gwynedd为根据地。

图中绿色地带为"The Welsh Marches",主要由亲英格兰的诺曼领主等控制。亨利一世时期就鼓励English settlers 向威尔士方向移民。有点类似美国早年的西部开发。为了防范威尔士人,这一带建了许多castles. 爱德华一世征服威尔士之后,在威尔士建造了不少castles ,以做防御工事。威尔士是城堡之国,据称是世界上拥有每平方英里最多城堡的地方,城堡晚些会贴。

wiki:

"The Welsh Marches" (Welsh: Y Mers) as a term in modern usage denotes an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods. The English terms "Welsh March" and "the March of Wales" (in Medieval Latin Marchia Walliae, were originally used in the Middle Ages to denote a more precisely defined territory, the marches between England and the Principality of Wales, in which Marcher lords had specific rights, exercised to some extent independently of the king of England.
        

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Sarcophagus of Joan, Lady of Wales

罗埃林大王的正妻是Joan, 英格兰国王King John 的natural daughter,即私生子。 这自然也是政治婚姻。 他们的儿子Dafydd ap Llywelyn 继承了父亲的王位。

wiki:

Joan, Lady of Wales and Lady of Snowdon, also known by her Welsh name of Siwan, (c. 1191 – 2 February 1237) was the wife of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales and Gwynedd, effective ruler of most of Wales.

Joan was a natural daughter of King John of England. She should not be confused with her half-sister, Joan, Queen consort of Scotland.

Joan married Llywelyn the Great between December 1203 and October 1204. The wedding was celebrated at St Werburgh's Abbey in Chester. She and Llywelyn had at least two children together:
Elen ferch Llywelyn (Helen or Ellen) (1207–1253), married (1) John the Scot, Earl of Chester and (2) Robert II de Quincy
Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1212-1246) married Isabella de Braose, died at Abergwyngregyn.
        

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Llywelyn the Great with his sons Gruffydd and Dafydd


罗埃林大王与正妻Joan的儿子 Dafydd ap Llywelyn 是第一个拥有Prince of Wales 头衔的君王。“ He was the first ruler to claim the title Prince of Wales.”

罗埃林大王的长子为Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr。他在孩童时就被约翰王扣在英格兰,作为他父亲信守诺言的抵押。因为罗埃林大王支持第一次公爵战争中的贵族们,1215年的大宪章中的条款促成了Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr的释放。

罗埃林大王于1240年驾崩。按照威尔士法律,原本应由长子Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr继位。但是罗埃林大王生前却指定由Dafydd ap Llywelyn (Joan 之子)继位。

Dafydd做王后,将哥哥Gruffydd监禁。 并于1241年Henry III 入侵威尔士后,被迫将哥哥交给英格兰。亨利三世将Gruffydd关在伦敦塔,以制约Dafydd.

1244年,Gruffydd 企图从伦敦塔逃走,但以床单和衣服做成的绳子不堪重负,Gruffydd不幸摔死。


wiki:

As a boy, Gruffydd was one of the hostages taken by King John of England as a pledge for his father's continued good faith. A clause in Magna Carta (1215) compelled his release. On his father's death in 1240, under Welsh law, he would have been entitled to consideration as his father's successor. Llywelyn however had excluded him from the succession and had declared Dafydd, his son by his wife Joan, to be heir to the kingdom. Llywelyn went to great lengths to strengthen Dafydd's position, probably aware that there would be considerable Welsh support for Gruffydd against the half-English Dafydd.

Gruffydd was held a prisoner by his brother Dafydd when the latter took over Gwynedd. Following a successful invasion of the Welsh borders by King Henry III of England in 1241, Dafydd was obliged to hand over Gruffydd into the king's custody, he was then taken to London and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Gruffydd's wife, Senana (possibly a daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey), agreed to pay Henry 600 marks for the release of her husband and their eldest son, Owain, and to hand over her two youngest sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, to the king as hostages to ensure that she kept her part of the bargain. Henry did not keep his part however, and kept Gruffydd and his son imprisoned as "guests" because this continued to give him the possibility of using Gruffydd as a weapon against his brother.

However, Gruffydd died while attempting to escape from the Tower in 1244. He is said to have used an improvised rope made from sheets and cloth



Gruffydd falling from the Tower of London
        

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Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd at Cardiff City Hall.


从伦敦塔跳下而死的Gruffydd有四子,次子Llywelyn即 Llywelyn the Last。

Dafydd 于2/25/1246猝死。死后葬于其父卢埃林大王所葬地the Abbey of Aberconwy. 1248年,同父异母的哥哥Gruffydd的尸骨也运返威尔士,移葬在同处。

Gruffydd的两个长子Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Owain ap Gruffydd 起先共治Gwynedd, 与King Henry 交战。1255年,Llywelyn ap Gruffudd 击败兄长Owain ap Gruffydd,成为“the last sovereign prince and king of Wales”。


wiki:

After his death Gruffydd's four sons—Owain, Llywelyn, Dafydd and Rhodri—would come into their own, and after much fraternal discord, Llywelyn ended up ruling most of Wales. He also had three daughters, Gwladus, Catherine and Margred.

Since Dafydd's marriage to Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, had failed to produce an heir (though some early modern genealogists record him as having sired sons, including Dafydd) the two elder sons of Gruffydd, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Owain ap Gruffydd, divided Gwynedd between them and continued the war with King Henry until April 1247, when Llywelyn and Owain met the King at Woodstock and came to terms with him at the cost of the loss of much territory. The pair would continue to rule over Gwynedd jointly until Llywelyn's victory over Owain at the battle of Bryn Derwin in 1255.
        

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The former abbey church, now the parish church for Conwy

wiki:

Aberconwy Abbey was a Cistercian foundation at Conwy, later transferred to Maenan near Llanrwst, and in the 13th century was the most important abbey in the north of Wales.

A Cistercian house was founded at Rhedynog Felen near Caernarfon in 1186 by a group of monks from Strata Florida Abbey. About four or five years later they moved to Conwy, and in 1199 were given large grants of land by Llywelyn the Great who had recently become ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn was regarded as the founder of the house, and thanks to his support it came to hold more land than any other Welsh abbey, over 40,000 acres (160 km2). On Llywelyn's death in 1240 he was buried at the abbey, and his son and successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn was also buried here in 1246. In 1248 Llywelyn's other son, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who had died trying to escape from the Tower of London in 1244, was reburied at Aberconwy after the abbot of Aberconwy, together with the abbot of Strata Florida, had arranged for his body to be repatriated from London.

The abbot of Aberconwy was an important figure in the negotiations between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and the English crown later in the century, and in 1262 was entrusted with the task of being Llywelyn's sole representative in negotiations.

In 1282, Edward I of England surrounded Snowdonia with a massive army. On 11 December Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru, was lured into a trap and murdered.

In 1283 King Edward I of England obliged the monks to move from Conwy to Maenan, further up the Conwy valley (53.1733°N 3.8123°W), so he could construct a castle and walled town at Conwy. The move had been completed by 1284, with Edward financing the building of a new abbey. In the 15th century the abbot, John ap Rhys, became involved in a dispute with Strata Florida Abbey and led some of his monks and some soldiers on a raid on that abbey. The abbey was valued at £162 in 1535 and was suppressed in 1537.

Little remains of the Maenan Abbey buildings, but the original abbey church in Conwy was adapted to become the parish church of St Mary & All Saints and although much rebuilt over the centuries some parts of the original church remain. The other buildings of the abbey are thought to have been located north and east of the church.
        

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The Last Prince of Wales

        



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