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#1【历史长河 】   BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
英国史:英国民族
http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/dkTR3nyOBr4/



BBC英国历史纪录片汇总
http://www.en8848.com.cn/tingli/video/britain-history/186000.html



BBC英国史英语视频第04章:Nations 英国民族 英语字幕文本:
http://www.en8848.com.cn/tingli/video/britain-history/185956.html


__________________________________________________________________________

回到历史的timeline.

约翰驾崩后,九岁的儿子亨利继位, 成为亨利三世。
亨利一世为William the Conqueror 的第四个儿子。
亨利二世为亨利一世的外孙(亨利一世女儿Matilda长子)。
亨利三世为亨利二世的孙子(亨利二世幼子John的长子)。



sing wrote: (6/20/2015 22:26)
约翰的突然去世使得第一次诸侯战争迅速结束。希望和平的贵族们不再支持路易王子,迅速加冕约翰九岁的儿子亨利为国王。

路易王子签署了《蓝贝斯条约 Treaty of Lambeth》,放弃他对英格兰王位的claim.

以William Marshal 为首的贵族以《大宪章》为治国之法摄政,统治英格兰至1227年。

wiki:

In the aftermath of John's death William Marshal was declared the protector of the nine-year-old Henry III. The civil war continued until royalist victories at the battles of Lincoln and Dover in 1217. Louis gave up his claim to the English throne and signed the Treaty of Lambeth. The failed Magna Carta agreement was resuscitated by Marshal's protectorate and reissued in an edited form in 1217 as a basis for future government. Henry III continued his attempts to reclaim Normandy and Anjou until 1259, but John's continental losses and the consequent growth of Capetian power in the 13th century proved to mark a "turning point in European history"






____________________________________________________________________


亨利三世,根据以前的艺术品的临摹,1902年


亨利三世在位56年,65岁时因病过世。当时法兰西的国王是路易九世, 亨利三世的亲戚。亨利三世与路易九世亲上加亲。

其一,亨利三世的父亲是约翰。而路易九世的母亲是Blanche of Castile,布兰奇的母亲即为约翰之姐Eleanor of England。

其二,亨利三世的王后Eleanor of Provence与路易九世的王后Margaret of Provence 为亲生姐妹。当时欧洲的很多王室成员都有亲戚关系。

但亲上加亲也无法消除利益冲突。亨利三世还惦记着法国那些lost lands,原该属于他的inheritance.

wiki:

亨利三世(英文:Henry III,1207年10月1日-1272年11月16日),英格兰国王,由1216年到1272年在位。虽然他的在位时间相当长,他是英格兰历史上最无名的国王之一。

亨利三世的父亲是英格兰国王约翰。约翰死时他才九岁。反对约翰的英格兰伯爵们当时正准备支持法国王子路易入侵英格兰推翻约翰。约翰的不期之死为他们提供了一个和平解决这个问题的方法:他们迅速加冕约翰的儿子亨利为国王,在亨利年幼期间这些伯爵可以按大宪章作为国王的执政人来统治英格兰。这些执政人一直统治到1227年。

但亨利成人后他立刻开始重建国王的绝对权力。他娶了法国普罗旺斯的艾莉诺为王后,许多他的法国亲戚都获得了权势和财富。

____________________________________________________________


nation, 译成中文为“国家、民族”。 网译为"英国民族".

当时不列颠岛上 England, Scotland, Wales, 和旁边的Ireland 都各为主权独立国家。译成“国家”, 或更为贴切。
当然,从现世眼光看,是不同“民族”, 但根据维基定义,仍是大国套小国的"联合王国":

"The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

The UK consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.The latter three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff, and Belfast, respectively.

大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国(英语:The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland),简称联合王国(英语:United Kingdom,UK)或不列颠(英语:Britain),中文通称英国,是由大不列颠岛上的英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士,以及爱尔兰岛东北部的北爱尔兰以及一系列附属岛屿共同组成的一个西欧岛国。中文里的英国一词即由英格兰而来,英国的国际代码是GBR。

联合王国由四个国家联合而成,分别是英格兰、苏格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰。英国采用议会制政体,联合王国政府所在地为伦敦,但是同时拥有其他三个国家级行政机构分别位于北爱尔兰贝尔法斯特,威尔斯加的夫和苏格兰爱丁堡。英国是世界上第一个君主立宪国家,现任的君主是伊丽莎白二世女王。 "
--- wiki

英格兰周围的邻国在13th 世纪抵抗英王吞并,就是在当代,也还有独立倾向。2014年苏格兰独立公投结果:55%反对独立、45%支持独立。 碰到那边来的人,他们会明确告诉你, 是爱尔兰人,还是苏格兰人,虽然都属于UK。
        

#4  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
King Henry III (1207-1272)



里边有这么一句话:she wrapped him around her finger.
王后将亨利三世玩弄于鼓掌之上。
        

#5  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

普罗旺斯的埃莉诺 Eleanor of Provence

看来Eleanor 是皇家中意的美名.


wiki:

普罗旺斯的埃莉诺(Eleanor of Provence,1223年-1291年6月24日或25日)是金雀花王朝亨利三世的王后。

埃莉诺生于普罗旺斯地区艾克斯,她是普罗旺斯伯爵拉蒙·贝伦格尔四世(1198年–1245年)和萨伏依的贝娅特莉丝(1205年–1267年)的次女(他们的4个女儿都成为了王后)。像她的母亲、祖母和姐妹一样,埃莉诺以美貌闻名。1235年6月22日,埃莉诺和英格兰国王亨利三世订婚,那时她12岁。

1236年1月14日,埃莉诺和亨利三世在坎特伯雷大教堂举行婚礼,在此之前她从未见过亨利,也未涉足于他的王国。婚礼后,同一天内他们赶到伦敦,在威斯敏斯特教堂,埃莉诺加冕为英格兰王后。

埃莉诺和亨利育有5个子女:
爱德华一世(1239年–1307年), 1254年和卡斯蒂里亚的埃莉诺(1241年–1290年)结婚,拥有后嗣,包括他的继承人爱德华二世;1299年和法兰西的玛格丽特 结婚,拥有后嗣。
英格兰的玛格丽特 (1240年–1275年), 嫁与苏格兰国王亚历山大三世,拥有后嗣。
英格兰的贝娅特莉丝 (1242年–1275年), 嫁于布列塔尼公爵约翰二世,拥有后嗣。
第一代兰开斯特伯爵,埃德蒙·克罗奇贝克 (1245年–1296年)
凯瑟琳(1253年11月25日–1257年5月3日)

埃莉诺的好学、聪慧和善于写诗和她的美貌一样闻名。同时她也是时尚的引领者,不断的从法国引进时装。她经常穿着杂色的紧身外衣,金或银色的腰带,她喜欢装饰着镶金四叶花的红色绸缎,头戴时髦的筒式无沿帽。埃莉诺还带给英格兰一种新式的头巾,“戴着它,脸好像被一朵佛焰苞包围中”。

埃莉诺似乎对她的长子爱德华倾注了更多的关爱,1246年爱德华生命垂危,埃莉诺陪着他在汉普郡的修道院呆了3周多,远远超过了修道院规定的时间。1249年,国王封爱德华为加斯科涅公爵。她最小的女儿凯瑟琳患上了一种恶性的疾病并使她致聋,当小女孩在3岁时去世,她的父母遭受了巨大的悲伤。

埃莉诺是丈夫亨利忠贞的配偶,但在她的随从中有太多自己的亲戚,她对国王的影响和她与英格兰贵族的不和造成了许多摩擦。埃莉诺致力于亨利的事业,她坚定地与西蒙·德·孟福尔伯爵斗争,为了亨利在法国筹建军队。1263年7月13日,埃莉诺在泰晤士河上乘船时遭到了伦敦市民的袭击。埃莉诺始终对伦敦人反感,伦敦人也同样对她怀有敌意。为了报复她以部分市民拖欠对皇后的贡金为由征收罚款,罚款中有十分之一流向了她本人。除此之外她还对各种细小的原因征收了罚款。后来因为担心自己像当时乘船一样被市民丢石子、砖块、烂泥、臭鸡蛋和菜叶,埃莉诺得到了伦敦市长托马斯·菲茨托马斯的帮助,得以在伦敦主教家里避难。

1272年亨利三世逝世,其子爱德华即位,即为爱德华一世。埃莉诺在英国成为王太后后,抚养了她的外孙——爱德华的儿子亨利和女儿埃莉诺、贝娅特莉丝的儿子约翰。1274年外孙亨利在埃莉诺眼前去世时,她遭受了极大的哀痛。

埃莉诺退隐到了修道院,然而仍然与爱德华一世和姐姐法国皇后玛格丽特保持着联系。

1291年6月24或25日埃莉诺在英国索尔兹伯里以北约八英里的埃姆斯伯里去世,1291年9月11日葬于埃姆斯伯里大修道院,她的心脏被埋在了伦敦方济会修道院。


Last modified on 07/07/15 01:27
        

#6  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back



普罗旺斯必是风水宝地,盛产美酒,出美女,出王后, 亨利三世的王后Eleanor, 路易九世的王后Margaret(Eleanor的姐姐), Eleanor of Provence 还有两位妹妹也是王后:Sanchia, Queen of the Romans (Germany)和Beatrice, Queen of Sicily。四姐妹都是王后。

wiki:

普罗旺斯(法语:Provence),法国东南部的一个地区,古代时是古罗马的一个行省,毗邻地中海,和意大利接壤。从阿尔卑斯山经里昂南流的罗纳河,在普罗旺斯附近分为两大支流,然后注入地中海。

历史上的普罗旺斯地域范围变化很大,古罗马时期普罗旺斯行省北至阿尔卑斯山,南抵比利牛斯山脉,包括整个法国南部。18世纪末法国大革命时,普罗旺斯成为5个行政省份之一。到了1960年代,法国被重新划分为22个大区,普罗旺斯属于普罗旺斯-阿尔卑斯-蓝色海岸大区。

普罗旺斯境内有艾克斯、马赛等名城,并出产优质葡萄酒。此地区物产丰饶、阳光明媚、风景优美,从古希腊、古罗马时代起就吸引着无数游人,至今依然是旅游胜地。普罗旺斯的薰衣草花田更是难得的美景。

Provence: Legendary Light, Wind and Wine



Last modified on 07/07/15 01:27
        

#8  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
降E捉虫!这条线的序列号码有错,而且离谱。
        

#9  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
和谈细心,谢谢。大概是我用了“save as draft"的功能? 暂时不用了。
前边共有7帖,顺序倒都是对的,就是序号乱了(除了头帖,#4,5,6 三个序号是正确的。 其余三帖序号有误)。
4个序号乱的帖子并在第一帖中。凑合着看吧。
        

#10  Re: 【历史长河】 BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
亨利三世亲政后仍想夺回法国的失地,最终以失败告终,签订了《巴黎条约 (1259年)》。"这个条约间接导致了英法百年战争。"

战争耗费的巨额钱财当然来自苛捐杂税,令百姓怨声载道,令贵族不满。


"1227年,二十岁的亨利开始亲政,正式统治英国。亨利三世做了五十几年的国王,但是,他并无治国的才能。说起来,亨利三世性格和善,虔信宗教,热爱艺术,为人不错,但是,从治理国家来说,他又缺乏判断力,容易冲动,既怯懦无能,又野心勃勃,不切实际。在他统治时期,总的说来,英国仍处于停滞不前的状态。

亨利三世亲政后,一改以前向御前会议咨询国事的习惯,抛开御前会议,越来越独断专行。这引起了贵族们的不安。此外,亨利三世在对外作战中,也是屡战屡败。为了夺回诺曼底等地,亨利三世于1230年和1242年,两次进攻大陆,但是,寸土未得,以失败告终。"--- 百度

"In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle.

In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg."--- wiki



wiki:

Treaty of Paris (1259) 巴黎条约 (1259年)

巴黎条约(Treaty of Paris)是英格兰国王亨利三世和法国国王路易九世于1259年12月4日签署的条约。亨利三世同意放弃诺曼底(除了海峡群岛)、曼恩省、安茹省和普瓦图。他可以继续占有法国的加斯科尼和部分阿基坦,但只作为路易九世的诸侯身份保有。作为交换,路易九世不再支持反英叛乱。这个条约间接导致了英法百年战争。

Doubts about interpreting the Treaty began almost as soon as it was signed. The agreement resulted in the fact that the English kings had to pay homage liege to the French monarchs for territories on the continent. The situation did not help the friendly relationship between the two states, as it made two sovereigns of equal powers in their countries in fact unequal. According to professor Malcolm Vale, the treaty of Paris was one of the indirect causes of the Hundred Years' War.
        

#11  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Second Barons' War


对外,亨利三世输给了法王路易九世。

对内,也不得人心。亨利三世像其父约翰一样,也无治国才能。

约翰时期以First Barons' War终结。亨利三世时期,爆发了Second Barons' War。


第二次伯爵战争的起因:

wiki: (中文是本人随手翻的大意,非严格直译)

The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against Royalist forces led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England), in the name of Henry III.

(战争双方是以西蒙·德·蒙德福特为首的男爵们,和亨利三世之子爱德华王子领军的保皇势力。)

The reign of Henry III is most remembered for the constitutional crisis in this period of civil strife, which was provoked ostensibly by Henry III's demands for extra finances, but which marked a more general dissatisfaction with Henry's methods of government on the part of the English barons, discontent which was exacerbated by widespread famine.

(亨利治国无方,出兵打仗大耗财力,加上连年饥荒,因此贵族多有不满,而宪法危机则是亨利三世的统治标志。)

French-born Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, had originally been one of the foreign upstarts so loathed by many lords as Henry's foreign councillors, but having inherited through his mother the English title Earl of Leicester, he married Henry’s sister Eleanor without Henry's permission, and without the agreement of the English Barons (ordinarily necessary since it was a matter of state). As a result, a feud developed between de Montfort and Henry. Their relationship reached a crisis in the 1250s, when de Montfort was put on trial for actions he took as lieutenant of Gascony, the last remaining Plantagenet lands across the English Channel.

(西蒙·德·蒙德福特,莱切斯特伯爵,原本是亨利三世大力提拔的法国谋士,为英格兰本土贵族们所憎恨。西蒙通过他母亲承袭了英格兰的莱切斯特伯爵爵位。未经亨利和英格兰贵族们的许可,与亨利已婚新寡的二十三岁妹妹埃莉诺私定终身。国王由此对西蒙心生芥蒂。1250s年间,身为加斯科涅督办的西蒙甚至被亨利起诉。1253年西蒙与亨利修好。)

Henry also became embroiled in funding a war against the Hohenstaufen Dynasty in Sicily on behalf of Pope Innocent IV in return for the Hohenstaufen title King of Sicily for his second son Edmund. This made many barons fearful that Henry was following in the footsteps of his father King John and, like him, needed to be kept in check. When Henry's treasury ran dry, Innocent withdrew the title, and in regranting it to Charles of Anjou in effect negated the sale.

(教皇英诺森四世许诺,让亨利三世的二子埃德蒙做西西里国王, 当然有条件, 前提是亨利三世帮教皇收拾西西里当政的德国霍亨斯多芬王朝。贵族们一听就急了,怕亨利步他老爸约翰后尘东征西讨,觉得有必要限制他的权力。后来等亨利把国库的钱都挥霍光了,教皇立马取消了空头支票,把西西里国王的头衔送给了Charles ofAnjou 安茹的查尔斯. 好一个唯利是图出尔反尔的教皇,呵呵。英格兰当时闹饥荒,亨利三世还征收军费打仗,好一个糊涂国王。贵族岂有不反之理?)

Simon de Montfort became leader of those who wanted to reassert the Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baronial council. In 1258, initiating the move toward reform, seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, which effectively abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of twenty-four barons to deal with the business of government and providing for a great council in the form of a parliament every three years, to monitor their performance.

(贵族们想让国王重新受制于大宪章,于是推举西蒙做他们的领袖。1258年,七位领头的伯爵强迫亨利接受了牛津条例,废除盎格鲁-诺曼君主专制,把治国权交由24位伯爵组成的议会,每年召开三次大议会, 讨论国事。
every three years---根据Encyclopædia Britannica,应当是three times a year。 这段英文有点模糊,其实牛津条例是说由国王与议会共同治国,见后面转帖。 )

Henry was forced to take part in the swearing of a collective oath to uphold the Provisions of Oxford. In the following years, those supporting de Montfort, including his circle of Franciscan advisors centered on Adam Marsh, and those loyal to the king grew more and more polarised; Henry obtained a papal bull in 1261 exempting him from his oath, and both sides began to raise armies, the Royalists under Edward Longshanks, Henry's eldest son. A civil war followed.

(亨利被迫参加了支持牛津条例的集体宣誓。支持西蒙的法国顾问们和保皇势力派后来逐渐分道扬镳;1261年教皇传旨,允许亨利背弃誓言。接下来保皇派和反对派剑拔弩张,路易九世"调解"无效,英格兰内战开始。看来再没能耐的国王也不想放弃absolute power。)


Last modified on 07/09/15 01:42
        

#12  BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

Site of the Battle of Lewes


wiki:

Course of the war 第二次伯爵战争经过:
(中文是本人随手翻的大意,非严格直译)

The charismatic de Montfort and his forces had captured most of southeastern England by 1263 and at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, Henry was defeated and taken prisoner by de Montfort's army. While Henry was reduced to a figurehead king, de Montfort broadened parliamentary representation to include groups beyond the nobility, members from each county of England and many important towns. Henry and Edward continued under house arrest. The short period which followed was the closest England was to come to complete abolition of the monarchy until the Commonwealth period of 1649–1660, and many of the barons who had initially supported de Montfort began to suspect that he may have gone too far with his reforming zeal.

(西蒙极富领袖魅力。到1263年,他的军队占领了英格兰东南部的大部分地区。1264年刘易斯之战,西蒙军队获胜,亨利与其子爱德华均被俘后遭软禁,亨利成为傀儡国王。西蒙扩展议会,除了贵族,还包括了每个县郡市民阶层的代表。这一时期几乎废除了君主制, 颇接近1649-1660 时期克伦威尔的英格兰联邦。原先支持西蒙的许多贵族开始怀疑西蒙的改革是不是走得太远了。 无疑,西蒙太超前了。)

Only fifteen months later de Montfort's gains were reversed when Edward Longshanks escaped captivity to lead the royalists into battle again, defeating and killing de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. His son, Simon, attempted a negotiated surrender but it was rejected by de Montfort loyalists. The impasse culminated in the six-month Siege of Kenilworth at which the King prevailed. De Montfort's forces were permitted to leave the castle with their weapons and horses.

(仅仅15个月之后,战势便发生逆转。长腿爱德华用计逃跑,集结保皇派势力,于1265年的伊夫舍姆大战中杀死了西蒙。西蒙之子,也叫西蒙,想谈判投降,但被西蒙死党拒绝。最顽强的抵抗是长达六月之久的凯尼尔沃思之围。凯尼尔沃思非常坚固,易守难攻,最终国王一方取胜, 因为城内断粮。西蒙军队被允许骑马带武器出城。

关于爱德华逃脱:爱德华一日与那些看守们骑马溜达。他说,天气这么好,你们分成两组赛马吧。他在旁观看。傍晚时,那些看守们连人带马都跑累了,爱德华飞马奔向不远处接应他的人,绝尘而去。)

Following this victory, savage retribution was exacted on the rebels and authority was restored to King Henry. The casualties of the war are estimated at 15,000.

(打胜之后,反对派遭到了残忍的报复,绝对权力重归亨利之手。第二次伯爵战争伤亡数约为15000. )
        

#13  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
“The Provisions of Oxford were at least as important as Magna Carta. “
--- by Simon Schama

“关于《牛津条例》,它的命运与《大宪章》不同,随着蒙特福特战死,英国王室重掌大权,《牛津条例》被废除了。但是,牛津改革运动并未完全失败,国家大事应交议会讨论,国王和贵族应该合作解决问题,这在英国人心中已经根深蒂固。牛津改革在英国历史上,留下了不可磨灭的痕迹。 “
---- 互动百科

"It can be regarded as England’s first written constitution."


http://www.britannica.com/event/Provisions-of-Oxford

Provisions of Oxford 牛津条例

Provisions of Oxford, (1258), in English history, a plan of reform accepted by Henry III, in return for the promise of financial aid from his barons. It can be regarded as England’s first written constitution.

Henry, bankrupted by a foolish venture in Sicily, summoned Parliament in the spring of 1258 (the Easter Parliament, or the so-called Mad Parliament). In return for a badly needed grant of revenue, Henry grudgingly agreed to abide by a program of reform to be formulated by a 24-man royal commission, half of whom were to be chosen by the king, half by the baronial party. The report of the commission (issued c. June 10) is known as the Provisions of Oxford.

The Provisions, confirmed by an oath of “community” of the magnates, were to remain in effect for 12 years and provide the machinery through which the necessary reforms could be accomplished. The government was placed under the joint direction of the king and a 15-member baronial council that was to advise the king on all important matters. All high officers of the realm were to swear allegiance to the king and the council. Parliament was to meet three times a year to consult on further reforms. A justiciar was appointed (for the first time since 1234) to oversee local administration, and the majority of sheriffs were replaced by knights holding land in the shires that they administered.

Annulled by papal bulls in 1261 and 1262 and by Louis IX of France in the Mise of Amiens (January 1264), the Provisions were restored by baronial action in 1263 and, in modified form, in 1264 but finally annulled by the Dictum of Kenilworth (October 1266).


Last modified on 07/10/15 00:31
        

#14  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
Simon de Montfort and the Emergence of Parliament

        

#15  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

美国国会大厦众议院会议厅内西蒙·德孟福尔的浮雕

Matthew Paris reports that the Bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, once said to Simon's eldest son Henry: "My beloved child, both you and your father will meet your deaths on one day, and by one kind of death, but it will be in the name of justice and truth." ----wiki

西蒙的超前政治改革虽然失败了,但却受到了英国人和世人的尊重。


wiki:

第六代莱切斯特伯爵西蒙·德孟福尔(英语:Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester,1208年5月23日-1265年8月4日)是法国裔英格兰贵族。

在第二次伯爵战争(1263-1264年)中,率领贵族反抗亨利三世的统治,成为英格兰的实际统治者。在统治期间,召开了第一次由直接选举产生的议会(即英国下议院),这在中世纪的欧洲还是第一次。因此西蒙·德·孟福尔被视为现代议会制的创始人之一。1265年,在与保王党的军队作战中阵亡。
        

#16  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back

A 13th-century cloth depiction of the mutilation of de Montfort's body after the Battle of Evesham


西蒙死后被分尸。后来的苏格兰英雄华莱斯死得更惨。 爱德华一世(第二次伯爵战争中还是王子)很残忍。


"Edward ignored the rules of war.

The wounded were stabbed where they lay.

Simon's head, hands, feet and testicles were cut off...

...the genitals hung around his nose."
---- by Simon Schama



西蒙之死(from wiki):

An ominous black cloud hung over the field of Evesham as Montfort led his army in a desperate assault on 4 August 1265. Charging uphill against superior forces, his army was eventually destroyed; the battle was described as the "murder of Evesham, for battle it was none". His last words were said to have been "Thank God". Simon de Montfort died on 4 August 1265 at the Battle of Evesham, and his remains were buried secretly at the nearby Evesham Abbey. On hearing that his son Henry had been killed, he replied "Then it is time to die."He was then hemmed in and slain along with other leaders of his movement, including Peter de Montfort and Hugh Despenser. A twelve-man squad had actually stalked the battlefield, independent of Edward's main army, their sole aim being to find the earl and cut him down. It was Roger Mortimer who killed Montfort by stabbing him in the neck with a lance.

Simon's body was mutilated in an unparalleled frenzy by the royalists. News reached the mayor and sheriffs of London that "the head of the earl of Leicester ... was severed from his body, and his testicles cut off and hung on either side of his nose"; and in such guise the head was sent to Wigmore Castle by Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer as a gift to his wife, Maud. His hands and feet were also cut off and sent to diverse places to enemies of his, as a great mark of dishonour to the deceased Such remains as could be found were buried under the altar of Evesham Abbey by the canons. It was visited as holy ground by many commoners until King Henry caught wind of it. He declared that Simon deserved no spot on holy ground and had his remains reburied under an insignificant tree. The remains of some of his soldiers were found in the nearby village of Cleeve Prior after fleeing from the Battle of Evesham. Matthew Paris reports that the Bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, once said to Simon's eldest son Henry: "My beloved child, both you and your father will meet your deaths on one day, and by one kind of death, but it will be in the name of justice and truth."



Memorial stone on the site of de Montfort's grave, Evesham

In the years that followed his death, Simon de Montfort's grave was frequently visited by pilgrims. Napoleon Bonaparte described Simon de Montfort as "one of the greatest Englishmen".Today, Montfort is mostly remembered as one of the fathers of representative government.
---wiki
        

#17  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
西蒙与Eleanor of England (Henry III 之妹)共有7个子女。
西蒙与长子Henry 1265年8月4日战死于 Battle of Evesham。
埃莉诺和存活的子女们逃往欧洲。

西蒙之子 Guy de Montfort 战后被俘,贿赂狱卒逃往法国,后在意大利娶妻。 爱德华四世的王后Elizabeth Woodville即为其后代。
“In Tuscany, he married an Italian noblewoman, Margherita Aldobrandesca, the Lady of Sovana, heiress of a branch of the Aldobrandeschi family, with a feudal contado, nominally subject to Orvieto, that stretched from the shores of the Tyrrhenian sea to the borders of Acquapendente. With her he had two daughters: Anastasia, who married Romano Orsini, and Tomasina, who married Pietro di Vico.

Among his direct descendants (via his elder daughter, Anastasia): late 15th century Kings of Naples, England's Queen-Consort Elizabeth Woodville, 16th century rulers of Poland, Dukes of Ferrera, and Dukes of Guise."


西蒙之女 Eleanor de Montfort 嫁给威尔士的 Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, 成为Prince of Wales。后面会再提到。



The Almonry, originally part of Evesham Abbey
        

#18  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
亨利三世时期的对犹政策

亨利三世继位时只有九岁,由William Marshal 为首的贵族们摄政。尽管教皇1215年出炉了反犹措施,摄政者们为了王室利益,仍继续实施保犹政策,所以亨利三世继位初期,犹太人生意兴旺。王室的保犹政策当然是有利可图的:犹太人向王室提供低廉贷款,王室缺钱花时,就找犹太人征税。用现代话说,是双赢。

亨利三世亲政后,异教徒犹太人的日子就不好过了。1239年,亨利效仿法王路易,关押犹太人,强迫他们支付等同货物 1/3 的高额罚金。亨利还实施了其它苛刻措施,迫使犹太社区丧失了出借能力。亨利还强迫犹太人改信基督教。到1250s 末,高达10% 的犹太人被迫改变信仰。1253年亨利颁布Statute of Jewry, 强迫犹太人穿戴标志,显示自己犹太人的身份。

爱德华一世当政后,对犹太人的迫害变本加厉。


wiki:

The Jews of England were considered the property of the Crown, and they had traditionally been used as a source of cheap loans and easy taxation, in exchange for royal protection against antisemitism. The Jews had suffered considerable oppression during the First Barons' War, but during Henry's early years the community had flourished and became one of the most prosperous in Europe. This was primarily the result of the stance taken by the regency government, which took a range of measures to protect the Jews and encourage lending.This was driven by financial self-interest, as they stood to profit considerably from a strong Jewish community in England. Their policy ran counter to the instructions being sent from the Pope, however, who had laid out strong anti-Jewish measures at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215; William Marshal continued with his policy despite complaints from the Church.

In 1239 Henry introduced different policies, possibly trying to imitate those of Louis of France: Jewish leaders across England were imprisoned and forced to pay fines equivalent to a third of their goods, and any outstanding loans were to be released.Further huge demands for cash followed – £40,000 was demanded in 1244, for example, of which around two-thirds was collected within five years – destroying the ability of the Jewish community to lend money commercially. Henry had built the Domus Conversorum in London in 1232 to help convert Jews to Christianity, and efforts intensified after 1239; as many as 10 percent of the Jews in England had been converted by the late 1250s. Anti-Jewish stories involving tales of child sacrifice flourished in the 1250s and, in response, Henry passed the Statute of Jewry in 1253, which attempted to segregate Jews and enforce the wearing of Jewish badges; it remains unclear to what extent this statute was actually implemented by Henry.
        

#19  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
亨利三世没甚政绩,但说到西敏寺,必会提到他。

虽然亨利三世对教会出手非常大方,又效仿圣爱德华穿着简单,死后还是没有成圣。
而他的对手法王路易九世倒被教皇封圣。法国国王只有路易九世是 saint。圣路易即路易九世。

"威斯敏斯特教堂是由“忏悔者”爱德华(1042—1066年在位,因病未能参加威斯敏斯特教堂的封圣典礼。王后之兄哈罗德二世,成为末代撒克逊族英王。)扩建,并于1065年被封圣。亨利三世为了纪念爱德华,发誓建立一座哥特式更加威严的教堂,致使原来的结构所剩无几。 " --- 百度


"亨利本人非常崇拜1161年被提升为圣人的盎格鲁-萨克森国王爱德华。他听说爱德华衣装朴素后他也只穿戴最简单的大衣。他的寝室中有多幅爱德华的像,它们用来在他入睡和醒来时引导他。此外他将他大儿子命名为爱德华。亨利决定爱德华建立西敏寺所在的区为王国的权力中心。英格兰贵族集会的西敏宫成为王国最大的庆祝场所。他聘请法国建筑师将西敏寺改造为歌德式,这项工程从1245年开始,而改造后的西敏寺的中心将是爱德华国王的纪念堂。" --- wiki
        

#20  Re: BBC之英国史(4):Nations 英国民族             Go Back
前面提到过约翰的哥哥 Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond。约翰篡位后,监禁了哥哥 Geoffrey的儿子Arthur (他的继位权先于约翰),后来Arthur 死了,有可能是被约翰所杀。Arthur 的姐姐埃莉诺也被约翰囚禁。后又被亨利三世继续囚禁。

“布列塔尼的美少女”埃莉诺是不幸的,但约翰的外孙女Eleanor de Montfort 的女儿 Gwenllian of Wales 更加不幸。后面再提。


wiki:

处置堂姐、约翰早逝的哥哥布列塔尼公爵若弗鲁瓦的女儿“布列塔尼的美少女”埃莉诺对亨利来说也是个棘手的问题。如按长子继承制,她早在1203年就应该成为女王,但在1202年被约翰俘虏。约翰死时,她被关押在由彼得·德·莫利看守的多塞特的科弗城堡,亨利三世的继位使她的权利再次被忽视。虽然在亨利统治初期,反对者并未打出她的旗号,但这位美丽而叛逆的少妇一直不肯放弃自己的王位继承权。出于忌惮,约翰生前认为不能释放她,亨利的摄政和亨利本人对此也予以认同,一方面视她为“政治犯”(state prisoner),继续软禁,又先后转移到格洛斯特、马尔博罗和布里斯托尔,严加看管,以免她结婚生子或逃脱,甚至在她已经过了生育年龄后,看守仍然对她贴身监视。此间,1225年,彼得·德·莫利因被指控与法国国王合谋企图将埃莉诺偷渡到法国而失宠。这桩阴谋也许并不存在,只是让彼得和彼得·德·罗歇失宠的借口,罗歇也受到相同的指控,也于1234年春失宠。另一方面,亨利也展现出慷慨的一面,称这位比自己年长23岁、甚至比他的母亲伊莎贝尔还要年长的堂姐为“国王的女眷”(此时埃莉诺已没有实质头衔)“我们的堂姐”,予以善待,使她得以和一般王室公主一样舒适度日,也曾予以慷慨赠礼。亨利曾给埃莉诺一副马鞍(所以埃莉诺可能还是位女骑士),这说明她并非终日被禁闭在室内。还有一次,他给她送去50码亚麻布、三块头巾、杏仁和葡萄干各50磅、一篮无花果。1237年11月,亨利曾在伍德斯托克和身体状况良好的埃莉诺会面。随后她再次被送到格洛斯特城堡关押,当地治安官员承担她的开销。此后不久,埃莉诺被迁回布里斯托尔城堡并在那里度过了最后的日子,而亨利则责成市长和法警扩建她的居所。城堡的总督每年都会将她带到公众面前,以证明这位受人怜悯的王室囚徒没有受到伤害。出于同样的考虑,亨利也允许一些贵妇及布里斯托尔当地的法警和可靠的市民拜访她。根据《拉纳科斯特(Lanercost)编年史》的一则传说,在埃莉诺于1241年8月10日在布里斯托尔城堡(一说科弗城堡)去世前,亨利出于负疚,曾将一顶金王冠送给埃莉诺,而埃莉诺在三天后就把它送给了亨利年轻的长子爱德华,一说她只戴了一天王冠就将其交还。埃莉诺在被囚禁39年后未婚无嗣而亡使得亨利及其子孙的王位终于合法化(此后数年,亨利仍不愿承认自己继位之初并非英格兰王位的正统继承人),她被葬在安斯贝里教堂。
        



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