Worcester Cathedral has three choirs: the Worcester Cathedral Choir (the main choir which has both a boys' and a girls' treble line, which normally work independently), Worcester Cathedral Chamber Choir, and the Worcester Cathedral Voluntary Choir. All three choirs were involved in the BBC broadcast of the midnight and Christmas morning services in 2007, with the boys and the girls of the Cathedral Choir, respectively, taking the lead in the two services. Since the 18th century, Worcester Cathedral Choir has taken part in the Three Choirs Festival, the oldest music festival in the world.
The composer Edward Elgar spent most of his life in Worcestershire. The first performance of the revised version of his Enigma Variations - the version usually performed - took place at the cathedral during the 1899 Three Choirs Festival. He is commemorated in a stained glass window which contains his portrait.
Worcester Cathedral - England
Choral Evensong from Worcester Cathedral
Edward Elgar's Enigma Variations | BBC Symphony Orchestra, Leonard Bernstein
In the aftermath of John's death William Marshal was declared the protector of the nine-year-old Henry III. The civil war continued until royalist victories at the battles of Lincoln and Dover in 1217. Louis gave up his claim to the English throne and signed the Treaty of Lambeth. The failed Magna Carta agreement was resuscitated by Marshal's protectorate and reissued in an edited form in 1217 as a basis for future government. Henry III continued his attempts to reclaim Normandy and Anjou until 1259, but John's continental losses and the consequent growth of Capetian power in the 13th century proved to mark a "turning point in European history"
虽然约翰仍以bad king, evil king 著称，但根据维基，自17世纪以来，史学家对约翰更多了些正面评价。 毕竟，约翰从兄长Richard the Lionheart 手中接过的是摇摇欲坠的安茹王朝。就如小布什出兵打仗造成财政危机，留给奥巴马一个烂摊子。
Winston Churchill argued that "when the long tally is added, it will be seen that the British nation and the English-speaking world owe far more to the vices of John than to the labours of virtuous sovereigns".
Philip II Augustus would play a significant role in one of the greatest centuries of innovation in construction and in education. With Paris as his capital, he had the main thoroughfares paved, built a central market, Les Halles, continued the construction begun in 1163 of Notre-Dame de Paris, constructed the Louvre as a fortress, and gave a charter to the University of Paris in 1200. Under his guidance, Paris became the first city of teachers the medieval world had known. In 1224, the French poet Henry d'Andeli wrote of the great wine tasting competition that Philip II Augustus commissioned, the Battle of the Wines.
巴黎是世界上最古老的城市之一，考古学家认为巴黎地区在公元前4200年就已经有人类居住在此。凯尔特人当中的高卢人分支巴黎西人在公元前250年就已经居住在塞纳河沿岸，所以巴黎市的核心就位于塞纳河上的西提岛（又译为“西岱岛”或“城岛”，Île de la Cité）。
菲利二世娶了三个王后(也有说四个的）。与第一任王后Isabella of Hainaut生了后来成为法王的路易八世。未满二十岁的Isabella 生下一对twins 之后第二天即撒手人寰。菲利二世的第二任王后是丹麦公主Ingeborg of Denmark, 但娶了之后却又变卦，想让教皇宣告婚姻无效，未果。Ingeborg 被囚禁二十年。将死之际，才吩咐儿子路易八世善待Ingeborg.
King John of England 21岁的女儿Isabella of England 嫁给 40岁Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor 之后，婚姻也极为不幸, "as soon as she was married she was added to the Emperor's harem, which included women from Arabia attended by black eunuchs. "
王室婚姻多为political match。女方陪嫁颇丰，或领地，或钱财。菲利二世娶Ingeborg， 还有潜在的对英格兰王位的claim. "As a dowry, he had asked the support of Danish fleet for a year and the right to any remaining claims Denmark had to the throne of England". 被嫁的公主成为两国政治利益的商品筹码。
国王为了生王位继承人或其他理由，就会想要休妻，但教皇那关很难过。这个时期教皇权利如日中天。比方在莎翁的《King John 约翰王》中，就非常鲜活地展现了教皇举足轻重的特权。大概至盛则衰。若不是教皇对王室婚姻的干涉，也就不会有当今的伊丽莎白二世，此为后话。
After Isabelle's early death in childbirth, in 1190, Philip decided to marry again. On 15 August 1193, he married Ingeborg (1175–1236), daughter of King Valdemar I of Denmark (ruled 1157–82). She was renamed Isambour, and Stephan of Dornik described her as "very kind, young of age but old of wisdom." For some unknown reason, Philip was repelled by her and he refused to allow her to be crowned queen. Ingeborg protested at this treatment; his response was to confine her to a convent. He then asked Pope Celestine III for an annulment on the grounds of non-consummation. Philip had not reckoned with Isambour, however; she insisted that the marriage had been consummated, and that she was his wife and the rightful queen of France. The Franco-Danish churchman William of Paris intervened on the side of Ingeborg, drawing up a genealogy of the Danish kings to disprove the alleged impediment of consanguinity.
In the meantime Philip had sought a new bride. Initially agreement had been reached for him to marry Margaret of Geneva, daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, but the young bride's journey to Paris was interrupted by Thomas I of Savoy, who kidnapped Philip's intended new queen and married her instead, claiming that Philip was already bound in marriage. Philip finally achieved a third marriage, on 7 May 1196, to Agnes of Merania from Dalmatia (c. 1180 – 29 July in 1201). Their children were Marie (1198 – 15 October in 1224) and Philippe Hurepel (1200–1234), Count of Clermont and eventually, by marriage, Count of Boulogne.
Pope Innocent III (ruled 1198–1216) declared Philip Augustus's marriage to Agnes of Merania null and void, as he was still married to Isambour. He ordered the King to part from Agnès; when he did not, the Pope placed France under an interdict in 1199. This continued until 7 September 1200. Due to pressure from the Pope and from Ingeborg's brother, King Valdemar II of Denmark (ruled 1202–41), Philip finally took Isambour back as his wife in 1213.
The sun's o'ercast with blood: fair day, adieu!
Which is the side that I must go withal?
I am with both: each army hath a hand;
And in their rage, I having hold of both,
They swirl asunder and dismember me.
Husband, I cannot pray that thou mayst win;
Uncle, I needs must pray that thou mayst lose;
Father, I may not wish the fortune thine;
Grandam, I will not wish thy fortunes thrive:
Whoever wins, on that side shall I lose
Assured loss before the match be play'd.
Lady, with me, with me thy fortune lies.
There where my fortune lives, there my life dies.
其实现在有一种流行说法：The Jews were forced to become moneylenders 犹太人是被迫放高利贷的.
"Jewish money lending worked as follows. The Count or nobleman of the town would loan money to the Jew, and the Jew in turn would loan money to the non-Jewish peasants. The Jew became the middleman, which was a very dangerous position. The interest rates were usurious in those times – 30% or 40% – so the peasants had a hard time paying anything back. And if the Jew didn’t collect the money, the nobleman would kill him. Therefore, the Jew had to have a large spread in the middle in order to be able to cover his losses and still make a living."
名列第二位的是靠高利贷起家的犹太家族 The Rothschild Family：
"The Rothschild Family comes in at second on the list. The patriarch of the family, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, raked in hundreds of billions through his finance house in the late 18th Century, and his fortune has passed down through the generations of the banking dynasty."
To bait fish withal: if it will feed nothing else,
it will feed my revenge. He hath disgraced me, and
hindered me half a million; laughed at my losses,
mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my
bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine
enemies; and what's his reason? I am a Jew. Hath
not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs,
dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with
the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject
to the same diseases, healed by the same means,
warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as
a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed?
if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison
us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not
revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will
resemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian,
what is his humility? Revenge. If a Christian
wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by
Christian example? Why, revenge. The villany you
teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I
will better the instruction.
路易九世的great-granddaughter Isabella of France 嫁给了英王爱德华二世（约翰的孙子），他们的儿子爱德华三世自称法兰西国王，盾徽上除了三头金狮，还添加了象征法兰西的三朵金鸢尾花，以示他对法国王权的claim. 这三朵金色鸢尾花在英国盾徽上挂了几百年，直到乔治三世（美国独立战争时的那个英国国王）放弃法王头衔，金鸢尾才从英国盾徽上彻底凋谢。
The Iris is the national flower of France as represented in Fleur-de-lis emblem, the symbol of French monarchy.
The fleur-de-lis or fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis) is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") or iris that is used as a decorative design or symbol. It may be "at one and the same time, religious, political, dynastic, artistic, emblematic, and symbolic", especially in French heraldry.
百合花饰（法语：fleur de lis）是一种自鸢尾所设计出的符号。百合花饰既可作为纯粹的装饰品使用，但在作为纹章使用时，也含有“政治的、王权的、艺术的、象征性的”等意义。百合花饰在与法国王室有关的旗帜及纹章上尤其多见。魁北克省的旗帜上就有百合花饰的图案。