拾乐园 Paradise Found  

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克拉伦敦宪章 Constitutions of Clarendon

The Constitutions of Clarendon were a set of legislative procedures passed by Henry II of England in 1164. The Constitutions were composed of 16 articles and represent an attempt to restrict ecclesiastical privileges and curb the power of the Church courts and the extent of Papal authority in England. In the anarchic conditions of Henry II's predecessor, Stephen, the church had extended its jurisdiction by taking advantage of the weakness of royal authority. The Constitutions were claimed to restore the judicial customs observed during the reign of Henry I (1100–35), while in fact they were a part of Henry II's larger expansion of royal jurisdiction into the Church and civil law, which was a defining aspect of his reign.

The Constitutions take their name from Clarendon Palace, Wiltshire, the royal hunting lodge at which they were promulgated.

The Constitutions' primary goal was to deal with the controversial issue of "criminous clerks," or clergy who had been accused of committing a serious secular crime but were tried in ecclesiastical courts by "benefit of Clergy". Unlike royal courts, these ecclesiastical courts were strictly limited in the punishments to which a convicted felon could be subjected; in particular the spilling of blood was prohibited. An ecclesiastical case of murder often ended with the defendant being defrocked (dismissed from the priesthood). In a royal court, murder was often punished with mutilation or death.

The Constitutions of Clarendon were Henry II's attempts to deal with these problems (and conveniently increase his own power at the same time) by claiming that once the ecclesiastical courts had tried and defrocked clergymen, the Church could no longer protect the individual, and convicted former clergy could be further punished under the jurisdiction of secular courts.
It was formerly supposed that Henry wanted all clerks accused of crimes to be tried in the King's Courts. But this impression, as F.W. Maitland showed, is certainly wrong.[1] A rather complicated arrangement was proposed by which cognizance of the case was first to be taken in the King's Court.
If the culprit proved to be a clerk, the case was to be tried in the ecclesiastical court, but an officer of the King's Court was to be present. The officer, if the accused was found guilty, was to conduct him back to the King's Court after degradation, where he would be dealt with as an ordinary criminal and adequately punished.

The king's contention was that flogging, fines, degradation, and excommunication, beyond which the spiritual courts could not go, were insufficient as punishment. The archbishop urged that, apart from the principle of clerical privilege, to degrade a man first and to hang him afterwards was to punish him twice for the same offence. Once degraded, he lost all his rights, and if he committed another crime, he might then be punished with death like any other felon.

Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury (1162–1170), resisted the Constitutions, especially the clause concerning "criminous clerks." As a result, Henry exiled Becket and his family. Bishops were in agreement over the articles until the Pope disapproved and then Becket repudiated his arguments. The controversy resulted, becoming so bitter that Becket was murdered on 29 December 1170. After this Henry felt compelled to revoke the two controversial clauses which went against canon law. However, the rest stayed in effect as law of the land.

"The forces at the back of St. Thomas represented not only the respect which men feel for a bold fight for principle, but also that blind struggle against the hideous punishments of the age, of which the assertion of ecclesiastical privilege, covering widows and orphans as well as clerks and those that injured them, was a natural expression."


克拉伦敦法令 Assize of Clarendon

The Assize of Clarendon was an 1166 act of Henry II of England that began the transformation of English law from such systems for deciding the prevailing party in a case, especially felonies, as trial by ordeal or trial by battle or trial by compurgation to an evidentiary model, in which evidence, inspection, and inquiry was made by laymen, knights or ordinary freemen, under oath. This act greatly fostered the methods that would eventually be known in common law countries as trial by jury.

The Assize of Clarendon did not lead to this change immediately, however; recourse to trial by combat was not officially rescinded until 1819.


#62  Re: BBC之英国史(3)Dynasty 王朝             Go Back
美国的陪审团源于亨利二世时期。 只是现在的陪审团不得与被告人/事件有任何干系,且verdict 由陪审团裁定而非judge.


wiki(Jury trial):

In the 12th century, Henry II took a major step in developing the jury system. Henry II set up a system to resolve land disputes using juries. A jury of twelve free men were assigned to arbitrate in these disputes. As with the Saxon system, these men were charged with uncovering the facts of the case on their own rather than listening to arguments in court. Henry II also introduced what is now known as the "grand jury" through his Assize of Clarendon. Under the assize, a jury of free men was charged with reporting any crimes that they knew of in their hundred to a "justice in eyre," a judge who moved between hundreds on a circuit. A criminal accused by this jury was given a trial by ordeal.

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"Murder in the Cathedral" di T. S. Eliot


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Simon Schama writes, "Right from the start, he was being groomed by his ambitious parents to take England away from Stephen, to become a new King Arthur. And to do this, of course, he would need a Guinevere. As it happened, the perfect candidate had just become available - Eleanor of Aquitaine."



阿基坦的埃莉诺(Eleanor of Aquitaine,1122年-1204年),阿基坦女公爵(Duchess of Aquitaine)及普瓦捷女伯爵(Countess of Poitiers),父亲为阿基坦公爵威廉十世(William X, Duke of Aquitaine)。


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Coat of arms of Aquitaine

Normandy的盾徽只有两只狮子,亨利二世迎娶阿基坦的埃莉诺后,加一只狮子,于是安茹帝国盾徽成三狮。 我的猜测。



查理曼的子嗣不断瓜分帝国,而阿基坦成为纽斯特里亚的领地。公元9世纪,当地的伯爵们渐渐脱离王国的统治。奥弗涅的 Bernard Plantevelue 与威廉一世父子曾自称阿基坦公爵。威廉五世在普瓦图建立新阿基坦公国。此时阿基坦范围包括普瓦捷、奥弗涅和图卢兹。公元1052年,威廉八世成为加斯科尼与阿基坦公爵,形成“君和”体制(Personal union,多国共戴一君)。威廉九世公爵是位游吟诗人,普瓦捷成为游吟诗人创作诗歌的重镇。当威廉十世去世,其女继承人阿基坦的埃莉诺嫁给法兰西路易七世,并参与十字军东征,但之后她以同族血亲婚姻无效为借口,嫁给法国最大的竞争对手英格兰亨利二世。埃莉诺之子理查一世与约翰和之后的继承人成为英格兰国王及阿基坦公爵。



银色海岸(Côte d'Argent):法国最著名的海岸之一。
匹拉沙丘(Dune de Pilat):位于阿卡雄附近,是欧洲最大的沙丘。
朗德森林(Landes Forest):西欧最大的松树林。

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Bordeaux - The Pearl of Aquitaine - France


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SheWolves England's Early Queens 3/3 - Matilda & Eleanor (the part of Eleanor starts at 36')

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埃莉诺父亲父亲阿基坦公爵威廉十世William X, Duke of Aquitaine, 在去西班牙朝圣的途中染恙,病逝前,特写遗嘱给法王路易六世,让他为女儿埃莉诺的婚事把关,以免有人为财抢亲。这等好事岂能让给他人,病重的路易六世赶紧让自己的儿子与埃莉诺成亲。




婚后,活泼的埃莉诺与丈夫一本正经的家人及臣民相处得并不愉快。她婆婆阿代勒(Adelaide of Maurienne)认为埃莉诺太轻浮,对路易七世是坏影响,而教堂的长老(特别是圣伯尔纳铎及修道院院长Suger)亦批评她的举止行为完全不合礼节,但这些言语却无损路易七世对埃莉诺的宠爱。埃莉诺的美貌与世故把路易七世完全迷倒,她的行为举止虽然令路易七世相当困惑苦恼,但他仍然花尽心思金钱来满足她大大小小的所有愿望。这些钱大部分用作美化位于巴黎西岱岛的一所宫殿。



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路易七世开始时很宠爱美貌的埃莉诺,尽管他保守的母亲与教会都不喜欢埃莉诺的做派。埃莉诺对路易七世也的确有“坏影响”, 比方让路易七世因她妹妹的婚事卷入战争:
“Louis became involved in a war with Count Theobald by permitting Raoul I, Count of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife Eléonore of Blois, Theobald's sister, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, Eleanor's sister. Eleanor urged Louis to support her sister's marriage to Count Raoul. Theobald had also offended Louis by siding with the pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142–44) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army.”-- wiki

---- 埃莉诺认为自己嫁的不是king,而是monk.


(年轻的)路易七世(Louis VII le jeune,1120年-1180年9月18日),卡佩王朝第六位国王(1137年—1180年在位)。路易六世之子,母为莫里恩的阿德莱德(Adelaide of Maurienne)。1131年开始与父共治。



路易七世与埃莉诺分开后先娶卡斯蒂利亚公主康斯坦丝(Constance of Castile),有两名女儿,康斯坦丝在生下第二名女孩时死去。因为没有承继人,路易七世在康斯坦丝死去五周后与香槟的阿黛勒(Adèle of Champagne)结婚,后来生下王位继承人腓力。


阿利克斯 (1151-1198)

第二任妻子:卡斯蒂利亚的康斯坦丝(Constance of Castile),1154年结婚。

第三任妻子:香槟的阿黛勒(Adèle of Champagne),1160年结婚。
腓力二世 (1165-1223)
阿格尼丝 (1171-1240)

#70  Re: BBC之英国史(3)Dynasty 王朝             Go Back
Louis VII of France


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路易七世并非军事天才,组织疏散,第二次东征无所建树,是一次失败的行动。路易自己侥幸活命, 只因没有身着国王华服:
“The king, having scorned royal apparel in favour of a simple pilgrim's tunic, escaped notice (unlike his bodyguards, whose skulls were brutally smashed and limbs severed). He reportedly "nimbly and bravely scaled a rock by making use of some tree roots which God had provided for his safety", and managed to survive the attack. Others were not so fortunate: "No aid came from Heaven, except that night fell."”

当时埃莉诺的叔父Raymond管辖Antioch(今土耳其境内)。传言埃莉诺与叔父关系暧昧,这也引起了埃莉诺与路易七世关系恶化:(埃莉诺途经意大利时听说Raymond 后来被穆斯林斩首)
“Even before the Crusade, Eleanor and Louis were becoming estranged, and their differences were only exacerbated while they were abroad. Eleanor's purported relationship with her uncle Raymond, the ruler of Antioch, was a major source of discord. Eleanor supported her uncle's desire to re-capture the nearby County of Edessa, the objective of the Crusade. In addition, having been close to him in their youth, she now showed what was considered to be "excessive affection" toward her uncle. Raymond had plans to abduct Eleanor, to which she consented. While many historians[who?] today dismiss this as normal affection between uncle and niece (noting their early friendship and his similarity to her father and grandfather), some of Eleanor's adversaries interpreted the generous displays of affection as an incestuous affair.”

在回巴黎途中,经教皇调解,二人重归于好。之后埃莉诺又生一女(not a son)。备受压力的路易七世怕无儿继位,终于同意埃莉诺的要求,教皇批准二人离婚,原因:二人是血亲。
“On 21 March, the four archbishops, with the approval of Pope Eugene, granted an annulment on grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree (Eleanor was Louis' third cousin once removed, and shared common ancestry with Robert II of France).”

而阿基坦领地, 也因离婚,又回到埃莉诺手中。






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Eleanor of Aquitaine (French: Aliénor/éléonore; 1122 or 1124 – 1 April 1204)

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189)

与路易七世离婚后仅八周,1152年5月18日,埃莉诺就与亨利(当时还未成为英格兰国王)成婚。而二人血缘上更近。因为血亲而令婚姻失效也只是借口罢了。当时埃莉诺30岁(如果按1122年出生),亨利19岁,年龄差11岁。亨利父母安茹伯爵若弗鲁瓦五世与马蒂尔达皇后的年龄差也是11岁。好像是 like father like son, 子肖其父。女大三抱金砖,大十一,抱的就是无数金砖堆砌的江山---阿基诺领地。

“Eleanor was related to Henry even more closely than she had been to Louis – they were cousins to the third degree through their common ancestor, Ermengarde of Anjou (wife of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy and Geoffrey, Count of Gatinais), and they were also descended from King Robert II of France. A marriage between Henry, and Eleanor's daughter Marie, had earlier been declared impossible due to their status as third cousins once removed. It was rumored by some that Eleanor had had an affair with Henry's own father, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, who had advised his son to avoid any involvement with her.” --- wiki






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"Eleanor's marriage to Henry was reputed to be tumultuous and argumentative, although sufficiently cooperative to produce at least eight pregnancies. Henry was by no means faithful to his wife and had a reputation for philandering. Henry fathered other, illegitimate children throughout the marriage. Eleanor appears to have taken an ambivalent attitude towards these affairs: for example, Geoffrey of York, an illegitimate son of Henry, was acknowledged by Henry as his child and raised at Westminster in the care of the queen." --- wiki

埃莉诺出身高贵,有胆识有魄力有计谋,而亨利二世起先并没有给她以任何实权。就连宫廷宴请这类本该归王后打理的事务,也交由Thomas Becket 处理了。 玛蒂尔达对儿子影响很大。

--- 其中最有名的情妇是Rosamund Clifford。 埃莉诺逼其自尽。

在电影《冬狮 The Lion in Winter》中提到:

"Henry was eighteen when we met, and I was Queen of France. He came down from the North to Paris with a mind like Aristotle's... and a form like mortal sin. We shattered the Commandments on the spot. I spent three months annulling Louis, then in May, in spring, not far from here, we married... young Count Henry and his Countess. But in three years' time I was his Queen, and he was King of England. Done at twenty-one... five years your junior, general

There was no Thomas Beckett then, or Rosamund... no rivals, only me. And then young Henry came, and you, and all the other blossoms in my garden. Yes. Had I been sterile, darling, I'd be happier today."

of course, the historical events in the movie did take place, but the dialogues are fictional.

Kate Hepburn and Glenn Close as Eleanor of Aquitaine

Last modified on 06/07/15 01:12

#74  Re: BBC之英国史(3)Dynasty 王朝             Go Back
The Lion In Winter (1968) - Trailer

赫本因此部电影捧得第三座奥斯卡金像奖。 在后来的《金色池塘》又中奖:
in the movie she likes to call her husband "you old poop".

On Golden Pond 1981 Henry Fonda Katharine Hepburn


Lawrence Of Arabia - Official® Trailer

Becket Trailer

#75  Re: BBC之英国史(3)Dynasty 王朝             Go Back

Chateau de Chinon from the south 希农城堡

" Henry favoured the Chateau de Chinon as a residence". 亨利二世驾崩后葬在希农附近的Fontevraud-l'Abbaye。


中世纪时期,特别是亨利二世统治时期,希农得到了迅速的发展,城堡被重建和扩展,成为亨利最喜欢的住宅之一。 希农在1205年被列入法国皇家住所。英法百年战争期间,王太子查理于1418年来到此地避难。 1429年3月8日,法国民族英雄贞德在希农与法国王太子查理(即未来的查理七世)会面。此次会面掀开了法国在英法百年战争中逆转战局的序幕。 从十六世纪,希农不再是一个皇家住所。

Chateau de Chinon is a castle located on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon, France. It was founded by Theobald I, Count of Blois. In the 11th century the castle became the property of the counts of Anjou. In 1156 Henry II of England, a member of the House of Anjou, took the castle from his brother Geoffrey after he had rebelled for a second time. Henry favoured the Chateau de Chinon as a residence: most of the standing structure can be attributed to his reign and he died there in 1189.

Early in the 13th century, King Philip II of France harassed the English lands in France and in 1205 he captured Chinon after a siege that lasted several months, after which the castle remained under French control. When King Philip IV accused the Knights Templar of heresy during the first decade of the 14th century, several leading members of the order were imprisoned there.

Forteresse Royale de Chinon, France

Last modified on 06/07/15 10:56

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亨利二世同埃莉诺育有五子三女。长子William 夭折。


Henry had eight legitimate children by Eleanor, five sons—William, the Young Henry, Richard, Geoffrey and John, and three daughters, Matilda, Eleanor and Joan.Henry also had several illegitimate children; amongst the most prominent of these were Geoffrey (later Archbishop of York) and William (later Earl of Salisbury).[148] Henry was expected to provide for the future of his legitimate children, either through granting lands to his sons or marrying his daughters well.[149] Henry's family was divided by rivalries and violent hostilities, more so than many other royal families of the day, in particular the relatively cohesive French Capetians.

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Junior King of England 幼王亨利

亨利二世利用给小亨利加冕,挑战Becket 的神权。



Henry, known as the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183), was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine but the first to survive infancy. Beginning in 1170, he officially reigned alongside his father as King of England, Duke of Normandy,[1] Count of Anjou and Maine.

Henry the Young King was the only crowned associate King in the history of England following the Norman conquest.

幼王亨利(Henry the Young King,1155年2月28日-1183年6月11日),英格兰国王亨利二世及王后埃莉诺的次子,但在他们活过婴儿期的子女中是长子。官方意义上,他从1170年起成为与亨利二世共治的英格兰国王、诺曼底公爵、安茹伯爵和曼恩伯爵。





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电影《冬狮》中说Vexin 是路易七世四女儿Alys of France许配给亨利儿子Richard 的嫁妆.

根据维基,Vexin 起先是三女儿玛格丽特嫁给小亨利时的dowry:
“Margaret's dowry was the vital and much disputed territory of the Vexin”

但这块宝地亨利二世不肯放弃,又通过Richard & Alys 订亲继续掌控Vexin.

因为小亨利和玛格丽特的婚姻,埃莉诺与前夫路易七世成了亲家。 当然政治联姻并不妨碍两国交战。




Margaret of France (1157 – August/September 1197) was, by her two marriages, queen of England, Hungary and Croatia.

She was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile. Her older half-sisters, Marie and Alix, were also older half-sisters of her future husband.

She was betrothed to Henry the Young King on 2 November 1160. Henry was the second of five sons born to King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was five years old at the time of this agreement while Margaret was three. Margaret's dowry was the vital and much disputed territory of the Vexin


Last modified on 06/07/15 21:03

#79  Re: BBC之英国史(3)Dynasty 王朝             Go Back
据说亨利二世只宠小儿子John, 对另外几个儿子比较冷漠。
“The young Henry said that Thomas Becket showed him more fatherly love in a day than his father did for his entire life"

After his death, his father is said to have exclaimed: "He cost me much, but I wish he had lived to cost me more."





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小亨利去后,亨利二世还有三个儿子,分别是 Richard I, Geoffrey II, and John.

Effigy (c. 1199) of Richard I at Fontevraud Abbey, Anjou


Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy (as Richard IV), Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Nantes, and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.The Muslims called him Melek-Ric (King Richard) or Malek al-Inkitar (King of England).He was also known in Occitan as Oc e No (Yes and No), because of his reputation for terseness.

理查一世(英语:Richard I,1157年9月8日-1199年4月6日),中世纪著名的英格兰国王以及十字军名将。因其在战争中总是一马当先,犹如狮子般勇猛,因此得到“狮心王”的称号。纵其一生戎马弓刀,热忱投身于十字军东征的许多战役之中,为第三次十字军东征作出了卓越贡献;甚至还于阿苏夫一役中击溃穆斯林大军,打破了穆斯林统帅萨拉丁“不败军神”的神话,使其成为中世纪最杰出的将领之一。



Richard Coeur de Lion, Carlo Marochetti's statue of Richard I outside the Palace of Westminster, London

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