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#1【诗歌翻译 】   SEPTEMBER 1, 1939 by W.H. Auden             Go Back

As I walked out one evening/ Reading by Tom Hiddleston


As I Walked Out One Evening
Wystan Hugh Auden

向晚漫步
威斯坦·休·奥登

As I walked out one evening,
Walking down Bristol Street,
The crowds upon the pavement
Were fields of harvest wheat.

一天傍晚我走到外面,
漫步布里斯托尔街上,
人行道上往来的人们,
是收获时的片片麦浪。

And down by the brimming river
I heard a lover sing
Under an arch of the railway:
'Love has no ending.

走在水波荡漾的河边,
我听见情人深情悠悠,
在铁路的拱桥下吟唱:
"爱情它永远没有尽头。

'I'll love you, dear, I'll love you
Till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street,

"我爱你亲爱的我爱你,
直到中国和非洲相接,
直到河水越过高山巅,
直到鲑鱼在街上唱歌,

'I'll love you till the ocean
Is folded and hung up to dry
And the seven stars go squawking
Like geese about the sky.

"我爱你直到浩浩大海
被折叠起来挂晒晾干,
直到头顶的北斗七星
如长空大雁嘎嘎鸣啭。

'The years shall run like rabbits,
For in my arms I hold
The Flower of the Ages,
And the first love of the world.'

"纵然岁月将飞奔如兔,
紧紧拥抱于我的臂弯
却是那永恒时光之花,
和这世界的最初之恋。"

But all the clocks in the city
Began to whirr and chime:
'O let not Time deceive you,
You cannot conquer Time.

但城市里的所有时钟
开始叮叮铛铛地鸣响:
"啊不要让时光欺骗你,
你绝对无法战胜时光。

'In the burrows of the Nightmare
Where Justice naked is,
Time watches from the shadow
And coughs when you would kiss.

"在梦魇隐匿的洞穴里,
赤裸的正义不掩不遮,
时光在暗处时刻窥视,
你正想亲吻它就干咳。

'In headaches and in worry
Vaguely life leaks away,
And Time will have his fancy
To-morrow or to-day.

"头脑昏沉沉心焦神虑
茫茫然生命悄然遁逝,
时光注定会称心遂意
不是今朝必将是明日。

'Into many a green valley
Drifts the appalling snow;
Time breaks the threaded dances
And the diver's brilliant bow.

”恐怖的大雪纷纷扬扬
笼罩郁郁葱葱的山谷;
时光折断交织的舞步
和跳水者的惊艳之弧。

'O plunge your hands in water,
Plunge them in up to the wrist;
Stare, stare in the basin
And wonder what you've missed.

"哦把你的手浸入水中,
让水将你的手腕浸没;
凝视,双目凝视水盆
想想你可错过了什么。

'The glacier knocks in the cupboard,
The desert sighs in the bed,
And the crack in the tea-cup opens
A lane to the land of the dead.

"橱柜里的冰川在敲击,
床榻上的沙漠在叹息,
茶杯上的缝崩然断裂---
一条路通向死亡之地。

'Where the beggars raffle the banknotes
And the Giant is enchanting to Jack,
And the Lily-white Boy is a Roarer,
And Jill goes down on her back.

"在那里乞丐摇奖抽彩,
巨人令杰克神魂摇荡,
纯真的少年狂吼大叫,
吉尔仰面躺倒在地上。

'O look, look in the mirror?
O look in your distress:
Life remains a blessing
Although you cannot bless.

"哦注视吧注视着镜中,
哦请注视着你的痛苦:
生命本身依旧是恩惠
尽管你无法施恩降福。

'O stand, stand at the window
As the tears scald and start;
You shall love your crooked neighbour
With your crooked heart.'

“哦请站在,站在窗前
任滚烫的泪簌簌而下;
你应当以你扭曲的心,
爱你心术不正的邻家。”

It was late, late in the evening,
The lovers they were gone;
The clocks had ceased their chiming,
And the deep river ran on.

夜色已浓,夜色已浓,
情人们早已无影无踪;
时钟亦不再叮铛鸣响,
深深的河水依旧前行。


云天译


【注】

有意思的诠释:
http://www.shmoop.com/as-i-walked-out-one-evening/lines-25-36-summary.html

"threaded dance“ probably refers to traditional dances like the Maypole Dance. These dances usually represent the coming of Spring and all that rebirth and fertility stuff that goes along with it.
        

#2  SEPTEMBER 1, 1939 by W.H. Auden             Go Back



1939年9月1日,德国入侵波兰,二战在欧洲爆发。今年是二战结束70周年。


SEPTEMBER 1, 1939
by W.H. Auden

1939年9月1日
W.H. 奥登
云天译

I sit in one of the dives
On Fifty-second Street
Uncertain and afraid
As the clever hopes expire
Of a low dishonest decade:
Waves of anger and fear
Circulate over the bright
And darkened lands of the earth,
Obsessing our private lives;
The unmentionable odour of death
Offends the September night.

我置身第五十二街
一间下等酒吧
忐忑而惶恐
此时那些精明的希望正幻灭于
这卑劣虚伪的十年:
愤怒和恐惧的层层波浪
冲击着地球上明亮的
以及黑暗的土地,
困扰着我们的个人生活;
死亡那不堪言及的恶臭
触犯着这九月的夜。


Accurate scholarship can
Unearth the whole offence
From Luther until now
That has driven a culture mad,
Find what occurred at Linz,
What huge imago made
A psychopathic god:
I and the public know
What all schoolchildren learn,
Those to whom evil is done
Do evil in return.

严谨的学识能够
挖掘自路德至今
造成文化疯狂
的所有谬误,
查出在林茨发生过的事,
并揭示究竟是什么巨大影像
打造了精神错乱的上帝:
我同公众都知道
所有学童学到的道理,
被邪恶伤害者
必以邪恶报复。

Exiled Thucydides knew
All that a speech can say
About Democracy,
And what dictators do,
The elderly rubbish they talk
To an apathetic grave;
Analysed all in his book,
The enlightenment driven away,
The habit-forming pain,
Mismanagement and grief:
We must suffer them all again.

被流放的修昔底德知道
一篇演讲所谈及的
关于民主的一切,
知道独裁者们的所作所为,
知道他们对着无动于衷的坟冢
讲述的那些陈词滥调;
这一切都在他的书中做了分析,
诸如文明如何被驱除,
形成习惯必经的痛苦,
管理不当和忧伤悲恸:
而我们必须再度遭受所有苦难。


Into this neutral air
Where blind skyscrapers use
Their full height to proclaim
The strength of Collective Man,
Each language pours its vain
Competitive excuse:
But who can live for long
In an euphoric dream;
Out of the mirror they stare,
Imperialism's face
And the international wrong.

在中立的空气里
那些失明的摩天大厦
以它们的全部高度宣称
集体人的力量,
每一种语言都在倾泻各自
极具竞争力的空洞借口:
然而谁又能长久地活在
快乐满足的梦境;
帝国主义的嘴脸
和国际罪恶
从镜中向外盯视。

Faces along the bar
Cling to their average day:
The lights must never go out,
The music must always play,
All the conventions conspire
To make this fort assume
The furniture of home;
Lest we should see where we are,
Lost in a haunted wood,
Children afraid of the night
Who have never been happy or good.

吧台边上的张张面孔
紧贴着他们寻常的一天:
灯光必须永不熄灭,
音乐必须一直奏响,
所有常规共同密谋
以使这座城堡呈现
一派居家假象;
免得我们觉察出身在何处。
迷失于鬼魂出没的林间,
惧怕黑夜的孩子们
不曾快乐,不曾良善。

The windiest militant trash
Important Persons shout
Is not so crude as our wish:
What mad Nijinsky wrote
About Diaghilev
Is true of the normal heart;
For the error bred in the bone
Of each woman and each man
Craves what it cannot have,
Not universal love
But to be loved alone.

大人物们叫嚷的
那些夸夸其谈的好战废话
并不比我们的愿望更粗鄙:
疯癫的尼金斯基笔下的
狄亚格烈夫
无异于一颗正常心;
因为每个男女
骨子里与生俱来的谬误
都渴求不可得之物,
不屑泛泛博爱
但求专一之爱。

From the conservative dark
Into the ethical life
The dense commuters come,
Repeating their morning vow;
'I will be true to the wife,
I'll concentrate more on my work,'
And helpless governors wake
To resume their compulsory game:
Who can release them now,
Who can reach the deaf,
Who can speak for the dumb?

从保守的黑暗
进入道德伦理的生活
上班族蜂拥而至,
重复早晨的誓言:
'我将忠诚妻子,
更加专心工作,'
那些无能的统治者一觉醒来
继续玩弄强制性游戏:
此刻谁能让他们解脱,
谁能与聋子沟通,
谁能为哑巴说话?


All I have is a voice
To undo the folded lie,
The romantic lie in the brain
Of the sensual man-in-the-street
And the lie of Authority
Whose buildings grope the sky:
There is no such thing as the State
And no one exists alone;
Hunger allows no choice
To the citizen or the police;
We must love one another or die.

我所有的只是声音
它拆穿折叠的谎言,
拆穿世俗路人
脑袋中浪漫的谎言
拆穿那办公楼将天空调戏
的当局的谎言:
没有什么所谓的国家
没有谁能够单独存在;
面对饥饿
公民同警察都别无选择;
我们必须相爱,否则将死去。

Defenseless under the night
Our world in stupor lies;
Yet, dotted everywhere,
Ironic points of light
Flash out wherever the Just
Exchange their messages:
May I, composed like them
Of Eros and of dust,
Beleaguered by the same
Negation and despair,
Show an affirming flame.

夜幕之下毫无防备
我们的世界昏昏沉睡;
然而,那无处不在
的嘲讽的光点
每每于正义交换信息之处
突放光芒:
我若那些光点
亦由厄洛斯和尘埃所构成,
亦被同样的
否定与绝望所包围,
愿我,迸放一束坚定的火焰。
        

#3  关于“SEPTEMBER 1, 1939 by W.H. Auden”的译注             Go Back
【注1--- first stanza】
“September 1, 1939” refers to the date on which German troops invaded Poland and began the Second World War.

http://genius.com/W-h-auden-september-1-1939-annotated

”a low dishonest decade“
--- 诗人在反思战争发生的原因。第一次世界大战后,”协约国和同盟国于1918年11月11日宣布停火,经过巴黎和会长达6个月的谈判后,于1919年6月28日在巴黎的凡尔赛宫签署条约“, 即《凡尔赛条约》,对德国严厉惩罚。 ”德国损失了13.5%的领土,12.5%的人口,所有的海外殖民地“,还需”赔偿2260亿马克(约合113亿英镑)且以黄金支付,后减至1320亿帝国马克“。美国高中历史书中讲述这段历史时,有一幅插图,儿童用成捆的纸币玩游戏。德国在一战后经济萧条,民族自尊心大受打击。纳粹应运而生。


【注2--- second stanza】

Luther: "马丁·路德(德语:Martin Luther,1483年11月10日-1546年2月18日),德国基督教神学家,宗教改革运动的主要发起人,基督教更正派信义宗教会(即路德宗)的开创者,曾是罗马大公教会奥斯定会的修士。" 路德反犹太人。

Linz: 林茨, "位于奥地利东北部,人口约20万,是上奥地利州(德语:Oberösterreich)的首府。" 希特勒少年时代在林茨度过。

psychopathic god--- 指希特勒。

huge imago:
http://genius.com/1130540/W-h-auden-september-1-1939/Huge-imago-made

“Imago” can mean the fully developed adult stage of an insect, but Auden is probably referring to the term from psychoanalysis, meaning either “an idealized concept of a loved one, formed in childhood and retained unaltered in adult life” (Random House Dictionary) or an image that emerges from the Jungian collective unconscious, to which an individual latches on in forming a personality.

Jung’s term was based on the Christian “imago Dei,” the image of God with which human beings were supposedly created, and which Auden, a believing Christian, undoubtedly has in mind here as well.


【注3 --- third stanza】

中文维基:

修昔底德(Θουκυδίδης,前460年至前455年间—约前400年),古希腊历史学家、思想家,以《伯罗奔尼撒战争史》传世,该书记述了公元前5世纪斯巴达和雅典之间的战争。
。。。。

他在描写政治家、统治者或外交使节的演说辞时,更特别下工夫去考究修辞,但却又能无损于演说的旨趣,严守纪录事实的立场。因此我们今天读到这些演说时,就会有同感:那些导致战争,或使战争继续的人,都须先对大众作一番说服演说,甚至连演说的内容,古今也都相同。

或者读者们也会发觉,当弱小的国家中,民主主义与贵族主义发生冲突,为了寻求“真理”,不得不导入强国的军队来协助时,其最后的结局,总不外只剩下一空架子的“主义”名目,整个国家内,却因憎恨而步入互相残杀之途。
过分相信力量,便会产生残忍的权力主义,最后更趋于盲目的冒险。民众们多半只因受了甜言蜜语的煽惑而行动,如此一来,盲目外加力量,一发不可收拾终至玉石俱焚。

“战争是暴力的导师”,这句话在历史上应验。平日隐藏着的人性残忍一面,一旦战争爆发,也随之被唤醒;而且战争时间越长,也就越能引发人性极端的暴力。

修西德底斯的历史,并不是部轻松的战争读物,读后使人心情沉重不堪。就像他告诉我们的“由于人性皆相同”,伯罗奔尼撒战争的教训,“未来仍会继续发生”。人,是何等残酷的动物啊!


【注4--- fourth stanza】

这段诗有两处很有意思。

一是"blind skyscrapers",指代资本主义。
奥登是Marxonian--- 马克思主义者+牛津才子,认为二战的发生,资本主义是祸首之一。

二是"Out of the mirror they stare,
Imperialism's face
And the international wrong."
这句重点在语法结构。翻译英文,正确理解句子结构非常关键。

在这句中,"they" 究竟指代什么呢? ”they" 与"Imperialism's And the international wrong" 是同位语。另一个hint 是, "stare" 为不及物动词, 后面没有跟"at".

所以可以这么理解, 高楼大厦在镜子中反射, Imperialism's face and the international wrong stare out of the mirror.

翻译乐趣之一就是彻底想清楚一个问题。:)


【注5--- fifth stanza】
在这一节诗中,"The Lights must never go out/The music must always play"常被引用。

以下几行出现在George Orwell的散文"Pleasure Spots"中:
The lights must never go out.
The music must always play,
Lest we should see where we are;
Lost in a haunted wood,
Children afraid of the dark
Who have never been happy or good.

在这首诗的第一节中,战争的发生让诗人"Uncertain and afraid". 这一节中的"lights, music"等, 只是暂时安抚对战争的恐惧心理。 而事实是,人类"lost in a haunted wood".

"Lost in a haunted wood,
Children afraid of the dark
Who have never been happy or good."
回应第二节:
“I and the public know
What all schoolchildren learn,
Those to whom evil is done
Do evil in return.”


【注6---sixth stanza】

波兰裔俄罗斯舞者尼金斯基是二十世纪的芭蕾舞传奇。瑟给‧狄亚格烈夫是“俄国芭蕾舞团”创办人。 两人曾为lovers。 1913年,俄罗斯芭蕾舞团前往南美洲巡回演出时,尼金斯基在布宜诺斯艾利斯成婚,狄亚格烈夫因此将尼金斯基除名。尼金斯基之后不久即发作精神病,受折磨长达三十年,61岁时逝于伦敦一家医院。

尼金斯基在他的《尼金斯基手记》中说他厌恶自己与狄亚格烈夫之间同事兼情人的关系,说"他让狄亚格烈夫玩弄,只是因为他需要钱,以免他自己同母亲陷于饥饿和绝境,而生病的哥哥也急需治疗":
http://www.digibooks.com.tw/xpe/portal/f79deb90-8503-414f-9f56-068a768164e1/-1/90827/read

当然,诗人奥登自己也是同性恋。

奥登试图从人性的弱点分析这场战争的根源。


wiki:

瓦斯拉夫·弗米契·尼金斯基(Vatslav Nijinsky;波兰语:Wacław Niżyński;俄语: Ва́цлав Фоми́ч Нижи́нский,)(1890年3月12日-1950年4月8日)是波兰裔俄罗斯芭蕾舞者和编舞家,以非凡的舞蹈技巧及对角色刻画的深度而闻名。他是当时少数会足尖舞的男性舞者,拥有仿佛可摆脱地心引力束缚的舞姿使其成为传奇。他的妹妹Bronislava Nijinska是编舞家。


【注7--- seventh stanza】

“And helpless governors wake
To resume their compulsory game: ”

诗人对统治者们面对纳粹德国表现出的无能很失望。


【注8---eighth stanza】

“All I have is a voice / To undo the folded lie,”
诗人/作家之伟大正在于此。奥登,John Steinbeck, 等等。

这一节中最有名的句子自然是President Johnson 引用的:
We must love one another or die.
奥登后来将"or"改为"and", 一字之差,似乎更有宿命论。

“There is no such thing as the State
And no one exists alone”
这让我想起另一首诗:

No man is an island
John Donne-- 李敖翻译

No man is an island,
entire of itself;
every man is a piece of the continent,
a part of the main.
If a clod be washed away by the sea,
Europe is the less,
as well as if a promontory were,
as well as if a manor of thy friend’s or of thine own were:
any man’s death diminishes me,
because I am involved in mankind,
and, therefore,
never send to know for whom the bells tolls;
it tolls for thee.

没有人能自全,
没有人是孤岛,
每人都是大陆的一片,
要为本土应卯
那便是一块土地,
那便是一方海角,
那便是一座庄园,
不论是你的、还是朋友的,
一旦海水冲走,
欧洲就要变小。
任何人的死亡,
都是我的减少,
作为人类的一员,
我与生灵共老。
丧钟在为谁敲,
我本茫然不晓,
不为幽明永隔,
它正为你哀悼。


【注9---ninth stanza】

"May I, composed like them
Of Eros and of dust,"
---- Eros, 厄洛斯, 是希腊神话中司“性爱”之原始神。
诗人意指自己是有七情六欲的凡人。

诗人在最后一节,从"uncertain and afraid" 中振作起来,愿自己为这苦难的世界
"Show an affirming flame. 这对战争中的读者无疑起到了鼓舞的作用。


一般人写几行诗样的文字,大概是为得些文字上的乐趣。而奥登是思想者。
        



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