拾乐园 Paradise Found  
#31  Re: Happy 450th Birthday, Shakespeare!             Go Back
这个周末就是在YouTube上听了另线上提到的三部威尔第的莎士比亚歌剧。

听得天昏地暗,头昏脑胀,最后需要这个来平衡一下。

So delightful!



云天 wrote: (4/24/2014 1:18)
Mendelssohn - A Midsummer Night's Dream: Overture



莎翁的语言功力着实令人惊叹。


http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/A_Midsummer_Night's_Dream:

Act I
Four days will quickly steep themselves in nights;
Four nights will quickly dream away the time;
And then the moon, like to a silver bow
New bent in heaven, shall behold the night
Of our solemnities.
Hippolyta, scene i


But earthlier happy is the rose distill'd
Than that, which, withering on the virgin thorn,
Grows, lives, and dies, in single blessedness.
Theseus, scene i


For aught that ever I could read,
Could ever hear by tale or history,
The course of true love never did run smooth.
Lysander, scene i


O, hell! to choose love by another’s eye.
Hermia, scene i


Swift as a shadow, short as any dream,
Brief as the lightning in the collied night,
That, in a spleen, unfolds both heaven and earth,
And ere a man hath power to say, — Behold!
The jaws of darkness do devour it up:
So quick bright things come to confusion.
Lysander, scene i


Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind,
And therefore is wing'd Cupid painted blind.
Helena, scene i

......

--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*
自得其乐
        

#30  Re: 《仲夏夜之梦》中的典故 --- Death of Orpheus 俄尔甫斯之死             Go Back


Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyreby Gustave Moreau (1865)


Act V
THESEUS
[Reads]
'The riot of the tipsy Bacchanals,
Tearing the Thracian singer in their rage.'

"The Thracian singer" is no other than Orpheus who traveled to the underworld to look for his beloved Eurydice.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpheus

Death

Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre by Gustave Moreau (1865)
According to a Late Antique summary of Aeschylus's lost play Bassarids, Orpheus at the end of his life disdained the worship of all gods save the sun, whom he called Apollo. One early morning he went to the oracle of Dionysus at Mount Pangaion[43] to salute his god at dawn, but was ripped to shreds by Thracian Maenads for not honoring his previous patron (Dionysus) and buried in Pieria.[14] Here his death is analogous with the death of Pentheus. For this reason it is sometimes speculated that the Orphic mystery cult regarded Orpheus as a parallel figure to or even an incarnation of Dionysus himself,[44] due to their many parallels, such as their similar journeys into Hades and identical deaths (in the case of Dionysus Zagreus [45]). A view supported by the conjectured Thracian belief that their kings were regarded as the incarnations of Dionysus [46] which would have included King Oeagrus, and his heir Orpheus, as well as the foundation or reform of the Dionysian Mysteries by Orpheus. But this remains controversial. Pausanias writes that Orpheus was buried in Dion and that he met his death there.[47] He writes that the river Helicon sank underground when the women that killed Orpheus tried to wash off their blood-stained hands in its waters.[48]

Ovid recounts that Orpheus...

had abstained from the love of women, either because things ended badly for him, or because he had sworn to do so. Yet, many felt a desire to be joined with the poet, and many grieved at rejection. Indeed, he was the first of the Thracian people to transfer his love to young boys, and enjoy their brief springtime, and early flowering, this side of manhood.[49]

Death of Orpheus, by Dürer (1494)
Feeling spurned by Orpheus for taking only male lovers, the Ciconian women, followers of Dionysus,[50] first threw sticks and stones at him as he played, but his music was so beautiful even the rocks and branches refused to hit him. Enraged, the women tore him to pieces during the frenzy of their Bacchic orgies.[51] In Albrecht Dürer's drawing of Orpheus's death, based on an original, now lost, by Andrea Mantegna, a ribbon high in the tree above him is lettered Orfeus der erst puseran ("Orpheus, the first pederast").[52]

His head and lyre, still singing mournful songs, floated down the swift Hebrus to the Mediterranean shore. There, the winds and waves carried them on to the Lesbos[53] shore, where the inhabitants buried his head and a shrine was built in his honour near Antissa;[54] there his oracle prophesied, until it was silenced by Apollo.[55] In addition to the people of Lesbos, Greeks from Ionia and Aetolia consulted the oracle, and his reputation spread as far as Babylon.[56]

Cave of Orpheus's oracle in Antissa, Lesbos
The lyre was carried to heaven by the Muses, and was placed among the stars. The Muses also gathered up the fragments of his body and buried them at Leibethra[57] below Mount Olympus, where the nightingales sang over his grave. After the river Sys flooded[58] Leibethra, the Macedonians took his bones to Dion. Orpheus's soul returned to the underworld where he was reunited at last with his beloved Eurydice.
        

#29  Re: 《仲夏夜之梦》中的典故 --- 涅索斯 Nessus             Go Back

Guido Reni, Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21, Louvre Museum.


Act V:
THESEUS
[Reads] 'The battle with the Centaurs, to be sung
By an Athenian eunuch to the harp.'
We'll none of that: that have I told my love,
In glory of my kinsman Hercules.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nessus_%28mythology%29

In Greek mythology, Nessus (Ancient Greek: Νέσσος) was a famous centaur who was killed by Heracles, and whose tainted blood in turn killed Heracles. He was the son of Centauros. He fought in the battle with the Lapiths. He became a ferryman on the river Euenos.

Nessus is known for his role in the story of the Tunic of Nessus. After carrying Deianeira, the wife of Heracles, across the river, he attempted to force himself upon her. Heracles saw this from across the river and shot a Hydra-poisoned arrow into Nessus's breast. As a final act of malice, Nessus told Deianeira, as he lay dying, that his blood would ensure that Heracles would be true to her forever.[1]
Deianeira foolishly believed him. Later, when her trust began to wane because of Iole, she spread the centaur's blood on a robe and gave it to her husband. Heracles went to a gathering of heroes, where his passion got the better of him. Meanwhile, Deianeira accidentally spilled a portion of the centaur's blood onto the floor. To her horror, it began to fume by the light of the rising sun.

She instantly recognized it as poison and sent her messenger to warn Heracles but it was too late. Heracles lay dying slowly and painfully as the robe burned his skin—either in actual flames or by the heat of poison. He died a noble death on a funeral pyre of oak branches, and was taken to Mount Olympus by Zeus and welcomed amongst the gods for his heroic exploits. A similar theme appears in certain versions of the story of Medea.
        

#28  Re: 《仲夏夜之梦》中的典故 --- The battle with the Centaurs             Go Back

Battle of the Centaurs is a relief by Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo, created around 1492.

Act V:
THESEUS
[Reads] 'The battle with the Centaurs, to be sung
By an Athenian eunuch to the harp.'


from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Centaurs_%28Michelangelo%29:

According to Condivi, the poet Poliziano suggested the specific subject to Michelangelo, and recounted the story to him.[4] The battle depicted takes place between the Lapiths and the Centaurs at the wedding feast of Pirithous.[1]Pirithous, king of the Lapith, had long clashed with the neighboring Centaurs. To mark his good intentions Pirithous invited the Centaurs to his wedding to Hippodamia, whose name ("Hippo," Ιππο, literally translates as "horse"), and may suggest some connection to them.[10]Some of the Centaurs, over-imbibed at the event, and when the bride was presented to greet the guests, she so aroused the intoxicated centaur Eurytion that he leapt up and attempted to carry her away.[11] This led not only to an immediate clash, but to a year-long war, before the defeated Centaurs were expelled from Thessaly to the northwest.
        

#27  Re: 《仲夏夜之梦》第五幕 第一场             Go Back

William Blake, Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing (c. 1785)


ACT V. SCENE I. Athens. The palace of THESEUS.

第五幕。 第一场。 雅典。 忒修斯的宫殿

Enter THESEUS, HIPPOLYTA, PHILOSTRATE, Lords and Attendants

忒修斯,希波吕忒,菲劳斯特莱特, 众臣和侍从上

HIPPOLYTA
'Tis strange my Theseus, that these
lovers speak of.

希波吕忒
我的忒修斯,这些情人说的话好生奇怪。

THESEUS
More strange than true: I never may believe
These antique fables, nor these fairy toys.
Lovers and madmen have such seething brains,
Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend
More than cool reason ever comprehends.
The lunatic, the lover and the poet
Are of imagination all compact:
One sees more devils than vast hell can hold,
That is, the madman: the lover, all as frantic,
Sees Helen's beauty in a brow of Egypt:
The poet's eye, in fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven;
And as imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothing
A local habitation and a name.
Such tricks hath strong imagination,
That if it would but apprehend some joy,
It comprehends some bringer of that joy;
Or in the night, imagining some fear,
How easy is a bush supposed a bear!

忒修斯
怪异甚于真实:我永远都不会相信
这些古怪的寓言,和荒谬的神话。
情人和疯子的脑袋都狂热无比,
那些奇形怪状的幻觉,
远非冷静的理智所能感悟。
疯子,情人,和诗人
都孕生于想象。
一个人眼中的鬼怪多得连偌大的地狱都装不下,
那自然是疯子。
与疯子并无二致的情人,
在吉普赛人的脸上可窥见海伦的倾城美貌。
诗人的眸子,流转着激情,
忽而从天空俯瞰大地,忽而从地上仰望天空,
当未知之物在想象中成形,
诗人则以生花妙笔赋之以形状,
将虚无之物置于居所,并冠以美名。
凡有此种能事者皆具超强想象力,
如果他感受到某种欢愉,
则推断这欢愉是承蒙赏赐。
如果他在暗夜里心生恐惧,
一树灌木丛立马就变成一头熊!

HIPPOLYTA
But all the story of the night told over,
And all their minds transfigured so together,
More witnesseth than fancy's images
And grows to something of great constancy;
But, howsoever, strange and admirable.

希波吕忒
但他们所讲的夜晚发生的事,
以及他们所有人心理同时转变这一事实,
就足以证明这绝非一场幻觉,
尽管这事有点蹊跷惊骇,
来龙去脉却相当紊合。

Enter LYSANDER, DEMETRIUS, HERMIA, and HELENA
拉山德、狄米特律斯、荷米娅, 同海丽娜上

THESEUS
Here come the lovers, full of joy and mirth.
Joy, gentle friends! joy and fresh days of love
Accompany your hearts!

忒修斯
那些情人们喜气洋洋地来了。
友善的朋友们,祝福你们!
愿快乐和爱情时光与你们的心相伴相行!

LYSANDER
More than to us
Wait in your royal walks, your board, your bed!

拉山德
愿您时时处处更快乐!

THESEUS
Come now; what masques, what dances shall we have,
To wear away this long age of three hours
Between our after-supper and bed-time?
Where is our usual manager of mirth?
What revels are in hand? Is there no play,
To ease the anguish of a torturing hour?
Call Philostrate.

忒修斯
来吧,我们是不是该搞个假面剧,跳跳舞,
来打发餐后茶点到就寝之间这难捱的三小时?
我们一向负责娱乐的总管在哪呢?
准备什么消遣节目了吗?
难道不能演一出戏让我们解解闷?
叫菲劳斯特莱特过来.

PHILOSTRATE
Here, mighty Theseus.

菲劳斯特莱特
在,强大的忒修斯。

THESEUS
Say, what abridgement have you for this evening?
What masque? what music? How shall we beguile
The lazy time, if not with some delight?

忒修斯
说说看,今晚你准备了什么娱乐节目?
有什么假面剧?什么音乐?
如果没乐子,这难熬的空闲我们可怎么打发呢?

PHILOSTRATE
(Giving a paper)
There is a brief how many sports are ripe:
Make choice of which your highness will see first.

菲劳斯特莱特
(呈上节目单)
这张单子列有准备好的节目:
请殿下决定先看哪个。


THESEUS
[Reads] 'The battle with the Centaurs, to be sung
By an Athenian eunuch to the harp.'
We'll none of that: that have I told my love,
In glory of my kinsman Hercules.

Reads
'The riot of the tipsy Bacchanals,
Tearing the Thracian singer in their rage.'
That is an old device; and it was play'd
When I from Thebes came last a conqueror.

Reads
'The thrice three Muses mourning for the death
Of Learning, late deceased in beggary.'
That is some satire, keen and critical,
Not sorting with a nuptial ceremony.

Reads
'A tedious brief scene of young Pyramus
And his love Thisbe; very tragical mirth.'
Merry and tragical! tedious and brief!
That is, hot ice and wondrous strange snow. ----
How shall we find the concord of this discord?


忒修斯
(读道)
”交战半人马,雅典阉人演唱,竖琴伴奏“。
这个我们不看:我已同我的爱人讲过
称颂我的亲戚赫拉克勒斯的故事。

(读道)
”醉里狂怒下毒手,色雷斯歌者身裂“。
那是老节目了,
我上次从底比斯凯旋归来时就演过了。

(读道)
”九缪斯痛悼学问之殇”。
这出戏颇具讽刺意味,犀利而深刻,
不适宜婚礼。

(读道)
“冗长的短剧:少年皮拉摩斯和恋人提斯柏;至悲喜剧。”
又欢乐又悲哀!又冗长又简短!
就像是,火热的冰,滚烫的雪。
我们怎么理解这不和谐的和谐呢?

【注】 wondrous strange, if the true reading, will mean as strange in nature as hot ice; for wondrous, as a trisyllable, see Abb. § 477. Various conjectures have been made in place of strange, e.g. 'scorching,' 'seething,' 'swarthy,' 'staining,' etc.
from: http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/mids_5_1.html

PHILOSTRATE
A play there is, my lord, some ten words long,
Which is as brief as I have known a play;
But by ten words, my lord, it is too long,
Which makes it tedious; for in all the play
There is not one word apt, one player fitted:
And tragical, my noble lord, it is;
For Pyramus therein doth kill himself.
Which, when I saw rehearsed, I must confess,
Made mine eyes water; but more merry tears
The passion of loud laughter never shed.

菲劳斯特莱特
殿下,是一出大约十个字长的戏,
就我所知,没有比这再短的戏了。
但是殿下,就十个字,也嫌长,
简直太乏味了。
整出戏,没有一个字用得恰当,
没有一个演员适合相应的角色。
尊贵的殿下,这的确是一出悲剧,
因为皮拉摩斯在戏里自杀了。
我得承认,彩排时看到这一幕,
我满眼泪花,就是纵情大笑时
也没流过这么多开心的泪。

THESEUS
What are they that do play it?

忒修斯
都是些什么样的演员呢?

PHILOSTRATE
Hard-handed men that work in Athens here,
Which never labour'd in their minds till now,
And now have toil'd their unbreathed memories
With this same play, against your nuptial.

菲劳斯特莱特
是雅典城里一帮两手粗糙的打工汉,
在演这出戏之前从没动过脑筋,
为了在您的婚礼上表演,
他们正在绞尽脑汁记台词。

THESEUS
And we will hear it.

忒修斯
我们就看这出戏吧。

PHILOSTRATE
No, my noble lord;
It is not for you: I have heard it over,
And it is nothing, nothing in the world;
Unless you can find sport in their intents,
Extremely stretch'd and conn'd with cruel pain,
To do you service.

菲劳斯特莱特
不,尊贵的殿下,
这出戏哪配让您看。我从头到尾听过一遍,
简直一无是处。
除非看在他们费尽九牛二虎之力
博您欢心的份上,
您才会觉得好笑有趣。

THESEUS
I will hear that play;
For never anything can be amiss,
When simpleness and duty tender it.
Go, bring them in: and take your places, ladies.

忒修斯
我决定看这出戏。
出自纯朴和敬意的奉献,
绝不至于惨不忍睹。
去吧,带他们进来。女士们,请就坐。

Exit PHILOSTRATE

菲劳斯特莱特下

HIPPOLYTA
I love not to see wretchedness o'er charged
And duty in his service perishing.

希波吕忒
我可不想看见那些竭尽忠诚
却力不从心的可怜人,演砸出丑。

THESEUS
Why, gentle sweet, you shall see no such thing.

忒修斯
啊,亲爱的,演出绝不会那么糟糕。

HIPPOLYTA
He says they can do nothing in this kind.

希波吕忒
可他说他们压根不会演戏。

THESEUS
The kinder we, to give them thanks for nothing.
Our sport shall be to take what they mistake:
And what poor duty cannot do, noble respect
Takes it in might, not merit.
Where I have come, great clerks have purposed
To greet me with premeditated welcomes;
Where I have seen them shiver and look pale,
Make periods in the midst of sentences,
Throttle their practised accent in their fears
And in conclusion dumbly have broke off,
Not paying me a welcome. Trust me, sweet,
Out of this silence yet I pick'd a welcome;
And in the modesty of fearful duty
I read as much as from the rattling tongue
Of saucy and audacious eloquence.
Love, therefore, and tongue-tied simplicity
In least speak most, to my capacity.

忒修斯
对平凡的他们说声谢谢,才更彰显我们的仁慈。
我们当从他们的谬误中获得娱乐。
忠诚的可怜人能力有限,宽宏者当看重
他们付出的努力,而非达到的效果。
我所到之处, 饱学之士们准备好了欢迎辞
敬候我的光临;
他们见到我时却抖抖索索面色苍白,
在句子当中做不合宜的停顿,
因为紧张,演练好的抑扬顿挫也吞吞吐吐,
最后唐突收尾,竟然没说声欢迎我。
相信我,亲爱的,
从未言的沉默中,我感受到了他们对我的欢迎,
谨小慎微惊慌失措所表现的诚挚,
抵得上滔滔不绝的雄辩口才。
因此我以为, 爱和笨嘴拙舌的淳朴
无言胜万语。

Re-enter PHILOSTRATE

菲劳斯特莱特重上

PHILOSTRATE
So please your grace, the Prologue is address'd.

菲劳斯特莱特
请示殿下,念开场白的已准备就绪。

THESEUS
Let him approach.

忒修斯
让他上场吧。

Flourish of trumpets

喇叭鸣响

Enter QUINCE for the Prologue

昆斯上,念开场白

Prologue
If we offend, it is with our good will.
That you should think, we come not to offend,
But with good will. To show our simple skill,
That is the true beginning of our end.
Consider then we come but in despite.
We do not come as minding to contest you,
Our true intent is. All for your delight
We are not here. That you should here repent you,
The actors are at hand and by their show
You shall know all that you are like to know.

开场白
我们若得罪诸位,那是出于好意。
你们要相信,我们不是有意冒犯,
是一片好意。就是显摆显摆陋技,
这才是这次演出起先真正的意愿。
你们要晓得我们来就是想要惹事。
我们来这里不是给你们添烦添乱,
这才是我们的心意。我们来这里
不是娱乐你们。你们会后悔连连,
演员们都准备就绪就等上场表演
到底唱的是哪出戏就在列位眼前。

[Some scholars think that the lines should be stopped as follows : —

If we offend, it is with our good will
That you should think we come not to offend;
But with good will to show our simple skill:
That is the true beginning of our end.
Consider then; we come; but in despite
We do not come: as minding to content you.
Our true intent is all for your delight;
We are not here that you should here repent you.
The actors are at hand; and by their show
You shall know all that you are like to know.)

开场白
请你们相信,我们是出于好意,
若有冒犯,还请诸位多多海涵。
我们只想显摆一下拙陋的演技,
这就是我们最起先的真正意愿。
你们瞧,说起来就是这么回事,
我们来这儿就为带来娱乐消遣,
可不想让你们看了戏后悔连连。
演员都准备就绪就等上场表演
到底唱的哪出戏就在列位眼前。]

THESEUS
This fellow doth not stand upon points.

忒修斯
这家伙说话乱停顿。

LYSANDER
He hath rid his prologue like a rough colt; he knows
not the stop. A good moral, my lord: it is not
enough to speak, but to speak true.

拉山德
他的开场白就像一匹横冲直撞的小马,简直乱了套,
他根本不知道什么时候该停什么时候不该停。
殿下,教训就是:
话不在多,但要说得中规中矩。

HIPPOLYTA
Indeed he hath played on his prologue like a child
on a recorder; a sound, but not in government.

希波吕忒
的确,他念开场白就像是小孩子玩笛子,
呜呜作响,却不成旋律,完全失控了。

THESEUS
His speech, was like a tangled chain; nothing
impaired, but all disordered. Who is next?

忒修斯
他的开场白就像纠缠在一起的链子,
什么部件都没坏,就是乱七八糟的。 下面该谁上场?

Enter Pyramus and Thisbe, Wall, Moonshine, and Lion

皮拉摩斯和提斯柏, 墙,月光,和狮子上

Prologue
Gentles, perchance you wonder at this show;
But wonder on, till truth make all things plain.
This man is Pyramus, if you would know;
This beauteous lady Thisby is certain.
This man, with lime and rough-cast, doth present
Wall, that vile Wall which did these lovers sunder;
And through Wall's chink, poor souls, they are content
To whisper. At the which let no man wonder.
This man, with lanthorn, dog, and bush of thorn,
Presenteth Moonshine; for, if you will know,
By moonshine did these lovers think no scorn
To meet at Ninus' tomb, there, there to woo.
This grisly beast, which Lion hight by name,
The trusty Thisby, coming first by night,
Did scare away, or rather did affright;
And, as she fled, her mantle she did fall,
Which Lion vile with bloody mouth did stain.
Anon comes Pyramus, sweet youth and tall,
And finds his trusty Thisby's mantle slain:
Whereat, with blade, with bloody blameful blade,
He bravely broach'd is boiling bloody breast;
And Thisby, tarrying in mulberry shade,
His dagger drew, and died. For all the rest,
Let Lion, Moonshine, Wall, and lovers twain
At large discourse, while here they do remain.
Exeunt Prologue, Thisbe, Lion, and Moonshine

开场白
女士先生们,也许你们寻思到底演啥,
那就继续寻思吧,一切总会真相大白。
这是皮拉摩斯,如果你们想知道的话,
这位非常漂亮的姑娘当然就是提斯柏。
这个伙计,身上抹了石灰水泥,代表
那堵把两个恋人隔在两侧的可恶的墙。
这两个可怜人啊,只好透过墙缝悄悄
互诉衷肠。要向诸位讲清楚墙的用场。
这位手提着灯笼,牵着狗,拿着荆棘,
象征月光;如果你们想知道这个故事,
是说俩情人觉得相约在月下的尼纳斯
墓前,在那儿谈情说爱没啥不好意思。
这头可怕的畜牲,它的名字叫做狮子,
那天夜晚,忠实的提斯柏先赶到墓地,
不只被狮子吓跑,简直惊得魂亡魄失。
她慌忙逃走时,身上的披风掉落于地,
凶恶的狮子血盆大口咬过就沾满血迹。
高大的美少年皮拉摩斯随后赶到墓地,
看见他忠实的提斯柏的披风扑地而死。
于是他抽出那将滴血的该受谴责的剑,
无所畏惧地剖开自己热血沸腾的胸膛。
在桑树林影里徘徊的提斯柏见状怆然,
拔出他的剑刺向自己,随即魂散人亡。
让月光、墙和这对情人,将其余故事
一一道来,反正他们几个都呆在这里。

Exeunt Prologue, Thisbe, Lion, and Moonshine

开场白(昆斯),提斯柏, 狮子和月光下

THESEUS
I wonder if the lion be to speak.

忒修斯
我想知道狮子会不会开口说话。

DEMETRIUS
No wonder, my lord: one lion may, when many asses do.

狄米特律斯
殿下,您不必惊讶:这么些驴子都会说话,一头狮子当然也会。

Wall (played by SNOUT)
In this same interlude it doth befall
That I, one Snout by name, present a wall;
And such a wall, as I would have you think,
That had in it a crannied hole or chink,
Through which the lovers, Pyramus and Thisby,
Did whisper often very secretly.
This loam, this rough-cast and this stone doth show
That I am that same wall; the truth is so:
And this the cranny is, right and sinister,
Through which the fearful lovers are to whisper.

墙 (斯诺特饰)
斯诺特就是在下的名字,
咱在这出戏里扮一堵墙。
各位看官,这墙可不是
什么随随便便的一堵墙,
墙上有条缝,透过缝隙
这对恋人常常悄悄交谈。
瞧这泥巴这水泥这砖石,
都表明咱的确是那墙垣;
透过这条从右到左的缝,
一对胆怯恋人低诉衷情。

THESEUS
Would you desire lime and hair to speak better?

忒修斯
谁能料到水泥混合物竟这么能说会道呢?
(hair, an admixture with lime to give it greater consistency)

DEMETRIUS
It is the wittiest partition that ever I heard
discourse, my lord.

狄米特律斯
殿下,我还从未听到一堵墙说话这么机灵风趣。

Enter Pyramus

皮拉摩上

THESEUS
Pyramus draws near the wall: silence!

忒修斯
皮拉摩斯走到墙边了。肃静!

Pyramus
O grim-look'd night! O night with hue so black!
O night, which ever art when day is not!
O night, O night! alack, alack, alack,
I fear my Thisby's promise is forgot!
And thou, O wall, O sweet, O lovely wall,
That stand'st between her father's ground and mine!
Thou wall, O wall, O sweet and lovely wall,
Show me thy chink, to blink through with mine eyne!

(WALL holds up fingers as chink )

Thanks, courteous wall: Jove shield thee well for this!
But what see I? No Thisby do I see.
O wicked wall, through whom I see no bliss!
Cursed be thy stones for thus deceiving me!


皮拉摩斯
愁容满面的夜啊!夜色如此黑暗!
夜晚啊,白昼逝去之时你就显现!
夜晚啊,夜晚!我的天,我的天,
我的提斯柏恐怕忘了赴约的诺言!
啊,墙啊墙,你这可爱美丽的墙,
显现你的墙缝,让我的眼向里望!
(墙竖起手指做墙缝状)
多谢,有礼貌的墙!上帝保佑你!
但我瞧见啥?没有提斯柏的影子。
可恶的墙,透过墙缝看不见欣喜!
你这该咒的石头竟耍俺皮拉莫斯!

THESEUS
The wall, methinks, being sensible, should curse again.

忒修斯
依我看,这墙是有知觉的,该咒回去。


Pyramus (played by BOTTOM)
No, in truth, sir, he should not. 'Deceiving me'
is Thisby's cue: she is to enter now, and I am to
spy her through the wall. You shall see, it will
fall pat as I told you. Yonder she comes.

皮拉摩斯 (波特穆饰)
不行,殿下,事实上,他不能那么做。
“耍俺皮拉莫斯”是给提斯柏的提示。
她就要上场了,我得贴着墙缝瞧她。
您等着看吧,事情会同我告诉您的一模一样。
她从那边来了。

(pat: exactly)

Enter Thisbe 提斯柏上

Thisbe (played by FLUTE)
O wall, full often hast thou heard my moans,
For parting my fair Pyramus and me!
My cherry lips have often kiss'd thy stones,
Thy stones with lime and hair knit up in thee.

提斯柏 (弗鲁特扮)
墙啊,你时常听到我呻吟不止,
我同俊美的皮拉莫斯被你隔离!
我的樱唇常常亲吻着你的砖石,
你那用石灰泥紧紧粘成的砖石。


Pyramus
I see a voice: now will I to the chink,
To spy an I can hear my Thisby's face. Thisby!

皮拉摩斯
我看见一个声音:我得到墙缝那儿去,
瞧瞧能不能听到我的提斯柏的面容。提斯柏!

Thisbe
My love thou art, my love I think.

提斯柏
我想,你是我的心上人,我的心上人。

Pyramus
Think what thou wilt, I am thy lover's grace;
And, like Limander, am I trusty still.

皮拉摩斯
你尽管想,我就是你优雅的爱人;
我就像利安德,依旧忠诚可信。

Thisbe
And I like Helen, till the Fates me kill.

提斯柏
我就像海伦,爱你直到生命尽头。

Pyramus
Not Shafalus to Procrus was so true.

皮拉摩斯
刻法罗斯对厄瑞克修斯也不及我对你的忠诚。

Thisbe
As Shafalus to Procrus, I to you.

提斯柏
我对你的忠诚,就像刻法罗斯对厄瑞克修斯。

Pyramus
O kiss me through the hole of this vile wall!

皮拉摩斯
啊,透过这可恶的墙缝,吻我吧。

Thisbe
I kiss the wall's hole, not your lips at all.

提斯柏
我吻到的只是墙缝,根本碰不到你的嘴唇。

Pyramus
Wilt thou at Ninny's tomb meet me straightway?

皮拉摩斯
你愿意马上到宁尼坟跟我碰面吗?

Thisbe
'Tide life, 'tide death, I come without delay.

提斯柏
是死是活,我即刻就去。

Exeunt Pyramus and Thisbe

皮拉摩斯和提斯柏下


Wall
Thus have I, Wall, my part discharged so;
And, being done, thus Wall away doth go.


我这堵墙的戏演完了,
咱这就告退了。

Exit 下

THESEUS
Now is the mural down between the two neighbours.

忒修斯
现在隔开两家的墙倒了。

DEMETRIUS
No remedy, my lord, when walls are so wilful to hear without warning.

狄米特律斯
殿下,别无良策,谁让墙暗中偷听呢。

HIPPOLYTA
This is the silliest stuff that ever I heard.

希波吕忒
我还没听过比这更蠢的戏呢。

THESEUS
The best in this kind are but shadows; and the worst are no worse, if imagination amend them.

忒修斯
最好的戏不过是错觉;
最糟的戏也没差到哪,假如用想象加以弥补。

HIPPOLYTA
It must be your imagination then, and not theirs.

希波吕忒
那就是你的想象了,他们可没这本事。

THESEUS
If we imagine no worse of them than they of
themselves, they may pass for excellent men. Here come two noble beasts in, a man and a lion.

忒修斯
如果我们没有把他们想象得比他们自己想象得更糟,他们还算得上很不错的演员了。
两个尊贵动物上场了,一人一狮。

Enter Lion and Moonshine 狮子和月光上

Lion (played by SNUG)
You, ladies, you, whose gentle hearts do fear
The smallest monstrous mouse that creeps on floor,
May now perchance both quake and tremble here,
When lion rough in wildest rage doth roar.
Then know that I, one Snug the joiner, am
A lion-fell, nor else no lion's dam;
For, if I should as lion come in strife
Into this place, 'twere pity on my life.

狮子 (斯纳格扮)
各位女士,爬在地板上的庞大小鼠
都会把你们柔弱的心吓得惊慌失措,
现在要是一头狮子狂暴地咆哮怒吼,
你们听见了是不是有可能浑身发抖?
你们要知道,我斯纳格是个木匠呀,
咱既非凶猛的公狮,也不是母狮哈;
我要是一头狮子冲到这儿打打闹闹,
那我就是在拿自个的小命来开玩笑。

(dam:dame)

THESEUS
A very gentle beast, of a good conscience.

忒修斯
一头非常温顺善良的动物。

DEMETRIUS
The very best at a beast, my lord, that e'er I saw.

狄米特律斯
殿下,我看过的戏里,这个演员扮动物最出彩。

LYSANDER
This lion is a very fox for his valour.

拉山德
说起勇气来,这头狮子倒像十足的狐狸。

THESEUS
True; and a goose for his discretion.

忒修斯
没错。他小心谨慎又恰如一只鹅。

DEMETRIUS
Not so, my lord; for his valour cannot carry his
discretion; and the fox carries the goose.

狄米特律斯
殿下,非也。 相比谨慎,他的勇气稍逊一筹;
狐狸能叼走鹅。

THESEUS
His discretion, I am sure, cannot carry his valour;
for the goose carries not the fox. It is well:
leave it to his discretion, and let us listen to the moon.

忒修斯
我敢断定,他的谨慎不足以增添他的勇气;
就像鹅拖不动狐狸。
好了,让他自己权衡吧。我们来听月亮演戏。

Moonshine
This lanthorn doth the horned moon present;--

月光
这盏灯笼代表角状新月。

DEMETRIUS
He should have worn the horns on his head.

狄米特律斯
他头上应该插上角。

THESEUS
He is no crescent, and his horns are
invisible within the circumference.

忒修斯
他并非新月,圆里面的角看不见。

Moonshine
This lanthorn doth the horned moon present;
Myself the man i' the moon do seem to be.

月光
这盏灯笼代表角状新月,
我自己好似月中人。

THESEUS
This is the greatest error of all the rest: the man
should be put into the lanthorn. How is it else the
man i' the moon?

忒修斯
这是最大的错。应当把人放在灯笼里。
不然怎么是月中人呢?

DEMETRIUS
He dares not come there for the candle; for, you
see, it is already in snuff.

狄米特律斯
他不敢进去,因为里面有蜡烛。
你瞧,蜡烛已经冒火了。

(in snuff: used as a pun here)

HIPPOLYTA
I am aweary of this moon: would he would change!

希波吕忒
我对这月亮厌倦了。真希望他能变个样!

THESEUS
It appears, by his small light of discretion, that
he is in the wane; but yet, in courtesy, in all
reason, we must stay the time.

忒修斯
看起来月色曦微,月亮正由盈转亏。
但出于礼貌和种种理由,我们必须耐心等待。

LYSANDER
Proceed, Moon.

拉山德
月光,请继续。

Moonshine
All that I have to say, is, to tell you that the
lanthorn is the moon; I, the man in the moon; this
thorn-bush, my thorn-bush; and this dog, my dog.

月光
说来说去,无非想告诉大伙,这盏灯笼就是月亮;我呢,就是月中人; 这灌木丛是我的灌木丛;这狗是我的狗。

DEMETRIUS
Why, all these should be in the lanthorn; for all
these are in the moon. But, silence! here comes Thisbe.

狄米特律斯
咳,所有东西都该搁灯笼里;因为他们都在月亮里。但是,安静些!提斯柏来了。

Enter Thisbe 提斯柏上

Thisbe
This is old Ninny's tomb. Where is my love?

提斯柏
这就是老宁尼的坟。 我的心上人在哪儿呢?

Lion
[Roaring] Oh--

狮子
(大吼)嗷--

Thisbe runs off 提斯柏跑走

DEMETRIUS
Well roared, Lion.

狄米特律斯
狮子,吼得好。

THESEUS
Well run, Thisbe.

忒修斯
提斯柏, 跑得好。

HIPPOLYTA
Well shone, Moon. Truly, the moon shines with a
good grace.

希波吕忒
月亮,照得好。真的, 明亮的月光多么美妙。

The Lion shakes Thisbe's mantle, and exit

狮子挥动提斯柏的披风,然后下。

THESEUS
Well moused, Lion.

忒修斯
就像狮子咬老鼠,咬得好,狮子。

LYSANDER
And so the lion vanished.

拉山德
狮子就此消失了。

DEMETRIUS
And then came Pyramus.

狄米特律斯
皮拉摩斯然后出现了。

Enter Pyramus 皮拉摩斯上

Pyramus
Sweet Moon, I thank thee for thy sunny beams;
I thank thee, Moon, for shining now so bright;
For, by thy gracious, golden, glittering gleams,
I trust to take of truest Thisby sight.
But stay, O spite!
But mark, poor knight,
What dreadful dole is here!
Eyes, do you see?
How can it be?
O dainty duck! O dear!
Thy mantle good,
What, stain'd with blood!
Approach, ye Furies fell!
O Fates, come, come,
Cut thread and thrum;
Quail, crush, conclude, and quell!


皮拉摩斯
可爱的月亮,我感谢你月色朗朗;
我感谢你,月亮,此刻如此明亮;
因你那仁慈的金色月光这般璀璨,
我定能一睹忠诚的提斯柏的容颜。
但且慢,怎么回事!
瞧啊,可怜的骑士,
这令人惊骇的哀惨!
眼睛啊,你可看见?
怎会发生这种意外?
我的亲亲我的至爱!
你的披风依旧完好无缺,
怎么,上面有斑斑鲜血!
可怕的复仇女神,来吧!
噢命运,你来吧,来吧,
切断这生命的缕缕丝丝;
让我从这世界彻底消失!

THESEUS
This passion, and the death of a dear friend, would
go near to make a man look sad.

忒修斯
演员如此动情,若再加上一个挚友的死亡,
那足以让一个人悲恸忧伤。

HIPPOLYTA
Beshrew my heart, but I pity the man.

希波吕忒
我若不同情他,我必遭报应。

Pyramus
O wherefore, Nature, didst thou lions frame?
Since lion vile hath here deflower'd my dear:
Which is--no, no--which was the fairest dame
That lived, that loved, that liked, that look'd
with cheer.
Come, tears, confound;
Out, sword, and wound
The pap of Pyramus;
Ay, that left pap,
Where heart doth hop:
Stabs himself
Thus die I, thus, thus, thus.
Now am I dead,
Now am I fled;
My soul is in the sky:
Tongue, lose thy light;
Moon take thy flight:
Exit Moonshine
Now die, die, die, die, die.

皮拉摩斯
造物主啊,你为啥要造出狮子来?
让邪恶的狮子在这里糟蹋我的爱:
她是 --哦不--她曾是最美的姑娘,
她活过爱过,曾经那么神情欢畅。
眼泪,磅礴吧,困惑我;
利剑,出鞘吧,刺伤我
对着我的胸膛,噢左边,
将怦怦心跳的左胸刺穿:(拔剑自戕)
我就这样死,这样死。
现在我已死,
现在我已逝;
我的灵魂升入天堂:
太阳,收敛你的光芒;
月亮,飞离夜的皓苍:(月光下)
现在我一命呜呼,一命呜呼。


【注】Tongue, lose thy light; Moon take thy flight:
Halliwell would read 'Sun' for Tongue, but surely the nonsense is intentional, and Pyramus, if made to talk sense, would have said, 'Breath, take thy flight; Moon, lose thy light.'
from: http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/mids_5_1.html

Dies (皮拉摩斯死去)

DEMETRIUS
No die, but an ace, for him; for he is but one.

狄米特律斯
没有一枚骰子,但骰子上有一点;因为他独自一人。

(接皮拉摩斯的“Now die, die, die, die, die."
die: 动词“死”;名词“骰子”, one die, two dice)

LYSANDER
Less than an ace, man; for he is dead; he is nothing.

拉山德
伙计,还不足一点;因为他死了;他变成零了。

THESEUS
With the help of a surgeon he might yet recover, and
prove an ass.

忒修斯
外科医生或许能起死回生,让他转成一头驴。

HIPPOLYTA
How chance Moonshine is gone before Thisbe comes
back and finds her lover?

希波吕忒
没有月光照耀,提斯柏返回后怎么找到她的情人呢?

THESEUS
She will find him by starlight. Here she comes; and
her passion ends the play.

忒修斯
她会借着星光找到他。瞧她来了;
这出戏以她的悲痛欲绝收场。

Re-enter Thisbe 提斯柏重上

HIPPOLYTA
Methinks she should not use a long one for such a
Pyramus: I hope she will be brief.

希波吕忒
依我看,对皮拉摩斯这样的人,她大可不必长篇大论:我希望她言辞简短。

DEMETRIUS
A mote will turn the balance, which Pyramus, which
Thisbe, is the better; he for a man, God warrant us;
she for a woman, God bless us.

狄米特律斯
皮拉摩斯和提斯柏这两人的演技实在难分伯仲。
如果皮拉摩斯这个男人演得更好,上帝保佑我们;
如果提斯柏这个女人略胜一筹,上帝祝福我们。

LYSANDER
She hath spied him already with those sweet eyes.

拉山德
她那美丽的双眸已经看见他了。

DEMETRIUS
And thus she means, videlicet:--

狄米特律斯
她要哀伤倾诉:

Thisbe
Asleep, my love?
What, dead, my dove?
O Pyramus, arise!
Speak, speak. Quite dumb?
Dead, dead? A tomb
Must cover thy sweet eyes.
These lily lips,
This cherry nose,
These yellow cowslip cheeks,
Are gone, are gone:
Lovers, make moan:
His eyes were green as leeks.
O Sisters Three,
Come, come to me,
With hands as pale as milk;
Lay them in gore,
Since you have shore
With shears his thread of silk.
Tongue, not a word:
Come, trusty sword;
Come, blade, my breast imbrue:
Stabs herself
And, farewell, friends;
Thus Thisby ends:
Adieu, adieu, adieu.
Dies

提斯柏
我的亲亲,你可在酣睡吗?
天哪,我的宝贝,你死了?
啊,皮拉摩斯,你起身啊!
说话,说话呀。你哑了吗?
你真的死了,你真的死了?
你那美目将覆于坟冢之下。
双唇仿若百合花瓣,
鼻头恰似樱桃装点,
两颊染一抹樱草黄,
一切皆亡一切皆亡:
天下有情人尽悲恸:
他的双眸绿如韭葱。
啊,命运女神三姊妹啊,
你们冲我来,冲我来吧,
将那牛乳般苍白的手指,
浸入满是淤血的血浆里,
既然你们已用利刀剪断,
织成他生命的缕缕丝线。
舌头,莫发一言:
来吧,忠实的剑;
来吧,利刃,插入我胸间:(自刺)
朋友们,再见;
提斯柏就此告别人间:
再见,再见,再见。(死去)


【注】
Sisters Three, the Fates:Clotho, who held the distaff; Lachesis, who spun the thread of life; Atropos, who cut it.



THESEUS
Moonshine and Lion are left to bury the dead.

忒修斯
留下月光和狮子埋葬死者。

DEMETRIUS
Ay, and Wall too.

狄米特律斯
是啊,还有那堵墙。

BOTTOM
[Starting up] No,assure you; the wall is down that
parted their fathers. Will it please you to see the
epilogue, or to hear a Bergomask dance between two
of our company?

波特穆
(坐起来)不成,俺跟你们打包票,
隔开他们俩家的那堵墙已经倒了。
你们是想看收场白,
还是听俺们中的俩人跳贝尔戈马斯舞?

THESEUS
No epilogue, I pray you; for your play needs no
excuse. Never excuse; for when the players are all
dead, there needs none to be blamed. Marry, if he
that writ it had played Pyramus and hanged himself
in Thisbe's garter, it would have been a fine
tragedy: and so it is, truly; and very notably
discharged. But come, your Bergomask: let your
epilogue alone.

Bergomask dance    

Exeunt BOTTOM and FLUTE

The iron tongue of midnight hath told twelve:
Lovers, to bed; 'tis almost fairy time.
I fear we shall out-sleep the coming morn
As much as we this night have overwatch'd.
This palpable-gross play hath well beguiled
The heavy gait of night. Sweet friends, to bed.
A fortnight hold we this solemnity,
In nightly revels and new jollity.

忒修斯
拜托,收场白就算了;
因为你们的戏不必请人原谅。
别解释什么;演员都死光了,怪罪谁呢。
嗯,如果写剧本的人扮皮拉摩斯,
用提斯柏的吊袜带上吊,
那就是出精彩的悲剧。
这场戏你们演得真不错。
来,跳起你们的贝尔戈马斯舞:
收场白抛一边去。

(跳贝尔戈马斯舞)

(波特穆和弗鲁特下)

子夜的铃舌已敲了十二下:
情人们,睡吧;快到神仙夜游的时辰了。
我担心我们明早会睡过头
都怪我们今晚熬到太晚。
这出滥戏不觉间打发了一长夜。
往后两周我们继续庆祝,
每晚变着花样尽情欢乐。

(The "iron tongue" refers to the clapper of a bell)


Exeunt 众下

Enter PUCK 帕克上

PUCK
Now the hungry lion roars,
And the wolf behowls the moon;
Whilst the heavy ploughman snores,
All with weary task fordone.
Now the wasted brands do glow,
Whilst the screech-owl, screeching loud,
Puts the wretch that lies in woe
In remembrance of a shroud.
Now it is the time of night
That the graves all gaping wide,
Every one lets forth his sprite,
In the church-way paths to glide:
And we fairies, that do run
By the triple Hecate's team,
From the presence of the sun,
Following darkness like a dream,
Now are frolic: not a mouse
Shall disturb this hallow'd house:
I am sent with broom before,
To sweep the dust behind the door.

帕克
此时饿狮咆哮,
野狼向月长嗥;
耕夫鼾声正浓,
白昼农作繁重。
柴炭残光彤彤,
鸮鸟尖叫声声,
忧愁人卧病床,
眼前尸衣恍恍。
正值漫漫夜霭,
所有坟墓洞开,
幽灵倾巢而出,
在墓地上飘忽。
我们仙子紧跟
三面神的车轮,
避开晴空灿灿,
追踪夜之梦幻。
欢乐时辰已到,
小鼠莫要吵闹。
咱受命先到此,
清扫圣屋四壁。

Enter OBERON and TITANIA with their train

奥布朗和泰坦尼娅及众随从上

OBERON
Through the house give gathering light,
By the dead and drowsy fire:
Every elf and fairy sprite
Hop as light as bird from brier;
And this ditty, after me,
Sing, and dance it trippingly.

奥布朗
让欲熄的火星,
照亮整个房厅:
每个仙子精灵,
如枝上鸟跳蹦;
跟着我唱一曲,
轻轻地跳个舞。

TITANIA
First, rehearse your song by rote
To each word a warbling note:
Hand in hand, with fairy grace,
Will we sing, and bless this place.

泰坦尼娅
先把歌儿熟练,
每个字要婉转;
我们携手仙姿,
同声祝福宝地。

Song and dance 歌唱跳舞

OBERON
Now, until the break of day,
Through this house each fairy stray.
To the best bride-bed will we,
Which by us shall blessed be;
And the issue there create
Ever shall be fortunate.
So shall all the couples three
Ever true in loving be;
And the blots of Nature's hand
Shall not in their issue stand;
Never mole, hare lip, nor scar,
Nor mark prodigious, such as are
Despised in nativity,
Shall upon their children be.
With this field-dew consecrate,
Every fairy take his gait;
And each several chamber bless,
Through this palace, with sweet peace;
And the owner of it blest
Ever shall in safety rest.
Trip away; make no stay;
Meet me all by break of day.

奥布朗
从现在直到天亮,
众仙子各处游荡。
要找到公爵洞房,
祝福他们的帷床。
那床上所孕孩子,
将永远幸运如意。
祝福这三对新人,
对爱情一生忠贞。
他们生育的子女,
将受恩于造物主。
像是兔唇与黑痣,
疤痕和不祥胎记,
凡令人厌的长相,
都不生他们身上。
仙子们你们快去,
采撷那神圣露珠;
洒到每一间房屋,
送去平安与祝福。
那被祝福的人们,
将永享安宁人生。
仙子们速去速回,
拂晓时与我相会。

Exeunt OBERON, TITANIA, and train

奥布朗、泰坦尼娅并随从下

PUCK
If we shadows have offended,
Think but this, and all is mended,
That you have but slumber'd here
While these visions did appear.
And this weak and idle theme,
No more yielding but a dream,
Gentles, do not reprehend:
if you pardon, we will mend:
And, as I am an honest Puck,
If we have unearned luck
Now to 'scape the serpent's tongue,
We will make amends ere long;
Else the Puck a liar call;
So, good night unto you all.
Give me your hands, if we be friends,
And Robin shall restore amends.

帕克
我们仙子若冒犯了诸位,
你们就当在此酣眠入睡,
在梦中看见了这些虚幻,
这么一想,便一切释然。
这出轻飘飘又无聊的戏,
只是梦幻一场无甚意义,
女士先生们,切莫责备,
若蒙宽宥,定将功补罪。
我帕克从不说谎讲信用,
如果我们这次万分侥幸,
免遭诸位的嘘声与责詈,
我们不久一定投桃报李。
否则你们尽管喊我骗子,
祝大家伙晚上平安如意。
是朋友就请鼓掌叫声好,
我罗宾日后当知恩必报。


== 剧终==
        

#26  《仲夏夜之梦》中的典故 --- 印度男童与伽倪墨得斯?             Go Back
《仲夏夜之梦》第四幕第一场:
OBERON
When I had at my pleasure taunted her
And she in mild terms begg'd my patience,
I then did ask of her her changeling child;
Which straight she gave me, and her fairy sent
To bear him to my bower in fairy land.

仙后放弃印度男童,奥布朗终于如愿以偿。这场仲夏夜之梦,归根结底起源于印度小男孩。仙后起先不肯割爱,竟被奥布朗奚落耍弄。这仙王肚里肯定撑不下船。

莎翁剧中的忒修斯或许受希腊神话“Ganymede 伽倪墨得斯”的影响?这只是我个人猜想,也许网上有相关文章。最近刚写过一篇关于月亮的小文,有趣的是 Ganymede 是太阳系最大的月亮/卫星。 Ganymede 是 Jupiter 的卫星, 罗马神话中的Jupiter 对应的希腊神话人物就是 Zeus 宙斯。


The Abduction of Ganymede (ca. 1650), by Eustache Le Sueur


wiki:

伽倪墨得斯[1](古希腊语:Γανυμήδης)希腊神话中的一个美少年。

伽倪墨得斯是特洛伊国王特罗斯之子,母亲为卡利罗厄。特罗斯有三子:伊洛斯、阿萨剌科斯和伽倪墨得斯,伽倪墨得斯在其中最年少貌美,因此受到众神之王—宙斯的喜爱,将他带到天上成为宙斯的情人并代替青春女神—赫柏为诸神斟酒。较晚期的神话说宙斯变成巨鹰把伽倪墨得斯从伊达山上劫走;之后宙斯为了抚慰其父特罗斯,送给后者一对神马。

在天文学上,木卫三(Ganymede)和小行星1036(Ganymed)的拉丁名来自伽倪墨得斯,而宝瓶座的命名典故也来自伽倪墨得斯(宝瓶座被说成是伽倪墨得斯持瓶倒酒的形象,而天鹰座则是劫走伽倪墨得斯的巨鹰)。
        

#25  《仲夏夜之梦》的典故 -- 五朔节             Go Back
《仲夏夜之梦》第四幕第一场中提到"the rite of May", 五朔节典礼:
THESEUS :No doubt they rose up early to observe / The rite of May

根据“Wheel of the Year”, November 1 冬季开始,到 May 1, 正好是夏天的第一天,而 June 19-23 是 Summer Solstice, 称为 Midsummer。





我们从小知道的是"五一国际劳动节",是一些社会主义国家庆祝的节日,即"Labor Day" or "International Workers' Day"。 而对西方许多国家,May Day 是春天的盛典,载歌载舞,非常喜庆。网上《牛津:历史和文化》一书中,可以读到有关五朔节的庆祝,很有趣。ebook链接太长无法引。

从wiki 摘一些五朔节的info:

"5月1日的五朔节是古老的北半球春季节日,通常是公共节日,同时在许多文化中也是传统春季节日。

最早的五朔节庆典出现在前基督时代,同时期还有罗马花朵女神佛洛拉的节日及沃普尔吉斯之夜。同时也与与凯尔特人节日 Beltane 有关。许多异教徒庆典在欧洲的转变过程中被舍弃或被基督教化。一个更世俗的五朔节持续在欧洲及美洲被观察到。这种五朔节庆典可能以跳五朔节花柱舞及加冕五月女王而闻名。各种异教徒团体在5月1日(以各种程度)重构不同版本的习俗。

许多欧洲异教文化中这天都是一个传统夏季节日。2月1日是春天的第一天,而5月1日是夏天的第一天,所以6月25日(现为6月21日)的夏至(summer solstice)实为仲夏(midsummer)。在罗马天主教传统中,5月是马利亚之月(Mary's month),在这些前提下五朔节会庆祝受上帝恩宠的马利亚 (耶稣的母亲),艺术作品及学校幽默短剧及其他会用花装饰马利亚的头部。自20世纪末赠送五月篮子的习俗越来越不流行,在这种习俗中人们将装有糖果和/或花朵的篮子放在邻居的门阶上,通常是匿名的。"




Maypole dancing at Bishopstone Church, Sussex, UK.




Morris dancing on May Day in Oxford, England



回到《仲夏夜之梦》,既然故事发生在May 1 左右,而 midsummer 是夏至左右,那为什么剧名为 A Midsummer Night's Dream?
网上有篇文章”What’s Up With the Title?“, 其分析认为 ”Shakespeare's title captures the festive vibe of the play and even enacts some of its rituals." It makes sense.


http://www.shmoop.com/midsummer-nights-dream/title.html

What’s Up With the Title?

The title suggests an atmosphere of fantasy, whimsy, and imagination, which is a pretty accurate description of the magical wood where characters experience events that seem more like a dream than reality. Poor Bottom can't even begin to describe what's happened to him in the wood: "I have had a most rare / vision. I have had a dream past the wit of man to say what / dream it was" (4.1.9).

Shakespeare also knows that, after watching the play, we, the audience, might also experience some uncertainty about the difference between reality and illusion. (This is why Puck invites us to think of the play as a nothing more than a "dream" during the Epilogue. Go to "What's Up With the Ending?" for more about this.)

The title is also pretty obvious shout-out to Midsummer's Eve (June 23), or the summer solstice. Elizabethans would have heard this title and thought "party time!" In Shakespeare's day, Midsummer's Eve was all about celebrating fertility (not just the successful planting and harvesting of crops, but also the kind of fertility associated with dating and marriage). It was an excuse to party outdoors and the holiday involved dancing, drinking, and collecting medicinal herbs. For a lot of partiers, Midsummer's Eve was also supposed to be a time of mystery and magic, when spirits ran around causing mischief, and teenage girls had dreams about the guys they'd eventually fall in love with and marry.

Our point? Shakespeare's title captures the festive vibe of the play and even enacts some of its rituals.

While we're on the subject of festivities, we should point out that Shakespeare also works some May Day festivities into his play. Remember when Theseus stumbles upon the sleeping Athenian youths in Act 4, Scene 1? He thinks they're passed out on the ground because they got up early and went into the wood to "observe / The rite of May" (4.1.3). (Note: The rites of May – games, festivities, etc. – were performed throughout May and June, not just on May 1.) "Maying" involved going into the woods in the early morning to gather up blooming tree branches (for decoration) and putting up "Maypoles" to dance around. In the play, Lysander mentions that he once met Hermia and Helena in the wood to "do observance to a morn of May" (1.1.8). May Day revelers also celebrated with big feasts and even elected a "Lord of Misrule" to preside over the festivities. Check out "Characters: Puck" to learn about how he fits the role of a Lord of Misrule.
        

#24  Re: 《仲夏夜之梦》第四幕 第二场             Go Back
ACT IV. SCENE II. Athens. QUINCE'S house.

第四幕 第二场 雅典。 昆斯的家

Enter QUINCE, FLUTE, SNOUT, and STARVELING

昆斯、弗鲁特、斯诺特和斯达佛凌上

QUINCE
Have you sent to Bottom's house ? Is he come home yet?

昆斯
你派人到波特穆家了吗?他回到家了吗?

STARVELING
He cannot be heard of. Out of doubt he is
transported.

斯达佛凌
没他的音信。 没准他遭绑架了。

FLUTE
If he come not, then the play is marred: it goes
not forward, doth it?

弗鲁特
他要是不露面,这出戏就砸了,
怎么演下去吗?

QUINCE
It is not possible: you have not a man in all
Athens able to discharge Pyramus but he.

昆斯
真演不下去。全雅典城除了他,没谁能演皮拉摩斯。

FLUTE
No, he hath simply the best wit of any handicraft
man in Athens.

弗鲁特
就是。 他是雅典城手艺人里脑瓜最灵的。

QUINCE
Yea and the best person too; and he is a very
paramour for a sweet voice.

昆斯
没错,还是最好的人。
他有一副好嗓子,很会傍女人。

FLUTE
You must say 'paragon:' a paramour is, God bless us,
a thing of naught.

弗鲁特
你得说”榜样”嘛。
上帝呀,傍女人可不是啥本事。

Enter SNUG 斯纳格上

SNUG
Masters, the duke is coming from the temple, and
there is two or three lords and ladies more married:
if our sport had gone forward, we had all been made
men.

斯纳格
师傅们,公爵正从神庙里出来,
还有两三位公子和小姐们也一起完婚了。
咱们这出戏要演得成,大家伙可就出息了。

FLUTE
O sweet bully Bottom! Thus hath he lost sixpence a
day during his life; he could not have 'scaped
sixpence a day: an the duke had not given him
sixpence a day for playing Pyramus, I'll be hanged;
he would have deserved it: sixpence a day in
Pyramus, or nothing.

弗鲁特
波特穆这滑稽的家伙!他每天六便士的年俸眼看要泡汤了。
他一准拿六便士一天,板上钉钉。
就凭他演的皮拉摩斯,公爵要是不赏他六便士一天,就把我吊死。
他应该值这个价:演皮拉摩斯,六便士一天,再少可不成。

Enter BOTTOM 波特穆上

BOTTOM
Where are these lads? where are these hearts?

波特穆
这些家伙呢?俺的同伴们都上哪儿去了?

QUINCE
Bottom! O most courageous day! O most happy hour!

昆斯
波特穆!多么吉利的日子!多么开心的时刻!

BOTTOM
Masters, I am to discourse wonders: but ask me not
what; for if I tell you, I am no true Athenian. I
will tell you every thing, right as it fell out.

波特穆
师傅们, 俺来讲点蹊跷事儿,
但甭问我咋回事。俺要是讲了,俺就不配做真的雅典人。
俺会把事情咋发生的,一五一十都告诉列位。

QUINCE
Let us hear, sweet Bottom.

昆斯
好波特穆,大伙都竖着耳朵呢。

BOTTOM
Not a word of me. All that I will tell you is, that
the duke hath dined. Get your apparel together,
good strings to your beards, new ribbons to your
pumps; meet presently at the palace; every man look
o'er his part; for the short and the long is, our
play is preferred. In any case, let Thisby have
clean linen; and let not him that plays the lion
pair his nails, for they shall hang out for the
lion's claws. And, most dear actors, eat no onions
nor garlic, for we are to utter sweet breath; and I
do not doubt but to hear them say, it is a sweet
comedy. No more words: away! go, away!

波特穆
甭想听到一个字儿与俺有关。俺只是想告诉大伙,
公爵已用过晚餐。 打点好你们的戏服,
用结实的细绳绑上假胡须,拿簇新的绸带点缀鞋子。
咱们马上到宫殿那儿集合。
你们把自个的台词再过一遍;
一言以蔽之,咱们的戏选上了。
无论如何,提斯柏得穿件干净体面的衣裳;
扮狮子的那谁千万别剪指甲,
那长指甲要伸出来当狮子的爪子。
诸位,最紧要的是,不要吃洋葱和大蒜,
咱们可要散发香甜的气息,
俺相信他们一定会说,真是一出甜美的喜剧。
俺不唠叨了:快去,快去!

Exeunt 众人下


云天译
        

#23  《仲夏夜之梦》第四幕 第一场             Go Back
ACT IV SCENE I. The same. LYSANDER, DEMETRIUS, HELENA, and HERMIA lying asleep.

第四幕 第一场 同上,林中
拉山德,狄米特律斯, 海丽娜, 荷米娅卧眠

Enter TITANIA and BOTTOM; PEASEBLOSSOM, COBWEB, MOTH, MUSTARDSEED, and other Fairies attending; OBERON behind unseen

泰坦妮娅和波特穆上;豆花,蛛网,飞蛾,芥菜籽,和其他仙子陪侍;奥布朗暗随其后

TITANIA
(to BOTTOM)
Come, sit thee down upon this flowery bed,
While I thy amiable cheeks do coy,
And stick musk-roses in thy sleek smooth head,
And kiss thy fair large ears, my gentle joy.

泰坦妮娅
(对波特穆说)
来呀,请坐下, 坐到这花床上,
让我轻轻触摸你那可爱的面庞,
把麝香玫瑰插到你光滑的头上,
吻你漂亮的大耳朵,我的爱郎。

BOTTOM
Where's Peaseblossom?

波特穆
豆花在哪儿?

PEASEBLOSSOM
Ready.

豆花
在。

BOTTOM
Scratch my head Peaseblossom. Where's Mounsieur Cobweb?

波特穆
豆花,给我挠挠头。蛛网先生在哪儿?

COBWEB
Ready.

蛛网
在。

BOTTOM
Mounsieur Cobweb, good mounsieur, get you your
weapons in your hand, and kill me a red-hipped
humble-bee on the top of a thistle; and, good
mounsieur, bring me the honey-bag. Do not fret
yourself too much in the action, mounsieur; and,
good mounsieur, have a care the honey-bag break not;
I would be loath to have you overflown with a
honey-bag, signior. Where's Mounsieur Mustard seed?

波特穆
蛛网先生,好先生,您拿把刀攥手里,
去替我把蓟草尖上的那只红屁股黄蜂干掉;
好先生,您把蜜囊给我带回来。
先生,办这桩事您可急不得;
好先生,您千万小心,别把蜜囊给弄破;
先生,我可不希望您淹死在蜜囊里。
芥菜籽先生在哪儿?

MUSTARDSEED
Ready.

芥菜籽
在。

BOTTOM
Give me your neaf, Mounsieur Mustardseed. Pray you,
leave your courtesy, good mounsieur.

波特穆
芥菜籽先生,把您的小拳头给我。
拜托,好先生,别那么多礼数好不好。

(neaf--- fist)

MUSTARDSEED
What's your Will?

芥菜籽
您有何指派?

BOTTOM
Nothing, good mounsieur, but to help Cavalery Cobweb
to scratch. I must to the barber's, monsieur; for
methinks I am marvellous hairy about the face; and I
am such a tender ass, if my hair do but tickle me,
I must scratch.

波特穆
没啥事,好先生,就是请你帮着蛛网骑士
给俺搔搔痒。先生,俺得上剃头师傅那儿跑一趟,
因为俺觉得脸上毛乎乎的。
俺是头特别敏感的驴子,要是头发弄得俺痒痒的,
俺非得又抓又挠不可。

TITANIA
What, wilt thou hear some music,
my sweet love?

泰坦尼娅
甜心,想听点音乐吗?

BOTTOM
I have a reasonable good ear in music. Let's have
the tongs and the bones.

波特穆
俺的耳朵欣赏音乐没问题。咱们来点咚咚呛呛声。

TITANIA
Or say, sweet love, what thou desirest to eat.

泰坦尼娅
哦亲爱的,告诉我你想吃什么。

BOTTOM
Truly, a peck of provender: I could munch your good
dry oats. Methinks I have a great desire to a bottle
of hay: good hay, sweet hay, hath no fellow.

波特穆
说真的,来堆干草吧。
您要有美味的干燕麦,俺能大嚼特嚼。
俺就想要一捆干草,那甜丝丝的好干草,啥也比不上。

TITANIA
I have a venturous fairy that shall seek
The squirrel's hoard, and fetch thee new nuts.

泰坦尼娅
我叫那个胆大的仙子,
到松鼠的粮囤里,给你弄些新鲜坚果。

BOTTOM
I had rather have a handful or two of dried peas.
But, I pray you, let none of your people stir me: I
have an exposition of sleep come upon me.

波特穆
俺倒宁愿吃一两把干豌豆。
不过,求求你,叫那些仙子别来打扰俺,
俺现在困得不行要睡一觉。

TITANIA
Sleep thou, and I will wind thee in my arms.
Fairies, begone, and be all ways away.
(Exeunt fairies )
So doth the woodbine the sweet honeysuckle
Gently entwist; the female ivy so
Enrings the barky fingers of the elm.
O, how I love thee! how I dote on thee!
(They sleep)

泰坦尼娅
你睡吧,躺在我的臂弯里。
仙子们,四处散去吧。(众仙下)
我的双臂环绕着你,就像忍冬温柔地缠绕着香郁的金银花,
像阴柔的常春藤攀缘于榆树粗糙的枝桠。
哦,我多么爱你!我多么迷恋你!(二人睡去)

Enter PUCK 帕克上

OBERON
[Advancing]
Welcome, good Robin.
See'st thou this sweet sight?
Her dotage now I do begin to pity:
For, meeting her of late behind the wood,
Seeking sweet favours from this hateful fool,
I did upbraid her and fall out with her;
For she his hairy temples then had rounded
With a coronet of fresh and fragrant flowers;
And that same dew, which sometime on the buds
Was wont to swell like round and orient pearls,
Stood now within the pretty flowerets' eyes
Like tears that did their own disgrace bewail.
When I had at my pleasure taunted her
And she in mild terms begg'd my patience,
I then did ask of her her changeling child;
Which straight she gave me, and her fairy sent
To bear him to my bower in fairy land.
And now I have the boy, I will undo
This hateful imperfection of her eyes:
And, gentle Puck, take this transformed scalp
From off the head of this Athenian swain;
That, he awaking when the other do,
May all to Athens back again repair
And think no more of this night's accidents
But as the fierce vexation of a dream.
But first I will release the fairy queen.
(squeezing flower juice into TITANIA’s eyes)
Be as thou wast wont to be;
See as thou wast wont to see:
Dian's bud o'er Cupid's flower
Hath such force and blessed power.
Now, my Titania; wake you, my sweet queen.

奥布朗
(走上前)
好罗宾,欢迎欢迎。
有没有瞧见这甜蜜的场面?
她现在痴痴呆呆的,倒弄得我心生恻隐。
刚才在林子后面我俩相撞,
她正在给那个讨厌的傻瓜找鲜花,
我责备了她几句,还跟她吵了一架。
她把芬芳的鲜花编成花环
戴到他毛乎乎的脑门上;
那花瓣上的露珠,有时晶莹饱满
仿佛圆润的东方珍珠,如今蕴于美丽的花儿的眼中,
似乎是哀悼自己耻辱命运的滴滴珠泪。
我痛快地把她奚落了一番,
她好声好气,央求我停嗔息怒,
我借机向她讨那个偷来的男童,
她竟爽快地答应了,差手下的仙子
把那孩子送到了我的王宫。
现在男孩归我了,我要消除
她眼睛中可恶的幻觉。
温和的帕克,去把那雅典情郎头上的
变形驴脸取下来。
这样,他同别人一道醒来时,
就可以和大伙结伴返回雅典,
把今晚的事当作一场恼人的恶梦,
统统抛到脑后。
且让我先解除仙后的幻觉。
(把花液滴到泰坦尼娅的眼里)
请回复到从前的你,
恢复你往日的视力。
月神之花威力无比,
解除丘比特的魔力。
我的泰坦尼娅,醒来吧,我心爱的仙后。

TITANIA
(waking up)
My Oberon! what visions have I seen!
Methought I was enamour'd of an ass.

泰坦尼娅
(醒来)
我的奥布朗!我看见一场梦幻!
我以为我恋上了一头驴子。

OBERON
There lies your love.

奥布朗
你的爱人躺在那儿呢。

TITANIA
How came these things to pass?
O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now!

泰坦尼娅
这些事怎么发生的呢?
喔,现在他那张脸真让我的眼睛受不了!

OBERON
Silence awhile. Robin, take off this head.
Titania, music call; and strike more dead
Than common sleep of all these five the sense.

奥布朗
安静一会儿。罗宾,取下他的头罩。
泰坦尼娅,命你的仙子们奏乐,
让这五个雅典人陷入沉睡。

TITANIA
Music, ho! music, such as charmeth sleep!
(Music)

泰坦尼娅
来,奏乐!奏起催人入眠的音乐!
(音乐响起)

PUCK
(taking the ass’s head off BOTTOM)
Now, when thou wakest, with thine
own fool's eyes peep.

帕克
(把波特穆头上的驴面罩取下)
嗯, 等你睡醒,
用你自己愚蠢的眼睛东张西望吧.

OBERON
Sound, music! Come, my queen, take hands with me,
And rock the ground whereon these sleepers be.
Now thou and I are new in amity,
And will to-morrow midnight solemnly
Dance in Duke Theseus' house triumphantly,
And bless it to all fair prosperity:
There shall the pairs of faithful lovers be
Wedded, with Theseus, all in jollity.

奥布朗
奏响音乐! 来, 我的仙后, 我们携手共舞,
我们催眠的脚步轻晃着他们沉睡的地铺。
现在你我二人已捐弃前嫌, 又和好如初,
明晚午夜我们将共赴忒修斯公爵的王府,
在那里我们俩一起尽情开心地庄重起舞,
祝福他们婚姻美满, 祝福他们昌盛富足.
那两对忠诚的恋人也将在那里结为夫妇,
与忒修斯公爵一起喜气洋洋把良宵共度。

PUCK
Fairy king, attend, and mark:
I do hear the morning lark.

帕克
仙王竖耳留心听,
云雀声声唱黎明。

OBERON
Then, my queen, in silence sad,
Trip we after the night's shade:
We the globe can compass soon,
Swifter than the wandering moon.

奥布朗
仙后,踏着这静谧,
我们追踪夜的影子,
绕着地球我们飞翔,
快过那漫游的月亮。

(sad: sober)

TITANIA
Come, my lord, and in our flight
Tell me how it came this night
That I sleeping here was found
With these mortals on the ground.

泰坦尼娅
来,大王,待我们上路
请把今晚的事一一细诉
我怎么会弄到这般地步
跟这些凡人在地上露宿

Exeunt OBERON, TITANIA, and PUCK

奥布朗、泰坦尼娅和帕克下

Horns winded within
Enter THESEUS, HIPPOLYTA, EGEUS, and train

传来狩猎的号角
忒修斯、希波吕忒、伊吉斯,和众随从上

THESEUS
Go, one of you, find out the forester;
For now our observation is perform'd;
And since we have the vaward of the day,
My love shall hear the music of my hounds.
Uncouple in the western valley; let them go:
Dispatch, I say, and find the forester.
(Exit an Attendant)
We will, fair queen, up to the mountain's top,
And mark the musical confusion
Of hounds and echo in conjunction.

忒修斯
你们当中一人,去把猎户找到.
我们已经举行过五朔节的仪式,
并且现在只是清晨,时间尚早,
应当让我的爱人听听猎犬之乐。
在西面山谷里,让猎犬随便跑。
快去,我命令你速速找来猎户。(一侍从下)
美丽的仙后,让我们上到山顶,
享受狗吠和回音混合的音乐声。

HIPPOLYTA
I was with Hercules and Cadmus once,
When in a wood of Crete they bay'd the bear
With hounds of Sparta: never did I hear
Such gallant chiding: for, besides the groves,
The skies, the fountains, every region near
Seem'd all one mutual cry: I never heard
So musical a discord, such sweet thunder.

希波吕忒
我有次同赫拉克勒斯和卡德摩斯去打猎,
在克里特的林中,他们用斯巴达的猎犬
围住了一头大熊:我以前可从未听到过
那么雄壮无比的吠声,除了茂密的森林,
天空和群山,以及那附近的每一片角落,
似乎都汇合成一种吼叫,我第一次听到
杂乱的声音竟若和谐之乐,若美妙雷鸣。

(fountains: 注1.)

THESEUS
My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind,
So flew'd, so sanded, and their heads are hung
With ears that sweep away the morning dew;
Crook-knee'd, and dew-lapp'd like Thessalian bulls;
Slow in pursuit, but match'd in mouth like bells,
Each under each. A cry more tuneable
Was never holla'd to, nor cheer'd with horn,
In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly:
Judge when you hear.
(sees the four sleeping lovers)
But, soft! what nymphs are these?

忒修斯
我的猎犬就是斯巴达品种,
颊肉多褶,皮毛呈沙黄色,
垂挂一对轻拂晨露的耳朵 。
双膝弯曲,像塞萨利公牛
一样,颈下悬着一团垂肉。
他们追赶猎物速度倒不快,
但起伏的吠叫声响亮如铃,
克里特,斯巴达,塞萨利,
在这些地方我都没听到过
这种回应猎角的美妙吠叫。
且待你亲耳听后再做判断。 (看到四个酣睡的恋人)
不过慢着!哪儿来的仙女?

EGEUS
My lord, this is my daughter here asleep;
And this, Lysander; this Demetrius is;
This Helena, old Nedar's Helena:
I wonder of their being here together.

伊吉斯
大人,躺在这儿的是我女儿。
这个是拉山德;这个是狄米特律斯。
这是海丽娜,老奈德的女儿。
搞不清他们怎么都在这儿。

THESEUS
No doubt they rose up early to observe
The rite of May, and hearing our intent,
Came here in grace our solemnity.
But speak, Egeus; is not this the day
That Hermia should give answer of her choice?

忒修斯
他们肯定是起大早庆祝五朔节。
因为闻听我们的打算,
就赶来参加我们的庆典。
伊吉斯,今天正是
荷米娅要做出抉择的日子,你说是吗?

EGEUS
It is, my lord.

伊吉斯
大人,是的。

THESEUS
Go, bid the huntsmen wake them with their horns.
(Horns and shout within. LYSANDER, DEMETRIUS, HELENA, and HERMIA wake and start up)
Good morrow, friends. Saint Valentine is past:
Begin these wood-birds but to couple now?

忒修斯
快去,叫猎人们吹响号角,弄醒他们。
(传来号角声和喊叫声。
拉山德、狄米特律斯、海丽娜和荷米娅骤醒,惊跳而起)
早安,朋友们。情人节早过完了,
你们这些相思鸟到现在才开始双双配对?


LYSANDER, DEMETRIUS, HELENA, and HERMIA kneel

拉山德、狄米特律斯、海丽娜和荷米娅跪下

LYSANDER
Pardon, my lord.

拉山德
祈求大人开恩恕罪。

THESEUS
I pray you all, stand up.
(LYSANDER, DEMETRIUS, HELENA, and HERMIA stand)
(to LYSANDER and DEMETRIUS)
I know you two are rival enemies:
How comes this gentle concord in the world,
That hatred is so far from jealousy,
To sleep by hate, and fear no enmity?

忒修斯
各位请起。(拉山德、狄米特律斯、海丽娜和荷米娅站起来)
(对拉山德和狄米特律斯说)
我知道你俩是情敌,
这世界怎么变得这么和睦,
不再因妒生恨,
仇人就睡在边上,也不害怕?

LYSANDER
My lord, I shall reply amazedly,
Half sleep, half waking: but as yet, I swear,
I cannot truly say how I came here;
But, as I think,--for truly would I speak,
And now do I bethink me, so it is,--
I came with Hermia hither: our intent
Was to be gone from Athens, where we might,
Without the peril of the Athenian law---

拉山德
大人,我现在半睡半醒,
所以我的回答听起来会含糊不清。
但我发誓,我真的没法告诉您我怎么会在这儿。
但我想,--- 我得跟您讲实话。
现在想来,是这么回事儿:
我跟荷米娅一同来到这里,
我们想逃离雅典,
跑到雅典律法鞭长莫及的地方 ---

EGEUS
(to THESEUS)
Enough, enough, my lord; you have enough:
I beg the law, the law, upon his head.
They would have stolen away; they would, Demetrius,
Thereby to have defeated you and me,
You of your wife and me of my consent,
Of my consent that she should be your wife.

伊吉斯
(对忒修斯说)
大人,这已够了,够了。 您已听到足够的证据,
我请求对他依法制裁。
他们竟然要逃掉。
狄米特律斯, 他们要用这个花招打败我俩,
让你娶不到妻子,让我把女儿嫁给你的许诺失效。

DEMETRIUS
My lord, fair Helen told me of their stealth,
Of this their purpose hither to this wood;
And I in fury hither follow'd them,
Fair Helena in fancy following me.
But, my good lord, I wot not by what power,--
But by some power it is,--my love to Hermia,
Melted as the snow, seems to me now
As the remembrance of an idle gaud
Which in my childhood I did dote upon;
And all the faith, the virtue of my heart,
The object and the pleasure of mine eye,
Is only Helena. To her, my lord,
Was I betroth'd ere I saw Hermia:
But, like in sickness, did I loathe this food;
But, as in health, come to my natural taste,
Now I do wish it, love it, long for it,
And will for evermore be true to it.

狄米特律斯
大人, 美丽的海丽娜把他们私奔的事儿,
还有他们到林子里的目的都告诉了我。
我怒冲冲地跟踪到此,
痴情于我的海丽娜也接踵而至。
但是,我的好大人,我不知道是什么力量,
但一定有某种力量 --- 使我对荷米娅的爱,
雪一般融化了,现在对我而言,
这就像忆起童年时迷恋的一件小玩具而已。
而如今,我全部的忠诚,我整个的心,
我因之欢欣的眼,都给了海丽娜。
大人,在认识荷米娅之前,我同海丽娜就订婚了。
但就像人在病中,我过去厌恶这佳肴,
可一旦恢复健康,天生的口味重又回归。
现在,我向往海丽娜,珍爱她,渴望她,
并将永远忠实于她。

THESEUS
Fair lovers, you are fortunately met:
Of this discourse we more will hear anon.
Egeus, I will overbear your will;
For in the temple by and by with us
These couples shall eternally be knit:
And, for the morning now is something worn,
Our purposed hunting shall be set aside.
Away with us to Athens; three and three,
We'll hold a feast in great solemnity.
Come, Hippolyta.

忒修斯
美貌的恋人们,我们在此幸运地相遇。
我们待会儿再继续听你们说下去。
伊吉斯,你得听我的。
这两对年轻人很快会在神殿之上
同我们一起永结连理。
现在早晨将尽,
我们索性取消原定的狩猎计划。
跟我们回雅典吧。我们三对佳人,
举行一场盛大的庆宴。
来呀,希波吕忒。

Exeunt THESEUS, HIPPOLYTA, EGEUS, and train

忒修斯、希波吕忒、伊吉斯和众随从下

DEMETRIUS
These things seem small and undistinguishable,
Like far-off mountains turnèd into clouds.

狄米特律斯
这些事似乎细微且模糊不清,
恍若化为云雾的远山。

HERMIA
Methinks I see these things with parted eye,
When every thing seems double.

荷米娅
我感觉两眼模模糊糊,
看什么都有重影。

HELENA
So methinks:
And I have found Demetrius like a jewel,
Mine own, and not mine own.

海丽娜
我也有同样感觉。
我找到了狄米特律斯,就像找到了一枚宝石,
他属于我,却又不属于我。

DEMETRIUS
Are you sure
That we are awake? It seems to me
That yet we sleep, we dream. Do not you think
The duke was here, and bid us follow him?

狄米特律斯
你们确定我们都睡醒了么?
我怎么觉得我们还在睡,还在做梦。
你们是不是都认为公爵刚才到过这儿,要我们跟他走?

HERMIA
Yea; and my father.

荷米娅
是呀。我父亲刚才也在。

HELENA
And Hippolyta.

海丽娜
希波吕忒也在。

LYSANDER
And he did bid us follow to the temple.

拉山德
他的确要我们跟他去神庙。

DEMETRIUS
Why, then, we are awake: let's follow him
And by the way let us recount our dreams.

狄米特律斯
嗯,那我们都醒了。那咱们就跟着公爵。
路上讲讲我们昨晚的梦。

Exeunt 众人下

BOTTOM
[Awaking]
When my cue comes, call me, and I will
answer: my next is, 'Most fair Pyramus.' Heigh-ho!
Peter Quince! Flute, the bellows-mender! Snout,
the tinker! Starveling! God's my life, stolen
hence, and left me asleep! I have had a most rare
vision. I have had a dream, past the wit of man to
say what dream it was: man is but an ass, if he go
about to expound this dream. Methought I was--there
is no man can tell what. Methought I was,--and
methought I had,--but man is but a patched fool, if
he will offer to say what methought I had. The eye
of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not
seen, man's hand is not able to taste, his tongue
to conceive, nor his heart to report, what my dream
was. I will get Peter Quince to write a ballad of
this dream: it shall be called Bottom's Dream,
because it hath no bottom; and I will sing it in the
latter end of a play, before the duke:
peradventure, to make it the more gracious, I shall
sing it at her death.

波特穆
(醒来)
有俺出场的提示时,喊一嗓子,俺会应声而到。
俺的下一句台词是,“最美丽的皮拉摩斯。"
嗨!彼得。昆斯!弗鲁特,修风箱的!
斯诺特,补锅匠!斯达佛凌!
天哪,都溜掉了,就丢俺一人在这儿睡!
俺瞧见了最希奇古怪的幻像。
俺做了一个梦,人的智慧描述不出这样的梦:
除非这人是头驴子,不然他没法解释这个梦。
俺以为俺是 --- 没人能说出俺是啥。
俺以为俺是 --- 俺以为俺有 --- 除非傻子,
谁也说不出俺以为俺有啥。
俺的梦到底咋回事,人的眼没听到过,
人的耳朵没看见过,人的手没品尝过,
人的舌头没想象过,人的心没讲述过。
俺得叫彼得.昆斯给这个梦写个歌谣:
就叫做”波特穆的梦“,因为这个梦深得没底。
俺要在演完戏后当面唱给公爵大人听:
或许,俺该在提斯柏死的时候唱,那会更合适。


Exit 波特穆下


云天译


【注1】
http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/mids_4_1.html
"fountains" has been objected to on the around that water could not give an echo (though Virgil, quoted by Malone, has the same thought) and 'mountains' proposed in its place; but Shakespeare in speaking of the whole landscape is not careful whether each item in his catalogue of particulars would really give an echo
        

#22  话说月亮/月神             Go Back
话说月亮/月神
云天

说起月亮,杜甫的“四更山吐月,残夜水明楼”, 张若虚的“春江潮水连海平,海上明月共潮生”这样脍炙人口的古诗就会升上心头, 而我们中国的月亮神话好像只有嫦娥奔月。西人也爱咏月,西方的月神则非独家专有,就我浅显的了解,主要有希腊神话的 Artemis 和 Selene, 与之相对应的分别是罗马神话中的 Diana 和 Luna, 月神还有其他一些bynames, 譬如 Cynthia/Cindy, Phoebe 等 。我们中国人有叫小月阿娥的,西人也有很多女子以月神为名,最有名的当是英国的黛安娜王妃。埃及艳后与马克.安东尼的女儿也起名月神 ---- Selene塞勒涅 。 Harry Potter 中古怪的 Luna Lovegood 被称为疯姑娘, 英文lunatic, 即疯癫之意, 据说人的情绪受月亮的盈亏影响。

苏轼有词,”人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺,此事古难全”。西人言,“天上的卢娜(月盈),地上的黛安娜(月圆),冥府的赫卡忒或普洛塞庇娜(月缺)”,将月盈、月圆与月缺,对应三相女神 Triple Goddess 的少女、母亲和老妪。 据说女人一老就化身为智慧女神了,青春与智慧不可兼得,呵呵。美国重金属乐队The Sword 的Gods of the Earth 专辑中,有首曲就叫 maiden/mother/crone:

The harvest is reaped
Seeds are sown
Multiplied by three
She is the maiden, the mother, the crone




The Greek goddess Hekate portrayed in triplicate.



象征青春少女的月神Luna/Selene, 头顶一弯新月,每晚驾着月亮银车飞越夜空。塞勒涅与恩底弥翁(Endymion )的故事有好几个版本。其中一种说法是,塞勒涅穿越天空时,看到恩底弥翁在静谧的山谷中酣睡,就爱上了这位英俊的牧羊人。有次出巡迟归,被主神宙斯发现,便要牧羊人作出选择:或死亡,或沉浸于梦幻。美少年只好选择长眠不醒。月神遂夜夜探望。之后,塞勒涅生育了50个女儿,因此古希腊历法中一年50个星期。一说是Artemis爱恋 Endymion。凡人被神青睐焉知祸福。




Endymion and Selene, by Sebastiano Ricci (1713), Chiswick House, England.


Artemis/Diana (阿耳忒弥斯/黛安娜)是月神和狩猎女神,还是终身不嫁的处女神。莎翁在剧作中多次提到Diana , chastity 的象征。在《仲夏夜之梦》第一幕第一场中,爱情至上的Hermia 违抗父命,不肯嫁给Demetrius, 荷米娅的父亲到公爵那里告状,公爵给她的选择之一即是在戴安娜的圣坛前,发誓永守贞洁,独处一生:

Upon that day either prepare to die
For disobedience to your father’s will,
Or else to wed Demetrius, as he would,
Or on Diana’s altar to protest
For aye austerity and single life.




The Diana of Versailles, a Roman copy of a Greek sculpture by Leochares (Louvre Museum)


挂银弓背箭囊的Artemis / Diana 可不是一般的女中豪杰,人家是有生杀权的女神。不记得中国神话中哪个女神大权在握。冒犯了月神真是悲催得哭都来不及,猎人Actaeon (阿克托安)就是个倒霉鬼。他打猎时撞见女神沐浴,女神大怒,把他变成牡鹿, 被他自己的猎犬撕成碎片。还有版本说,他吹嘘自己的猎技比狩猎女神还厉害,他哪知吹牛会要命呢。

珀塞尔的歌剧《狄朵与埃涅阿斯》 中,林中狩猎一幕中就提到这个典故,“ Here Actaeon met his fate, / Pursued by his own hounds”:

BELINDA
Thanks to these lovesome vales,
These desert hills and dales,
So fair the game, so rich the sport,
Diana's self might to these woods resort.

SECOND WOMAN
Oft she visits this lov'd mountain,
Oft she bathes her in this fountain;
Here Actaeon met his fate,
Pursued by his own hounds,
And after mortal wounds
Discover'd, discover'd too late.




The Diana and Actaeon Fountain at the feet of the Grand Casca. sculptures by Paolo Persico, Brunelli, Pietro Solari.


美男子Adonis之死也与Artemis 相关。看来西方的月神不可得罪。

中文有关月的成语俯拾即是,诸如霁风朗月,海中捞月,月明星稀。英文中也有一些moon idioms, 从网上抄几个:ask for the moon, moon something away, once in a blue moon, many moons ago, promise someone the moon, over the moon, think someone hung the moon。有的说法同中文倒是有相通之处,孩子小时,做父母的真想架梯子摘月亮给小宝贝呢。

望月时,除了”床前明月光“,还会想到一首童谣:
I see the moon
The moon sees me
God bless the moon
And God bless me

这一阵飞机失事以巴相残,月光下的世界动荡不安。May God bless the world, may God bless all.

在“月出皎兮”的三月傍晚,曾沉浸于第一次(也是至今唯一一次)看见月出的惊诧与欢喜,却终因忙碌未写完短文,霎时的感动像一阵风,无法restore/retrieve。这篇小文算作补偿那晚的月出。


Last modified on 07/26/14 23:52
        

#21  《仲夏夜之梦》中的典故             Go Back
Cephalus 刻法罗斯


《仲夏夜之梦》第三幕第二场中仙王奥布朗说:
But we are spirits of another sort.
I with the morning’s love have oft made sport

这里“morning's love", 指黎明女神之情人。根据wiki, 黎明女神Eos/Aurora 主要的情人是 Cephalus, Tithonus, Orion and Cleitus, 当中Cephalus 与 Orion 都是猎人。 网上资料倾向于Cephalus。相关资料摘抄于下:

”厄俄斯(希腊语:Έως 英语:Eos)古希腊神话中的黎明女神,相对应于古罗马神话中的欧若拉(拉丁语:Aurora),是提坦神许珀里翁与忒亚的女儿,太阳神赫利俄斯和月亮女神塞勒涅的姐姐。每天她都亲自为弟弟赫利俄斯用她晨雾一般的手掀开东边天门(希腊语:Θύρα της Ανατολής),让他乘日车进来,开始他在天空朝发夕至之旅。传说里她每到一处,散发着清香的花瓣和玫瑰香水的水珠便坠落在地上成为露水“。




Eos (1895) by Evelyn De Morgan



”刻法罗斯是希腊神话中赫耳墨斯和赫尔斯(Herse)的儿子。他的妻子是厄瑞克修斯的女儿普罗克里丝。但是他后来在打猎时被曙光女神厄俄斯Eos(罗马神话中的欧若拉——Aurora)所诱拐,同后者育有三个儿子。然而刻法罗斯思妻心切,愤愤的女神只好将他送回——但对这对夫妇施加了诅咒。刻法罗斯在一次打猎的时候失手杀死了自己的妻子,她倒在他的怀里,最后恳求他不要再回到伊俄丝的身边。于是他离开了阿提卡,来到凯法利尼亚岛建立了最早的定居点“。




Cephalus And Procris by Harriet Fulchran Jean


奥维德的《变形记》中,妻子普罗克里丝以为 “Aura” 是刻法罗斯的情人,遂起疑心,去林中察看,被丈夫误击,倒在她自己赠给丈夫的长矛下:

Bk VII:796-865 The death of Procris

‘Phocus, my happiness was the beginning of my sorrow, and I will speak of happiness first. Son of Aeacus, what a joy it is to remember that blessed time, when, in those early years, I was delighted, and rightly so, with my wife, and she was delighted with her husband. We two had mutual cares, and a shared love. She would not have preferred Jupiter’s bed to my love, and no woman could have captured me, not if Venus herself had come there. An equal flame burnt in our hearts.

Just after dawn, when the first rays struck the hilltops, full of youthfulness, I used to go hunting in the woods. I used to take no servants, or horses, or keen-scented hounds, or knotted snares. I trusted in my spear. But when my right hand was sated with the slaughter of wild creatures, I would return to the cool of the shade, and the breeze, aura, out of the chill valleys. I courted the breeze, gentle to me, in the midst of the heat: I waited for aura: she was rest for my labour. “Aura” (Indeed, I remember) I used to call “Come to me, delight me, enter my breast, most pleasing one, and, as you do, be willing to ease this heat I burn with!” Perhaps I did add more endearments (so my fate led me on). “You are my greatest pleasure” I used to say. “You revive me, and cherish me. You make me love the woods and lonely places. It is always your breath I try to catch with my lips.”

Someone, I don’t know who, hearing the ambiguous words, represented my speech as a betrayal, and thought the word aura I called so often, was the name of a nymph, a nymph he believed I loved. Immediately the unthinking witness went to Procris with the tale of my imagined disloyalty, and whispered what he had heard. Love is a credulous thing. Overcome with sudden pain, they tell me that she fainted. After a long time she revived, weeping for herself, calling her fate evil. She complained of my faithlessness, and troubled by an imaginary crime, she feared what was nothing, feared a name without substance, and grieved, the unhappy woman, as though aura were a real rival.

Yet she often doubted, and hoped, in her misery, that she was wrong, declaring she would not believe it, and unless she witnessed it herself, would not condemn her husband as guilty of any crime. Next morning, when Dawn’s light had dispelled the night I left to seek the woods, and, victorious from the hunt, lying on the grass, I said “Aura, come and relieve my suffering!” and suddenly, amongst my words, I thought I heard someone’s moan. “Come, dearest!” I still said, and as the fallen leaves made a rustling sound in reply, I thought it was a wild creature, and threw my spear quickly. It was Procris. Clasping the wound in her breast she cried out “Ah, me!”

Recognising it as the voice of my faithful wife, I ran headlong and frantic towards that voice. I found her half-alive, her clothes sprinkled with drops of blood, and (what misery!) trying to pull this spear, her gift to me, from the wound. I lifted her body, dearer to me than my own, with gentle arms, tore the fabric from her breast, and bound up the cruel wound, trying to stem the blood, begging her not to leave me, guilty of her death. Though her strength was failing, and even though she was dying, she forced herself to speak a little. “By the bed we swore to share, by the gods that I entreat, those that are above, and those that are of my house, by any good I have deserved of you, and by the abiding love, that still, while I die, remains, that is itself the cause of my death, do not allow this Aura to marry you in my place!” She spoke, and then I knew at last the error of the name, and told her. But what was the use of telling? She wavered, and the little strength she had ebbed away with her blood. While she could still gaze at anything, she gazed at me; and to me, and on my lips, breathed out her unfortunate spirit. And her look seemed easier then, untroubled by death.’

The hero, weeping, had told this sorrowful tale, when, behold, Aeacus entered with his two sons, and their newly enlisted men, whom Cephalus then accepted, with all their heavy armour.
        



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