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BBC Radio Program “Who Was Carlos Kleiber?”

originally broadcast 9/26/2009.

Participants:

UA (unidentified announcer)
IH (Ivan Hewitt)
PD (Placido Domingo)
CB (Charles Barber)
PJ (Sir Peter Jonas)
CLM (Christine Lemke-Matvey)

BEGIN PROGRAM:

UA: [0:00] “But first, with the time at a quarter past 12, we turn to the great conductor, Carlos Kleiber, who died 5 years ago, aged 74. He was one of the most mysterious and maverick conductors in musical history, his rare concerts treated almost like religious events by his fervent admirers. But very few people knew much about the man behind the baton. In our Saturday music feature this afternoon, Ivan Hewitt asks ‘Who was Carlos Kleiber?’, talking to, among others, Placido Domingo (PD).”

PD: [0:31] “Carlos was the greatest conductor, the greatest musician I have ever met.” [Opening of Beethoven’s Symphony #5 playing in background]

PJ: “One of his greatest talents was seducing people musically.”

PD: “Carlos was able to find out everything.”

CB: “His was charisma, beyond any human definition of it.”

CLM: “His eyes said ‘I know everything.’”

IH: [1:25] “The voices of Placido Domingo, Christina Lemke-Matvey, Charles Barber, and Sir Peter Jonas, on the extraordinary conductor Carlos Kleiber. The word ‘genius’ is one people often apply to Kleiber and that’s a word that might seem just too strong for a mere conductor. But when it comes to this man, there’s really no avoiding it. So many people who saw Kleiber and worked with him insist that he was in a class of his own. He inspired performers to heights they didn’t think they could reach and in audiences he inspired a special kind of excitement that bordered on ecstasy. Over the next 45 minutes, I’ll be trying to get a little bit closer to the mystery that was Kleiber in the company of four people who knew him well.”

“Kleiber isn’t one of those conductors who made a dazzling debut when he was very young and then spent a lifetime at the top. He actually started in a very modest way, in Potsdam in the early fifties, and then proceeded slowly up the conducting ladder with jobs at Düsseldorf, Zurich, and Stuttgart. Up to this point he was really following in his father, Erich Kleiber’s footsteps, who had had a successful career over many decades. The elder Kleiber had in fact left Germany in 1930, disgusted with the Nazi regime, and settled temporarily in Argentina. That’s why his son bears a Spanish name. But it was only after his stint as music director at Stuttgart ended in 1968 that the mystique of Carlos Kleiber really began. His rare performances, particularly at the Munich Opera acquired a legendary reputation, based almost as much on absence as presence. In later life, he really was ‘the vanishing conductor,’ turning down far more offers from orchestras and opera houses than he ever accepted. Those who were lucky enough to see him, or work with him, were almost always bowled over. One of the many musicians who reveres Carlos Kleiber is Placido Domingo. The ‘Otello’ they performed together is now the stuff of operatic legend.”

PD: [3:06] “Carlos was a conductor that was able to find out everything in the score, everything that perhaps most conductors haven’t. He was that kind of musician that will change night after night. He was living every second, and you know that you have to be ready because he was, he was improvising and this [sic] was the magical evenings, every performance was different to [sic] the other one. His imagination, his ability to really use both hands, the independence of the right and the left, giving us everything, everything that was possible for every instrument.”

IH: [3:54] “Placido Domingo. Another musician for whom Carlos Kleiber has practically God-like status is the conductor Charles Barber. He first encountered Kleiber’s extraordinary talent in very unusual circumstances. He was doing some walking with a friend and had checked into a hotel. He switched on the television and was idly channel-hopping when something seized his attention.”

CB: [4:13] “It was astonishing. It was all eloquence and control and, paradoxically, all freedom and all intimate speech. I’d had no idea who this conductor was, not a clue. But I had never seen anyone enchant an orchestra, nor inform an audience, like this man. I watched with slack-jawed amazement at what this conductor was doing. Only at the end did I find out that it was Carlos Kleiber, whose name I recognized but whose work I had never seen. When I got back to Stanford I spoke to my teacher. I told him what I had seen, and he smiled and said ‘Oh, you’ve finally seen Carlos Kleiber have you?’ And I said, ‘Yes. I want to study with him.’ And he laughed and laughed and said, ‘You want to study with Carlos Kleiber? Are you mad?’ And I said, ‘Well, I’ve seen what he does. How do I reach him?’ And he laughed again and said, ‘No one reaches him. He’s a complete hermit. He’s totally unavailable. He doesn’t have an agent, he doesn’t have a manger, he never gives press conferences, he cancels more often than he ever appears, you’re out of luck.’ And I said, ‘How do I reach him?’ So he proposed that I get in touch with Caroline Weber at Columbia Artists, told her my story, and I said, ‘If I were to write a letter to him and send it to you, would you be so good as to forward it for me?’ And she said, ‘OK, I will but I have to tell you, he won’t answer. He doesn’t even answer our letters.’ Which of course prompted me to think that a conductor as great as Carlos Kleiber must get letters from people all the time, asking to study with him, to learn from him, to figure out how it was he made the miracles he made on the podium. And what I concluded was two things: that first of all, most of the letters that he gets were probably entirely sycophantic, written by people wearing knee-pads, a reflux of self-interest. And the reason I further deduced that he must have been appalled to get such letters was by studying more closely his films, and I’ve looked at them very closely and realized something that everyone knows who ever looked at what Kleiber did: the man had a fantastic sense of humor. And so I decided to write him a funny letter. I worked on it for a fair bit, and then I sent it off to Caroline Weber. She kept her word and forwarded it to him, and about two weeks later I arrived home one night and there was a letter in the mail box in a hand I did not recognize, with no return address, postmarked Munich, and my hand, ridiculously, started to shake. I opened the letter and sure enough, two pages, hand-written, and Kleiber said, ‘No. I’ve never had a student, I don’t want a student. No, my degree’s in chemistry. Your degree’s in music. I should learn from you. Perhaps I should study with you.’ Although he had said ‘no,’ I got the powerful impression that if I were to write again, he would answer again. And he did, and he did, and he did. There are about 200 letters and postcards and faxes, uh cartoons, drawings, uh musical examples that he sent over the years, beginning in 1989. I have kept all of them. I wrote to Carlos, he answered. And that’s how it began.”

IH: [7:31] “Charles Barber. It wasn’t just musicians who were seduced by Kleiber’s charisma. Christine Lemke-Matvey is a music critic now writing for Der Tagesspiegel in Berlin. She had written a scathing review of a singer and had received a sack load of hostile letters in response. But among them was an anonymous fax written in support of her position. It was only years later that she realized the anonymous faxer was none other than Carlos Kleiber. And the two of them struck up an unlikely friendship by letter. Finally they got to meet in person, and Christine recalls that the circumstances were typically eccentric.”

CLM: [8:01] “When we met he was very hysterical and nervous. This was a morning in Gran Canaria in his hotel suite, actually. He has [sic] changed the location several times before, and in the end we ended up in his suite. And this was a date of maybe one and a half or two hours. And during all this time he was looking for his credit card. And this was really shaking him. He was, well, of course we were talking to each other and about music, and about critics, and about other conductors, and about Beethoven and so on, but mainly he was dealing with his credit card. This was Carlos: not being there but also being there. He was a very ambiguous and very ambivalent personality. And on the third hand, he was the most, really most intelligent person I’ve ever met in my life. There was something in his eyes which said ‘I know everything, but I don’t talk about everything.’ And this was something which I really adored and loved.”

CB: [08:59] “His eyes, the way his eyes controlled a room and a person, without meaning to do so, but effectively doing so, was really quite astonishing. His was charisma beyond any human definition of it. You could not take your eyes off him. You simply could not. It would be like watching Richard Burton; no one else need bother be on stage when Burton was speaking, it was simply pointless. And in fact when I watched ‘Otello’ — I watched it on a Monday and a Friday at the Met — when I actually saw him work, I began to think it was a bit unfair to Domingo and Ricchiarelli and Diaz, because no one was watching them, they were only watching Carlos.”

PD: “One of the unbelievable things that I remember is to see the public at the beginning of ‘Otello.’ He was conducting and I was about to come to sing the ‘Esultate,’ I was going from the side of the boxes in Covent Garden and I could see that nobody was paying any attention to the stage. Everybody was looking at Carlos, what he was doing. And that’s really unbelievable. And that was really so special that the people they were captivated, they were really, absolutely hypnotized by what Carlos was doing, and that I will never forget as long as I live, you know. “

IH: [10:24] “Placido Domingo. Sir Peter Jonas, who was intendant of the Munich Opera in the 1990’s, first encountered Kleiber as a young man when he was director of artistic administration at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.”

PJ: “We struck a friendship, it became a correspondence friendship, and then we used to see each other from time to time when I was in Europe and eventually I worked very slowly on getting him to Chicago. And one person who helped me was the Music Director, Georg Solti. And Georg and I were working very closely, and Georg had a somewhat fiery reputation, but he was very, very tolerant. And I, one day, bought him a recording, ’75 I think it was made, or ’74, of Carlos conducting the ‘Fledermaus Overture.’ And Solti looked up from his desk and said, ‘it’s much too fast, much too fast, much too fast, must be a young boy, a young firebrand, it’s too fast. But it’s interesting, it’s fascinating.’ [Fledermaus playing in background.] And he listened to it again and again and again, and he said, ‘You know, you’re right, you must try and get him, and do whatever it takes.’ And the Orchestra president also said ‘do whatever it takes,’ so I had a kind of carte blanche about frequent trips to Europe and flying over Carlos’ family to make sure that that début was possible….[more of Die Fledermaus overture] [13:11] By the time the engagement happened, his reputation had exploded, become esoteric, this extraordinary conductor in Europe who doesn’t conduct. You know one of these people who made himself completely rare, by saying, you know, ‘the great genius who will not conduct,’ …doesn’t conduct, will not conduct, doesn’t want to conduct, money doesn’t interest him (even though it had to be a lot), and the reputation somehow filtered through. So, when he was engaged he was unknown, when he came he was very well known. And of course the concerts came in for tremendous scrutiny, before the music managers from New York, Ronald Wilford, the director of the Met, everybody came, you know, every orchestra intendant in America came. When Carlos arrived, he arrived about a week before the first rehearsal, unlike most conductors, of course he was so nervous, so frightened, as he always was, jittering really, spent the last two or three days of spare time going into the library and with his own material which he had sent ahead of time, checking that the librarians had marked every single bowing exactly as he wanted it, from his master part. And he wanted unequal bowings. These days, when people watch orchestras at the Proms, they’re all bowing the same way. Carlos didn’t like this. He didn’t want the first violins and the second violins to bow all the same way; he wanted the first desk to bow one way, the second desk to bow the other way. So the bowings were all different, which he thought would create a seamless sense of legato. And he was passionate about all little signs, and hieroglyphics in the parts, indicating here ‘Smile,’ in the cello parts ‘Smile.’ Well, when the first chair, grey-haired, eminent, émigré players of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra — there’s no age limit to players of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra – came to the first rehearsal, they’d got the parts beforehand and some of them took them very seriously and others got furious, including Frank Miller, who had been Toscanini’s first cellist [in] the NBC Symphony Orchestra. Frank took his part home and rubbed out Carlos’ markings. And then, when the first rehearsal happened [15:26] Freischutz Overture playing in the background] Carlos started with the Weber ‘Freischutz Overture’ and it was wonderful. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra was very competent in this kind of thing and they were expecting this esoteric maestro and they were going to show him how good they were. So the first thing he said was ‘Well, now, it’s not right.’ And he started to explain that they should imagine a Kaspar David Friedrich [sic] painting, and the mists arising from behind the trees of the forest, at which point Dale Clevenger, the legendary first horn of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, put his hand up and said, ‘Maestro.’ ‘Yes, Mr. Clevenger,’ – Carlos had learned all their names – and he says, ‘Can I ask you a question?’ ‘Yes, Mr. Klevinger.’ ‘Do you mean louder?’ He said, ‘Yes, Mr. Clevenger.’ [Freischutz excerpt from 16:07 to 17:26]. [17:27] I mean I remember he had talked to me about the ‘Freischutz’ overture when the main theme comes. In the first rehearsal he ever had with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, they started ‘yam, diddle-diddle, yam, diddle-diddle yam, diddle-diddle yam, da…’ and he wanted it to be very hesitant. And so he said, ‘Look, don’t try and play it together. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra was so used to Solti, and even Giulini, telling them to play together, that they couldn’t really understand what he was saying, but he was speaking in their language: ‘Don’t try and play together. I’m just going to bring my hand down, from up above, slowly and you will come in when you feel like it. And then it will be alright.’ And he did and it was alright. It just felt as if the main theme was stealing in the sound, and that was the effect he wanted and he got it. But these were very unconventional methods to an orchestra like the Chicago Symphony.”

“One has to remember at the same time he was a great classicist. He believed in the structures of Mozart, Schubert, Brahms, Beethoven, you know. He believed in the classical repertoire. And that first concert was a miraculous performance. Most people were convinced and if they weren’t convinced, they were at least seduced, which was another one of his great talents, of seducing people musically and making them so thrilled that here was a conductor who could bring them into the music in a way no other conductor could, because he brought literature into play, he brought psychology into play, he brought his own personality into play.”

IH: [18:57] “Sir Peter Jonas. So it seems as if at this stage in his career Carlos Kleiber had it all: tremendous native gifts, total freedom, and an adoring public. And yet, not everything was perfect in the garden.”

PJ: [19:08} “He was always absolutely in panic before a concert. I mean, this happened throughout his career, whether it was an orchestra concert, whether it was an opera performance, he was in panic. He was scrupulously prepared, scrupulously rehearsed, he demanded rehearsal conditions that nobody else had. Even in the opera, players couldn’t change their seat. He was so prepared, over-prepared if you like, but in panic. He would be in the dressing room before a rehearsal, three hours before, before a performance three or four hours before, and would live in the opera house or the orchestra hall and soak up the atmosphere, working himself up into a frenzy of fear, panic and paranoia.”

IH: [19:53] “But that seems to have vanished the moment he arrived on the podium.

PJ: “I don’t think so.”

IH: “I mean, from the outside…”

PJ: “From the outside, but I don’t think so. I think, players would say you could feel this febrile nervousness. But that febrile nervousness very often added to the intensity of the performance and added to the intensity of the sound he wished to achieve.”

CB: “He didn’t think he was any good.”

IH: “Charles Barber.”

CB: “He knew full well what the world thought of him. He was well aware of the esteem in which he was held in the music profession and in the musical world generally. You know full well what his fees were, how rarely he worked, relatively speaking. In a 50-year career he conducted, by my count, a grand total of 96 concerts and approximately 400 performances in opera. That’s all, in 50 years. Toscanini would do that in one year. And one of the reasons was this urgent element and qualification of self-doubt. Nothing he ever did reached what it was he had already reached in that extraordinary mind of his. And I came to realize, as I got to know him better and as I would study a score with him, as I would look at a chord and the way in which it would line up, a color and the way in which it presented itself, a timbral interest or a tonal interest. And I began to realize that one of the mysteries of Carlos and one of the elements of self-doubt within Carlos as a human being, and as a supreme conductor, was that he simply heard differently. He heard the world and, most particularly, the musical world differently. I’m not sure that I can annotate the differences. But I know that, if, for example, when I was studying ‘Rosenkavalier’ with him, and we would come across a particular chord, just any old chord, that had one of Strauss’s typically brilliant enunciations, in terms of instrumentation, Carlos would point to an instrument and say, ‘Do you hear that? Do you hear that? Do you understand what that means? Do you know why he chose that instrument?’ And I would be able to answer in a reasonably professional but ordinarily pedestrian kind of way, and he would sometimes get a little mad and he would say, ‘But, but, but,..don’t you understand why the second clarinet is playing that note?’ He had a way of conceiving music, as he lifted it from the page, as he engrained it in his own musical consciousness, which then took the form of an enormously powerful internal hearing. But his problem, his frustration, his anxiety, is that no matter how great the orchestra – Berlin, Vienna, Concertgebouw, Chicago, name it – no matter how great the orchestra, none of them, none of them, in any way, met what he had already heard as he studied the score. And this was for him a matter of immense frustration, immense. And so he doubted himself, and so as time went on he conducted less and less and less. And it is not because he was lazy – people sometimes say that and they make jokes or they don’t know what they’re talking about – he worked very hard. It is because, I think, more and more he was less enamored of the profession and less enamored of his gift within it.”

PD: “I said, ‘Carlos, why don’t you work more, you know?’

IH: “Placido Domingo.”

PD: “And he said, ‘I’m happy with what I do, you know me, I’m demanding, and people won’t be as prepared as they should, and so I prefer not to work that much. I prefer now and then to take my rest.’ The big, big tragedy and loss for the world of music is that he was not working so much. I said, ‘Carlos, can you come next month to conduct?’ ‘Where?’ ‘Los Angeles.’ ‘Ahh…I…it’s so far.’ Everything that you ask him he will say ‘no.’ So, it was his own choice. He really picked his own destiny, you know. Absolutely, absolutely.”

CLM: [24:08] “I think he was manic-depressive. There were phases in his life where he was really on top, and really being, being quite convinced of himself and, and quite arrogant to the rest of the music world. And there were phases, which probably have been the longer ones, um…where he was utterly depressed and not able to move or to conduct or to do anything. So this was, I think, really, really, well, a hard thing to cope with.”

IH: [24:39] “Christine Lemke-Manvey. So perhaps it’s hardly surprising that through the 1970s and 80s, Carlos Kleiber conducted less and less. By the 1990s he’d become a virtual recluse, rarely venturing out from his modest home in Munich, that he shared with his wife, the Slovenian dancer, Stanka Brezovar. When he did emerge, his demands in terms of rehearsals and fees became ever more eccentric. He once demanded and received a brand new Audi worth £100,000 for a single concert. For some people this is a sign of a willful and self-indulgent character. But for Charles Barber it is simply the flip side of his endless search for perfection.”

CB: [25:15] “Sometimes those elements of his creation may have seemed, to
ordinarily minded people, as somewhat unusual. But they weren’t unusual at all – if you understood the premises upon which he worked. And those premises were eloquence and life and passion and analysis, and total control and total release at the same time. He lived in the heart of that paradox and he made it work. It was, admittedly, for him, though, and perhaps for anyone, exhausting. It was sometimes deeply exhausting for him to try to do all of those things at once, and do them across the 36 rehearsals, for example, that he once got for a particular project of his. You know mortals like you and me would be likely to get three or four rehearsals. Carlos once time actually got 36 orchestra-only rehearsals for a project. And then, by the way, he canceled. But he only cancelled – and if I may deal with this because it too has I think been grossly distorted – he only cancelled when someone else failed to keep their word. And when they failed to keep their word, Carlos took the view that he was no longer obligated to keep his. And, indeed, he would walk [away]. But to imagine that Carlos did this willfully or capriciously or childishly or mindlessly is complete rot. It’s absolute rot. And I know it’s so because he told me. The man’s center of gravity about the making of music was so bedrock, it was so in the heart of the earth that he occupied, that he would not be pulled off it by anyone or anything. His frustrations could quickly rise to the surface if he felt that people were not investing or engaging as heavily and as enormously as he did. You may know that his famous recording of ‘Tristan’ is a recording that he never approved, and in some ways a recording that he never finished. It’s a recording that was cobbled together by the producer, because the producer kept the tape recorder running all the time. Carlos in fact was furious with his recording company that the record ever came out. He never approved it. It is in fact, though, most people would agree, one of the all-time great recordings of ‘Tristan.’ He understood how to ignite the stillness in a way that no other conductor ever came close to. Even his beloved Furtwangler never came close to the quality of ignition that Carlos could bring to that work.”

[from 28:00 to 29:28 an excerpt from ‘Tristan’ plays]

IH: [29:29] “Wagner’s ‘Tristan und Isolde’ in Carlos Kleiber’s famous recording. Behind the anxieties and traumas of Carlos Kleiber’s life looms the domineering figure of his conductor father. [Excerpt of Erich Kleiber conducting ‘Die Blaue Donau’ plays.] Erich Kleiber never approved of his son’s musical ambitions and insisted that the young Carlos study chemistry. In later years, as Charles Barber recalls, his father remained a touchy subject.”

CB: [30:28] “Carlos had very mixed feelings about his father; I think that was well known. And ah, so I didn’t wish to trespass. In fact, I had been advised, at the beginning of our correspondence never, to raise the subject, ever.“

IH: “Do you think it may have been something to do with feeling that perhaps, as a professional, he, in some way, didn’t measure up to his father, who was a conductor in a more traditional line, was constantly working and gave hundreds of concerts?”

CB: “I think by the ordinary measure of a career, his father had the bigger career. But I think by the standards of anyone who knew how to read what the son actually did, on the podium the son was the greater, deeper, more moving musician. And I think that part of that must have hurt him and been a peculiar paradox whose nature he never wholly resolved, if he even tried to resolve it.”

PJ: “It’s no coincidence…

IH: “Sir Peter Jonas”

PJ: “…that the pieces he actually performed were pieces that his father performed a lot. One of his kind-of-almost-like Bibles at his house were his father’s scores and parts, which he studied all through his life, and restudied and revived. And he worshipped the recordings of his father, even the ‘Pop’ recordings of the Berlin Philharmonic, playing ‘Pop’ overtures in Berlin in the 1930s and so on. And he worshipped, worshipped, worshipped, worshipped his father. His father had always said to him ‘you shouldn’t be a conductor, you can’t be a conductor, I forbid it, you should learn something sensible, and it hasn’t done me any good in my life; don’t become a conductor.’ So he went off to study chemistry in Zurich, and was going to have a life as a chemistry [sic] or even perhaps go into medicine, and without his father’s knowledge studied music.”

CLM: “Erich Kleiber died in the midst of the fifties, and these were Carlos’ very early days, performing under a pseudonym. He used to name himself Karl Keller. This was in Potsdam, even before he went to Düsseldorf and all the other early locations of his career. So, right from the beginning onwards, he had obviously the feeling to hide and not to be the son of his father because he thought this could be dangerous. There was always a shadow and there was always something which hindered Carlos to be [sic] really free and to be really free of his father. Erich Kleiber died quite early and this was difficult as well because I think he couldn’t discuss the whole matter out. They were not ready with each other, I think.”

PD: [33:09] “The father’s character was easier, you know, he probably in a way want[ed] to have the character of the father, you know. He asked me ‘Placido,’ he said, ‘why can I not be just like you? Why I cannot be just like you?’ I said, ‘What do you mean? You are superior to everyone in the world.’ ‘Did you want to do everything and you could and you enjoy working so much. Why I cannot do that?’ I said, ‘Carlos, that’s my question also, why you cannot,’ you know.”

IH: “Placido Domingo. Carlos Kleiber did eventually receive a career offer which surely would have won his father’s grudging approval. He was offered the chief conductorship of the Berlin Philharmonic after the death of Herbert Van Karajan in 1989. And he refused, which must surely be unique in the annals of conducting history. He did though have a brief association with the orchestra. Charles Barber again.”

CB: [34:05] “In his whole life he conducted in Berlin I think two times. It is absolutely true that after Van Karajan died they asked Carlos to take over and he declined. He served them whisky and cigarettes and sympathy, he received them, but he said ‘no’ immediately. He didn’t want the job. But he did one time agree to do the benefit concert. And he told me about it because, um, he asked me to help acquire yet another score. And he decided he was going to do ‘Coriolanus,’ the Beethoven overture, which as you may know begins with a massive thumping chord, huge. And I asked Carlos how he was going to handle that chord. ‘How do you prepare that? How do you do that without telegraphing your intentions? How do you do it without overdoing it? How do you place it just so? And how, in advance of all of that, do you rehearse and hear it?’ And this is what he told me. He told me to run out and get a particular film of Duke Ellington and watch how Ellington brought his band in, all of them, all at once, with the simultaneity of lightning, and apparently doing nothing. [Extract of Duke Ellington jazz music plays in background.] And that’s what Carlos was looking for. And after the concert he sent me a tape of it. I watched it and saw what he did. And it was, at one level, visible what he had done. But, at another level, like lightning after its effect, it was invisible, although all the power was still there. And he described it in a typically Carlos Kleiber way. He said, ‘With the Berlin Phil and the opening of “Coriolan,” it was like driving into a brick wall at 50 miles an hour in a Rolls Royce.’ That’s how he heard it, that’s how he did it, that’s who he was, that was the musicianship and magicianship of Carlos Kleiber. There was, I think, no other like him.”

IH: [36:16] “That story reveals a side of Kleiber that’s rarely mentioned, his love of language. With a name like Carlos Kleiber you might imagine that Spanish and German would be his most fluent languages. Not so, according to Peter Jonas.”

PJ: [36:26] “English was his mother tongue. People don’t really realize that now, they think he was a German, his mother tongue, which is absolutely not so, he was born and bred in Argentina — not born in Argentina but bred in Argentina and brought up to speak Spanish, but his English from his mother’s side was absolutely wonderful. And he could speak English with a mastery of vocabulary and metaphor that was quite spectacular. Words were as important to him as scores. He was immensely well read in English and also in Spanish, immensely – and also German. He was phenomenally well read, I’ve never met anybody so well read. One of the most well thumbed books that he had at home, which he reread constantly was William Shawn’s History of The New Yorker. In the early period of our friendship, you know, I would get my New Yorkers and post them to him after I’d read them, you know, and he would get them late by ‘snail mail,’ and all the rest. And I remember there was once in The New Yorker, many years ago, a 14-part serial on the aircraft industry, on the manufacture and sales of the Parrow [?] engines. Now that’s a totally useless subject. Who needs to know about all that, how aero engines are built and how they’re sold, you know, separately from airplanes? And this was [ ? ], we used to correspond like mad about these kind [sic] of articles, and the longer the better, the more abstruse the better. He loved The New Yorker. I tried to get him later interested in The Spectator but he found The Spectator too slapdash and too superficial. But he was immensely well read. That’s where his ability as a wordsmith came, and I…A great tragedy to me is not just that there’s not enough music existing in recordings from Carlos Kleiber, but that there’s not enough literature that he wrote, his letters are incredible. They are the best use of metaphor, the way he could strangely misuse language in the most creative way, I find absolutely thrilling to read. He was a tremendous punster, but in the very best and finest sense of the word, quite remarkable, and in three languages: English, German, and Spanish, all of which he could master equally and he was very good in Italian too.”

IH: [38:38] “What was your impression of his amorous life, put it that way, his relationship to his wife? Did you glean a sense of the state of that during your friendship?”

PJ: “Sure, but, you know, it’s a difficult thing to talk about. I mean, I knew her very well and I knew him very well and I knew many of his other girl friends. He was always though very loyal to his wife. At the end of his life, you know, he was always, would always say, ‘Ah Stanka, she knows,’ you know, and he would follow her opinion about people so much more closely and he would trust her a lot. He had a very close relationship with her, even though they didn’t share any of his world in a sense. And when I used to go visit him at home, we would be talking about the world, this and that and the other, and she would cook and that’s it. About twenty years before he died, at Stanka’s insistence, he bought a little cottage in Slovenia and a.…he used to go there in the summers….a very modest little cottage near to the village where she was from. And um…he…they sort of renovated it and made it quite comfortable and they would go there…that was their, that they felt was their real, real hiding place.”

IH: [39:47] “To me, what all these stories show is that this most passionate and heated of men was in a peculiar way like an iceberg. People only saw a fraction of the man. Most of him was hidden away, perhaps only revealed to his family and friends. In the same way, his recorded legacy shows only a fraction of what Kleiber could have given us. The recorded legacy is so small that some people say that Carlos Kleiber does not deserve the title of ‘greatest conductor,’ in fact they wonder whether he deserves the title of ‘conductor’ at all. But this mistakes quantity with quality. We don’t dismiss Elias Canetti because he only wrote one novel, or Alban Berg because he only wrote a dozen works. Like them, Kleiber was a perfectionist, and he only allowed the world to see the handful of works that truly satisfied him. Those who were lucky enough to know him have something else to treasure: Kleiber’s extraordinary human qualities.”

CLM: [40:35] “He was really attractive and I could really understand these many women he had affairs with because he was so bright and he was so…um…being in a rather good mood, I think he could really be ah….well, ‘Don Juan’ is not the right expression, but somebody who’s really the one coming…coming to the world and bringing in light, and the moment he goes away again this light also vanishes.” [excerpt from Carlos conducting Verdi’s ‘La Traviata’ plays in background] There was a telephone call from a colleague who had, I don’t know why, studied a home page of the Slovenian Radio and there it said, ‘the conductor Carlos Kleiber died,’ I mean, nearly a week ago. And they were not sure because there has been at least one similar story some years before. And there also has been a fax to Karl-Heinz Rumpf, the chief of [the] Culture and Communication Department at Audi’s [sic], the car maker, and this fax was sent two days before he left for Slovenia, obviously to die, and this fax was really saying ‘goodbye, goodbye, goodbye, I thank you for everything you did for me and God bless you’ and all the rest of that. This was his way of saying, ‘bye, bye, I’m leaving.’ He was said to suffer from a cancer, I’m not sure whether this is true. His wife died six months earlier, and I think he couldn’t cope living without her. And so I’m rather convinced that he went to Slovenia, to this tiny, tiny little…little village to…well, to die. Three weeks after he died, we decided to go to Slovenia. This was a very, very special and very moving journey. It’s really a location in the midst of nowhere. It was rather difficult to find it, and there were only trees and woods and birds and flowers and, on this day, some sunshine as well. This place was so full of peace, this was his rest, this was his place to find some…ja, to find peace and also love. It was the perfect hideaway. The grave, where also his wife was buried, was ready, it was perfect. There was his name put on the headstone and there were the dates of his birth and of his death put on the headstone. Everything seemed absolutely well prepared and absolutely…well in a…ja…perfect as nothing else has ever been perfect in his life. This was again part of the mystery, maybe.”

[Excerpt of poignant orchestral music from ‘La Traviata,’ from 43:56 to 44:41]

END OF PROGRAM.

Transcribed by Robert McGinn.


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#2  Re: 【音乐会】 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back




Last modified on 12/15/13 00:03
        

#3  Re: 【音乐会】 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back




Last modified on 12/14/13 23:38
        

#4  哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back
“ 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯”, 很抒情啊。 和指挥要写克莱伯?

rehearsal 第一回看。 台上看似轻松随意,台下多少功夫。


http://www.verycd.com/search/star/%E5%8D%A1%E6%B4%9B%E6%96%AF%C2%B7%E5%85%8B%E8%8E%B1%E4%BC%AF(Carlos.Kleiber)
        

#5  Re: 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back
余司令对韦伯“好像是第一次听这个。感觉深不可测。西方古典音乐,在表现心灵的深度和宇宙的深邃与奥秘上,比之其它地区文化,不知要高出多少”的评语让我去听了,结果发现是克莱伯指挥的,结果从油管上发现一系列克莱伯的作品,大出我的意外。因为我几乎觉得克莱伯的影像DVD都买了,居然网上还有那么多我没有看到过的。

我会慢慢搬,把JE这里当作仓库吧。








云天 wrote: (1/12/2013 15:7)
“ 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯”, 很抒情啊。 和指挥要写克莱伯?
rehearsal 第一回看。 台上看似轻松随意,台下多少功夫。

http://www.verycd.com/search/star/%E5%8D%A1%E6%B4%9B%E6%96%AF%C2%B7%E5%85%8B%E8%8E%B1%E4%BC%AF(Carlos.Kleiber)



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#6  Re: 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back
“几乎觉得克莱伯的影像DVD都买了”, wow!


搬帖:


lyz23 wrote: (1/7/2013 13:9)
好像是第一次听这个。感觉深不可测。西方古典音乐,在表现心灵的深度和宇宙的深邃与奥秘上,比之其它地区文化,不知要高出多少。

谢谢分享。



BBB wrote: (11/10/2012 16:5)
Weber-Der Freischütz Overture-Kleiber (1970)
威伯歌剧《自由射手》序曲







Last modified on 01/13/13 11:19
        

#7  哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back
在这个片段里,上载者在前面一半时间给克莱伯,后面一半时间给卡拉扬,不知出于何种考虑。

在我这个外行看来,卡拉扬体力、激情度远不如克莱伯。



他就是站着不动,那里面也有节奏。他打破了指挥常规,他的肢体语言别出心裁,独一无二。我总是叹为观止。

        

#8  Re: 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back
贝多芬第四可是克莱伯的拿手曲目。奇怪没有见到过他和独奏家合作协奏曲的录音。



和谈 wrote: (1/13/2013 17:10)
在这个片段里,上载者在前面一半时间给克莱伯,后面一半时间给卡拉扬,不知出于何种考虑。

在我这个外行看来,卡拉扬体力、激情度远不如克莱伯。



他就是站着不动,那里面也有节奏。他打破了指挥常规,他的肢体语言别出心裁,独一无二。我总是叹为观止。



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自得其乐
        

#9  Re: 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯             Go Back
New year's concert 1992 Carlos Kleiber Wiener Philharmoniker



说来巧,这是我唯一一次实况从头到尾看完的维也纳新年音乐会。那时还在中国。
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自得其乐
        

#10  Re: 哦,卡洛斯 克莱伯 ( July 3, 1930 – July 13, 2004)             Go Back
“2004年7月19日,世界各主要通讯社从斯洛文尼亚获知,古典音乐指挥大师卡洛斯·克莱伯去世的消息。第二天,法国《费加罗报》登出了《对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世!》这么一个满带惊愕和愧意的新闻标题。然而,让所有知道他并且热爱他的人更加不愿接受的事实是,这位指挥家已经在三天前悄然下葬了,葬于7个月前先他而去妻子的故乡━━一个紧挨奥地利的前南斯拉夫联邦的小村镇里了。”

明天是卡洛斯 克莱伯去世9 周年。
        

#11  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
读了标题,我以为克莱伯转世又去世呢。

和指挥有心,看来是要酝酿一篇大作。
        

#12  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
http://www.mayacafe.com/forum/mcpost.php?t=1090360200

在1989年的新年音樂會中,當《藍色多瑙河》樂曲開頭響起時,聽眾以熱烈的掌聲表示歡迎。克萊伯中斷指揮轉身向現場聽眾説:“維也納愛樂樂團和我祝大家新年快樂”,自此指揮家在新年音樂會中的致辭被保留了下來。


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#13  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
卡洛斯排练新年音乐会片段:








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#14  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
Carlos Kleiber: La Boheme (Puccini) - La Scala 1979 (Complete)

        

#15  Re: 哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
布拉姆斯:交響曲第4號e小調,作品9
http://mypaper.pchome.com.tw/binjen/post/1321407206











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"After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music."
        

#16  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
这是卡洛斯·克莱伯和他太太的墓地,海拔450米,距离斯洛文尼亚到奥地利边界30公里的一个150个居民的小镇。我觉得这个录像是文献记录性电影《Traces to Nowhere》里面的一个片段,早先有四个片段,可惜现在这个片子网上没有完整的可看了。



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#17  Re: 哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
Traces to Nowhere

《了无痕迹》

http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDAzMTEzNDYw.html
        

#18  Re: 哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
克莱伯——无与伦比的指挥大师

1

1987年的暑假,在旧金山到洛杉矶的林间道上,两个斯坦福音乐系的同学骑着自行车旅行。他们带着行囊,一路以露宿为主,偶尔也在旅店过夜。就在那个晚上,他们被电视节目里的交响音乐会指挥的动作所吸引住了,演奏结束后他们才知道那个指挥是奥地利指挥家卡洛斯·克莱伯(Carlos Kleiber 1930年7月3日-—2004年7月13日)。

回家以后,那个指挥专业的巴伯同学(Charles Barber) 开始收集、阅读和观看有关克莱伯的文字和影像材料。他太喜欢克莱伯了,他想跟他联系,希望能够成为他的助手,跟他学指挥。一年半之后,经纽约哥伦比亚艺术家管理公司转交,他寄给克莱伯的第一封信终于发了出去。克莱伯没有接受巴伯的请求,但是他们开始了通信。2011年底,已经是温哥华城市歌剧院艺术总监的巴伯把他和克莱伯通信积集成《与卡洛斯的通信》一书出版,(Corresponding with Carlos——A Biography of Carlos Kleiber) 让世人看到了那个神情腼腆而且似乎不太自信的指挥大师敏感、幽默又轻松的另一面。

类似的事情也发生在霍洛维茨(Horowitz,俄裔美国钢琴家)身上。霍氏也是从电视转播中偶然知道克莱伯的,惊喜不已之后和他联系,商谈联手演出贝多芬第三钢琴协奏曲的事宜。不料就在他们着手合作时,霍洛维茨突然去世了。

我想,这个世界上一定还有很多其他业余的、或者专业的音乐爱好者在他们第一次看到克莱伯的背影时就喜欢上他了,至少我就是这样。20年前,当我第一次从VHS录像带里看到克莱伯的指挥,他那优美的背影和变化多姿又浑然一体的身姿把我深深吸引。我从此开始留意收集他的音像制品,并进而对他的身世、他的艺品产生兴趣。当我对他的过去了解越多,就对他越敬仰,越钦佩,越关心。可是他的公开活动很少,99年之后再也没有看到关于他的任何消息报道,直到10年前的夏天——

2

“哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世”!

2004年7月19日,世界各主要通讯社从斯洛文尼亚获知,古典音乐指挥大师卡洛斯·克莱伯已经去世。第二天,法国《费加罗报》登出了《哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世!》这么一个满带惊愕和愧意的新闻标题。然而,让所有知道他并且关爱他的人更加不愿接受的事实是,这位指挥家在三天前已经悄然下葬了——葬 于7个月前先他而去妻子的故乡:一个紧挨奥地利的前南斯拉夫联邦的小村镇里了。

这真是一个可以追随但却不让靠近的人!在我们普通人的生活中,某些公众人物,比如艺术家,作家,诗人的去世会让人有如失去自己亲人一般,有时甚至比自己的直系血亲还要悲痛。因为通过作品,他们无保留地向世人敞开心扉,让人随意走入他们的灵魂,给人们带来精神动力、欢愉和享乐,让人感觉随时都在和他们交流、分享自己的情绪和感受,这样就会有一种心理认同。克莱伯就是这样一位人物。克莱伯去世后他的姐姐这样描述她的这个弟弟:“指挥带给他的是一种完全不同于他日常生活的环境和感觉。舞台上他看上去兴高采烈,激情无限,热力四射,甚至有点疯狂,像一个青春期的少年。” 当我听到他去世的消息,回想他舞台上的气质风度,他指挥作品的完美精致,内心里的失落便油然而生,哀痛而难以遏止。

克莱伯在年轻时没有尊从也是指挥家的父亲(Erich Kleiber)的意愿,执拗地选择以指挥为业。可是成名之后却拒绝任何乐团常任指挥的职位。他一辈子不用经纪人,不收一个学生,几乎没有接受任何采访。他选择非常非常少的曲目演出,只授权发行非常有限的音像制品;60岁之后每年平均几乎只演出一场,70岁后则完全隐居。如果说当年莫扎特被草草地葬在维也纳一个无名墓地多少是由于当时客观条件使然,那么现在的克莱伯则是他有意选择了这种与世俗,与自己的身名,与他留下巨大声誉的这个音乐世界隔绝的做法。他全然不顾这个世界上那么多崇拜者、仰慕者的思念、牵挂,最后连让人写一张卡,送一束花,写几个字去表达一下哀思的机会都不给。但我同时想到,他的这种独特的行事方式也造就了他与众不同艺术理念和指挥风格。

3

1954年,是他职业指挥生涯的开始。为了避免因父亲的名声而可能受到的格外的关注,他在节目单上使用了Karl Keller这个化名。从波茨坦那第一场排练开始,据当时的演奏员回忆,年轻的克莱伯一点都没有初登舞台时的拘谨和客套,他们在一起排练了差不多有十次。和多年后一样,克莱伯带着精益求精的态度,经常打断演奏员的演奏,提出自己的意见,因此他一直有“绝不容忍错误的指挥家”这么一个声名。在他几十年非常有限的演出中,他对每一场演出首先考虑艺术上是否达到自己的标准,是否合乎他的期望,任何一场演出他都要力争做到尽善尽美,否则宁肯取消也决不凑合。他那种一丝不苟、宁缺勿滥的境界,是别的更注重效益的指挥家难以达到的。

比如:1974年6月他曾经花了三個小時排练《玫瑰騎士》序曲中80秒钟的一段;在慕尼黑首演歌剧《沃采克》时,他要求排练不少于34次;1979年在伦敦指挥《波希米亚人》,他排练了17次,其中光乐队本身就6次,尽管这个乐队在英国指挥家科林·戴维斯(Sir Colin Davis)的棒下刚刚录制了这部作品。另外一方面,他诚恳地让演奏员感受到,他们在一起排练其实是在一起重新创作。他用的比较多的语句是:你们演奏得真好,我还想再听一遍。有时一天的排练结束后,他会写一些小条子悄悄留在乐手的乐谱上,比如:下次这里可以再明亮一些,等等。排练场上他不说:不,不行,还不行。

他这种能够让乐队跟他一起追求完美境界的能力意义不同一般。我们可以想见,那些在世界一流乐团担纲的职员,他们在技艺上往往都非凡超群。为了到达那种水平,那些演员几乎花了一生主要的时间和精力在学、在练。可能是一种自然的平衡,这些在使用乐器上出神入化的人,在情商、智商方面往往没有得到充分发展,不仅无法达到像他们在乐器方面的顶级水平,有的可能还低于常人的平均程度。舞台上他们身穿燕尾服,系着白领结,一个个看上去很有修养、挺有艺术家的风度,可是排练场上,混在同事中间,他们也会调皮,漫不经心有时甚至会任性。也许可以这么说,指挥一班器乐神人并不会是一件简单轻松的事情。这就是为什么有些著名大指挥和手下的乐队会闹出一些矛盾来。可是几乎所有和克莱伯合作过的演奏员,他们对克莱伯的近乎苛刻的要求表示出极大的耐心和合作的态度,这非常不容易。

2010年11月,英国《BBC音乐杂志》邀请当今100位世界知名的指挥家,发起投票评选20位最伟大指挥家的活动。该评选不设候选人,让每人自由推荐三名,也可以投票给自己。由指挥家评选谁是“最佳”,这个举措非同寻常,这至少可以保证投票者的专业角度和眼光。因为没有候选人,所以投票结果非常分散。让人们不无惊讶的是:一生只指挥了89场(也有统计说是96场;卡拉扬一生指挥了2260场)音乐会的克莱伯荣登榜首,超越了伯恩斯坦、阿巴多以及卡拉扬这些如雷贯耳的大师。对那个结果,不少人以为名至实归 ,我也觉得克莱伯当之无愧。

确实,克莱伯不只是当今古典音乐界成百上千指挥中的一个,在我的标准里,他是近代最优秀、最杰出也最具有天赋资质的指挥家。克莱伯去世后,著名古典音乐评论人、专栏作家,英国人诺曼·莱布雷希特 (Norman Lebrecht) 在他的悼念文章里说:“自19 世纪中期指挥统治音乐以来,还没有哪个人能比克莱伯更完美”。 我以为这里的完美可以是:他的对指挥艺术的追求是完美的;他带给人们的享受也是完美的。

4

我们知道,同绘画相比,音乐必须通过演奏这二次创作才能把作曲家的情感转化成声音,从而让大众去聆听、去欣赏。一般来说,除了小型室内乐和有些器乐独奏之外,大型管弦乐队的二次创作由指挥和演奏两个部分组成。作为指挥,他一定要先对某一首乐曲有一个通透的把握,在熟悉和了解曲目的过程中,指挥对乐曲有了自己的理解,然后在排练时把自己的感受和要求告诉演奏员。这种要求越具体、越细微、越好。比如克莱伯曾经对一个黑管手说,“这里不要深呼吸”,我以为这种提示就是基于对作品细节的深刻理解之后才可能有的。

对克莱伯比较关心的乐迷都知道,当他准备公开演出了,那么一定要么是发现了一首新的作品,要么对某个已经熟悉的曲目有了新的发现。德累斯顿国家乐团首席指挥海廷克(Bernard Haitink)评价克莱伯时说:“他比别人更了解他要演出的作品,......他只演出自己感觉有特殊东西要说的歌剧。”这就是为什么即使那些已经被演奏了千万遍的作品——比如贝多芬第五交响曲,克莱伯也能给听众一种焕然一新的感觉。
我在克莱伯排练录像里面看到这么一个情节,“你们相信鬼吗?这里请演奏得‘鬼’一点”,他对乐队这样说。“这里请大家都慢一点进入,有一种让别人先来的意识”。他是指一个声部在跟进另外一个声部时,他需要一点点的停顿。我理解这个停顿不是一拍或者半拍那种在乐谱上很容易识别和标明的那样,他要的只是四分之一或者八分之一甚至十六分之一的停顿效果。这样,“让别人先来”的提示造成演奏员一种滞后的心理预期和行为态势,从而达到一种无法言喻的效果和他想要的意境。观看克莱伯排练时的录像,能够让人知道他内心对作品的了解有多么深。

如果说发掘对音乐作品独特的见解,奉献给听众一种全新的诠释是克莱伯追求内在完美的表现的话,那么他肢体语言的丰富和变化以及幅度和力度则侧重于那种诠释的外在性了。不可否认,他的表演所带给人的感染力是无与伦比的。我常想,如果莫扎特在他的乐谱上记下的美妙乐符来自神的灵感,那么到目前为止,在音乐世界里唯一能够和莫扎特相媲美的就是克莱伯的指挥动作。我不得不去想,克莱伯身上那些精美绝伦的指挥元素一定也是来自上帝。

看过克莱伯指挥的人都会被他与众不同的指挥艺术所打动。在我看来,指挥台上的他,不仅仅是双臂,他身体的每一个关节几乎都已经成为他的指挥元素了。他有时会闭着眼睛,抱着双臂,让头跟着节奏轻轻晃动,俨然一个正在欣赏音乐的局外人;有时他会快速大幅度地弯曲膝盖,然后让身体带动双手慢慢起来,就像孩童在河边戏水;有时他一只手在额头前快速掠动,眼睛相应地跟着移动,仿佛注视一只蜻蜓正从他眼前飞过,......。他在指挥台上的神情和姿态让人看出他已然超神入化,完全融入音乐之美妙境界之中。 有人可能会觉得他那很多很多“元素”早已经超出指挥的常规性动作,可是没有人觉得突兀和做作。他高190公分,那颀长挺拔健硕的身躯,让他在舞台上的所有动作看上去都是那么的自然,协调而没有一点点做作和哗众取宠。

我从一开始就对克莱伯这种魅力惊讶不已。我也一直竭力留心其他指挥家的指挥动作,并尝试把它们分解成基本规律和图形,比如手臂的上升,下滑,划圈等等,这样就可以做一些量化的比较。假如一个指挥平均具有20个这样的“指挥元素”,(这个数字是任意的,只用于这里的比较。)那么克莱伯则拥有50。这里我真正想要表达的意思是:他指挥动作的变化量是一般指挥平均水平的一倍还要多(得多),这大概就是为什么在专业指挥家评选中克莱伯能够脱颖而出的缘故。因为对音乐作品内涵的诠释可以是主观的,谁都可能会认为自己的最透最好,可是“指挥元素”是外在的客观的,那100个职业指挥家中的大多数谁都认为,克莱伯的舞台表演艺术无人能够企及。

克莱伯的魅力除了“天赋”之外,他一定比别的指挥更留意外在的表演形式——也许只有他才把管弦乐队当作一件“乐器”。克莱伯的化妆师告诉介绍克莱伯生平音乐记录片《了无痕迹》("Traces to Nowhere")的编导:克莱伯曾经承认他一个人时会在镜子前面观察、练习自己的指挥动作,这实在是一个非常有趣的事情。通常,乐队指挥会把怎样“打拍子”放在次要地位,甚至更低的位置去考虑,而克莱伯则把它视为和排练乐队熟练把握乐曲的强、弱、快、慢同样重要,我觉得这是更明智的认识和做法。

实际上,演出时舞台上交响乐队这个“乐器”的音质、音色、音域、音量等等已经通过排练得到保证,当音乐会开始,指挥的作用实际已经变了,与其说他仍然在操控乐队,还不如说他像乐手一样在“弹琴”了 。这样,他的拍子打得如何,在观众眼里就成了那个“琴”弹得怎样。我把这看作是一个指挥在音乐制品二次创作中的第二次创作,这绝对体现外部,而在种外在的表现对观众来说具有更加直接的影响。据三联书店出版的《爱乐》杂志04年第8期中胡欣欣的文章介绍:1994年克莱伯随维也纳国家歌剧院访日演出《玫瑰骑士》时,观众席上出现了大多数人把望远镜对着克莱伯的现象就是一个很好的明证。观赏克莱伯指挥的音乐会,我们既可以获得旋律本身带来的美感,还可以同时享受由克莱伯完美的指挥艺术带来的视觉冲击,这就是他高超的地方。

5

1996年4月,奥迪汽车公司邀请克莱伯执棒,在其总部所在地、巴伐利亚州Ingolstadt指挥一场音乐会以飨员工。作为酬报,克莱伯将获得一辆时值十万美元的A8顶级配置跑车。消息传出几个小时后,音乐会入场券告罄。

克莱伯就是这样一位身价的指挥家,但他却以“不爱指挥”而闻名于古典音乐世界。卡拉扬告诉别人说:“克莱伯是有指挥天才的,但是他不喜欢享用它。他告诉我,他只有在感到饥饿时候才指挥。”根据他的为人、为业,我以为如果克莱伯真的说过这样的话,那么他的本意一定是玩笑、调侃。卡拉扬大概不懂人,也缺乏幽默。此话传开后现在就成了这样:只有当冰箱空掉的时候,克莱伯才拿起指挥棒。这样的概括,容易让常人联系到一个懒散、松沓的画面,其实不然。

按照克莱伯的能力,上世纪七十年代之后,世界上任何一个乐团都乐意提供他一个固定或者相对固定的职位。1989年卡拉扬去世后,柏林爱乐把克莱伯作为主要候选人来考虑。在获得克莱伯无意接任的意向后,乐团上层通知了乐团成员,但是团员投票时,乐手们还是把票投向了克莱伯,而且几轮的结果都是一样。自89、92两次指挥新年音乐会之后,他再也不接受维也纳金色大厅的邀请;萨尔茨堡音乐节每年固定在7月至9月举行,邀请当今炽手可热的乐团来表演,可是克莱伯拒绝联盟。

克莱伯不同任何乐团签约担任常任指挥的后面其实仍然是对艺术完美的向往和追求。当演奏音乐完全依赖于人的自然能力时,数量和质量一定会有矛盾。因为做和尚就必须敲钟,签约后就有固定的工作量,那时,不管你准备好了还是没有准备好就得上台指挥,那样就无法维持他想要保持的水准,而这是他最不愿意看到发生的事情。克莱伯用限制自己的演出数量来换取最大限度的演出质量,他宁愿花几倍、十几倍于别的指挥的时间在排练上。

他在萨尔茨堡也有一个屋子,每年音乐节期间,他会到那住一段时间。那些日子里,他穿牛仔裤,蹬轻便鞋,一早出门,买一份报纸,然后在街角的咖啡店坐上半天,领略来自各地朝圣音乐的善男信女,或者他自己以一个游客的身份信步萨尔茨堡街头巷尾,悠闲地品味那每一个角落里都充满了音乐的氛围,或者坐在剧场某一个角落,专心致志地观赏他自己属意的乐队、指挥或者作品。很明显,他和卡拉扬不一样的地方是:对于把自己的日程安排得满满的以挣取大把钱财毫无兴致,在财富和艺术之间,克莱伯更看重后者。尽管对普通音乐爱好者来说,任何时候的克莱伯都是受欢迎的,但是他本人却坚持一定要把自己最好的拿给观众。这不仅是对艺术的执着,也是他人品高尚的表现,而恰恰是这种罕见超群的品格艺德才是最让人景仰和敬佩的。

6

克莱伯逝世之后,斯洛文尼亚这个中欧小国势必引起古典音乐世界的关注。克莱伯出生于德国,在阿根廷度过了他少年和青年时光,在他的职业生涯里,他和巴伐利亚歌剧院合作的时间最长。他是归化的奥地利公民,后半生一直以慕尼黑为居住地,最后却选择埋葬在斯洛文尼亚的Konjsica。克莱伯的太太是斯洛文尼亚人,克莱伯的母亲出生在美国俄亥俄州的滑铁卢市,有人提到她是斯洛文尼亚的后裔。

小镇Konjsica距离奥地利边界不到30公里,离首都Ljubljana55公里,常住居民约150左右。从地图上看,小镇和萨尔茨堡、维也纳三个点之间的连线构成一个略微向左倾斜的倒置正三角形,我用尺量了一下,边长在300公里上下。我相信克莱伯选择其中任何一个地方作为归宿都是有理由的,当然现在唯一的不方便是那些想去墓地吊唁他的崇拜者。也许这也是他这个决定的动机之一。

克莱伯床头有一本他经常看,也划了很多线的《庄子》。他在同巴伯的通信中也主动提到庄子,说他有一本意大利语的《庄子》,“这是一本很了不起的信、达、雅的译作”,他告诉巴伯,“他人生中最愉悦的享受就是阅读《庄子》。他说庄子是各种“子”里面最伟大的。

他在信中还告诉巴伯,“你是有史以来惟一的一个能和我保持通讯的人”,你有着深厚的幽默感。你那年骑车从旧金山到洛杉矶时经历的事情,深深的温暖了我这颗早已习惯冷漠的心。2003年6月,巴伯给克莱伯寄去了生日贺卡,克莱伯回了一封短函,他们之间的公开的通信往来就停止了。

在音乐这一行里,作曲家可以依靠他的才能、智慧一直做到老,所以莫扎特创作到他生命最后一刻,但是指挥不行,至少像克莱伯这样如此追求完美的指挥不行。拿克莱伯40岁时的激情、力度和他60岁时相比,差别是明显的。克莱伯大概是意识到这一点的,所以他从64岁开始实际上就进入退休状态。他知道如果想在听众印象里保持他的完美的形象,如果想要把最好的东西呈现给听众,他必须及时放下手里的指挥棒。在这一点上,他和其他的指挥家也非常不一样。从某种意义上,克莱伯和莫扎特一样,他们都是上帝派来的完美使者,他们的作品人间无人能够复制。

我必须承认,就欣赏音乐而言,克莱伯已经让我沉醉迷恋,难能可贵的是,他还有与大多数指挥家不同的人生理念,他那种自尊、自恃、自爱的行事方式和人格让我更加受益。毋庸讳言,他为人们描绘了一个出类拔萃的艺术家风范,也给我留下了一个无与伦比的大师形象。好了,安息吧,卡洛斯·克莱伯!

和谈

2014-7-12


Last modified on 07/13/14 08:19
        

#19  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
卡洛斯 克莱伯 获奖项目:资料来自网络

Honours and awards:

Cultural Honour of the City of Munich (1978)
Pour le Mérite for Science and Art (Prussia, 1990)
Austrian Medal for Science and Art (1992)[citation needed]
Golden Baton of La Scala (Milan, 1995)
German Record Prize
Bavarian Order of Merit
Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
Grand Merit Cross with Star of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany


1.慕尼黑市文化荣誉奖 (1978) Kultureller Ehrenpreis der Landeshauptstadt München 自1958开始每年授予一位与慕尼黑相关的并且在文化科技领域取得杰出成果的国际知名人士,是慕尼黑市政府能给出的最高荣誉奖。评委通常由头一年得奖者、慕尼黑市市长、文化局的局长、慕尼黑议会五位议员以及五位独立评委选出。

2.蓝马克斯勋章(1990) Pour le mérite für Wissenschaft und Künste 蓝马克斯勋章是普鲁士和德意志帝国军队最高勋章。二战后不区分国籍的颁发给在科学以及艺术领域做出杰出贡献的艺术家和科学家。

3.奥地利共和国科学和艺术荣誉勋章 (1992) Österreichisches Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst 奥地利共和国授予在科学和艺术领域有做出过杰出贡献的人们的最高勋章。

4.史卡拉歌剧院金指挥棒 (1995) 米兰史卡拉歌剧院授予在歌剧领域才华卓越的艺术家。获此殊荣的第一位非意大利籍大师是2013年2月22日去世的德国指挥家萨瓦里许(Sawallisch),2年后的1995年,小克莱巴被授予该奖项。

5.德国唱片大奖 Deutschen Schallplattenpreis 德国唱片大奖是德国唱片业协会1963年到1992年设立的奖项,是ECHO的前身,唱片的销量作为评奖的主要指标。好玩的是,小克莱巴平生最鄙视痛恨出版的唱片《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》获得该项大赏。

6.拜仁荣誉勋章 Bayerischer Verdienstorden 德国巴伐利亚州最高荣誉奖。每年由巴伐利亚州总理授予,旨在表彰获奖者对巴伐利亚州和巴伐利亚人民做出的杰出贡献。

7.拜仁马克西米兰科学与艺术勋章 (1998)Bayerischer Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst 由巴伐利亚国王马克米西兰二世在1853年11月28日创立,纳粹统治时期该勋章被停止颁授,1980年又重新开始恢复授勋。该勋章要求历届被授勋的人数当年在世人数总和不得超过100人。

8.德意志联邦共和国蓝色大十字星勋章 (1980)Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland也称做德意志联邦共和国勋章,设立于1951年。由德国联邦总统颁发的勋章,用以表彰在德国政治、经济和社会文化方面做出重大贡献的人士。
        

#20  哦,对不起,我们昨天才知道他去世! (卡洛斯 克莱伯)             Go Back
和谈兄投入很大热情写作此文,一个以艺术至上为己任的指挥家的形象跃然纸上。

克莱伯不熟悉,只听过他的贝三和贝五,感觉是很好,但不一定为最佳。回头要多听听。
        



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