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#1【读诗 】   但丁的《神曲·地狱》。中译黄文捷 / 英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
但丁的《神曲》:
http://www.txshuku.com/book/0/243/17767.html

神  曲
〔意〕但丁著 黄文捷译

  但丁·阿利基埃里(1265-1321) 意大利诗人,被恩格斯誉为“中世纪的最后一位诗人,同时又是新时代的最初一位诗人。”

  但丁一生著作甚丰,其中最有价值的无疑是《神曲》。这部作品通过作者与地狱、炼狱及天国中各种著名人物的对话,反映出中古文化领域的成就和一些重大的问题,带有“百科全书”性质,从中也可隐约窥见文艺复兴时期人文主义思想的曙光。在这部长达一万四千余行的史诗中,但丁坚决反对中世纪的蒙昧主义,表达了执着地追求真理的思想,对欧洲后世的诗歌创作有极其深远的影响。

  除《神曲》外,但丁还写了《新生》、《论俗语》、《飨宴》及《诗集》等著作。《新生》中包括三十一首抒情诗,主要抒发对贝亚特丽契的眷恋之情,质朴清丽,优美动人,在“温柔的新体”这一诗派的诗歌中,它达到了最高的成就。



第一首

森 林(1-12)
阳光照耀下的山丘(13-30)
三头猛兽(31-60)
维吉尔(61-99)
猎 犬(100-111)
冥界之行(112-136)

森林

我走过我们人生的一半旅程,
却又步入一片幽暗的森林,
这是因为我迷失了正确的路径。
啊!这森林是多么荒野,多么险恶,多么举步维艰!
道出这景象又是多么困难!
现在想起也仍会毛骨悚然,
尽管这痛苦的煎熬不如丧命那么悲惨;
但是要谈到我在那里如何逢凶化吉而脱险,
我还要说一说我在那里对其他事物的亲眼所见。
我无法说明我是如何步入其中,
我当时是那样睡眼矇矓,
竟然抛弃正路,不知何去何从。

阳光照耀下的山丘

我随后来到一个山丘脚下,
那森林所在的山谷曾令我心惊胆怕,
这时山谷却已临近边崖;
我举目向上一望,
山脊已披上那星球射出的万道霞光,
正是那星球把行人送上大道康庄。
这时我的恐惧才稍稍平静下来,
而在我战战兢兢地度过的那一夜,
这恐惧则一直搅得我心潮澎湃。
犹如一个人吁吁气喘,
逃出大海,游到岸边,
掉过头去,凝视那巨浪冲天,
我也正是这样惊魂未定,
我转过身去,回顾那关隘似的森林,
正是这关隘从未让人从那里逃生。
随后我稍微休息一下疲惫的身体,
重新上路,攀登那荒凉的山脊,
而立得最稳的脚总是放得最低的那一只。

三头猛兽

瞧!几乎在山丘开始陡起之处,
一头身躯轻巧、矫健异常的豹子蓦地窜出,
它浑身上下,被五彩斑斓的毛皮裹住;
它在我面前不肯离去,
甚至想把我的去路拦阻,
我多次扭转身躯,想走回头路。
这时正是早晨的开始,
太阳正与众星辰冉冉升起,
从神灵的爱最初推动这些美丽的东西运转时起,
这群星就与太阳寸步不离;
这拂晓的时光,这温和的节气,
令我心中充满希冀,
对这头皮色斑斓的猛兽也望而不惧;
但是,我又看到有一头狮子向我走来,
这却不能不令我感到惊骇。
这狮子似乎要向我进攻,
它昂着头,饿得发疯,
空气也仿佛吓得索索抖动。
接着又来了一头母狼,
它瘦骨嶙峋,像是满抱种种贪婪欲望,
它曾使多少人遭受祸殃,
一见它,我就不禁心惊胆寒,
像是有一块重石压在心田,
登上山峰的希望也随之烟消云散。
犹如一个一心只图赢钱的赌徒,
时运不济,却使他一输再输,
他心中悲苦万分,不住流涕痛哭;
这猛兽也同样令我忐忑不宁,
它一步一步地向我逼近,
把我逼回到森林,那里连太阳也变得悄然无声。

维吉尔

我又陷入那低洼的地方,
这时有一个人在定睛向我张望,
他仿佛经过长久的缄默,几乎发不出声响。
我见他伫立在荒凉的山地,
便向他叫道:“你是真人还是鬼?
不管你是什么,请可怜可怜我!”
他答道:“我不是活人,但过去是,
我的父母祖籍伦巴迪,
他们俩都以曼图亚为出生地。
我出生在凯撒时代,可惜我生得太迟;
明君奥古斯都当政时,我在罗马度日,
那个时代正充斥着冒牌、伪装的神祗。
我是个诗人,我曾把一位义士歌颂,
他是安奇塞斯的儿子,只因雄伟的伊利昂城被焚,
他才逃离了特洛伊城。
但是,你又为何返回这痛苦的深渊,
为何不攀登那明媚的高山?
而这高山正是一切幸福的来由和开端。”
“那么你就是那位维吉尔,
就是那涌现出滔滔不绝的动人诗句的泉源?”
我向他答道,不禁满面羞惭。
“啊!众诗人的光荣和明灯啊!
我曾长期拜读你的诗作,
对你的无限爱戴也曾使我遍寻你的著说。
你是我的恩师,我的楷模,
我从你那里学到那优美的风格,
它使我得以声名显赫。
你瞧瞧那头猛兽,它迫使我退后,
著名的智者啊!请救我逃出它那血盆大口,
它使我的血管和脉搏都在不断颤抖。”
“倘若你想从这蛮荒的地界脱身,
你就该另寻其他路径”,
他答道,他看出我泪水涟涟;
“这头野兽曾吓得你大声呼救,
它不会让任何行人从它眼前溜走,
它要阻挡他的去路,甚而把他吞入血盆大口。
它本性就是如此凶恶,如此狠毒,
它的贪婪欲望从来不会得到满足,
它在饱餐后会感到比在饱餐前更加饥肠辘辘。

猎犬

许多动物都与他为婚,这情况将来会更甚,
但是猎犬终会来临,
会叫它痛苦万分,丧失性命。
这猎犬食用的不是土地和钱财,
它据以为生的是:智慧、美德和仁爱,
它的诞生地在菲尔特罗与菲尔特罗之间的那片地带。
它会拯救那不幸的意大利,
圣女卡米拉、欧吕阿鲁斯、图尔努斯和尼苏斯,
猎犬会把母狼从一座座城市中赶出,
直到把它赶会阴曹地府,
原先把这畜牲放出地府的正是嫉妒。

冥界之行

因此,我为你安全着想,
我认为你最好跟随我,我来做你的向导,
我把你带出此地,前往永恒之邦。
你在那里将会听到绝望的惨叫,
将会看到远古的幽灵在受煎熬,
他们都在为要求第二次死而不断呼号;
你还会看到有些鬼魂甘愿在火中受苦,
因为他们希望有朝一日
前往与享受天国之福的灵魂为伍。
倘若你有心升上天去瞻望这些灵魂,
有一个魂灵则在这方面比我更能胜任,
届时我将离去,让你与她同行;
因为坐镇天府的那位皇帝
不愿让我进入他统治的福地,
这正是由于我生前曾违抗过他的法律。
他威震寰宇,统辖天国;
天国正是他的都城,有他那崇高的宝座:
啊!能被提升到天国的人真是幸福难得!”
于是,我对他说:“诗人啊!我请求你,
以你不曾见识过的上帝名义,
帮我逃出这是非和受苦之地,
把我带到你方才所说的那个地方去,
让我能目睹圣彼得之门,
看一看你所说的如此悲惨的幽魂。”
于是他起步动身,我则在他身后紧跟。


http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1004/pg1004.html

The Divine Comedy translated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (e-text courtesy ILT's Digital Dante Project)

INFERNO

Inferno: Canto I

Midway upon the journey of our life
I found myself within a forest dark,
For the straightforward pathway had been lost.
Ah me! how hard a thing it is to say
What was this forest savage, rough, and stern,
Which in the very thought renews the fear.
So bitter is it, death is little more;
But of the good to treat, which there I found,
Speak will I of the other things I saw there.
I cannot well repeat how there I entered,
So full was I of slumber at the moment
In which I had abandoned the true way.
But after I had reached a mountain's foot,
At that point where the valley terminated,
Which had with consternation pierced my heart,
Upward I looked, and I beheld its shoulders,
Vested already with that planet's rays
Which leadeth others right by every road.
Then was the fear a little quieted
That in my heart's lake had endured throughout
The night, which I had passed so piteously.
And even as he, who, with distressful breath,
Forth issued from the sea upon the shore,
Turns to the water perilous and gazes;
So did my soul, that still was fleeing onward,
Turn itself back to re-behold the pass
Which never yet a living person left.
After my weary body I had rested,
The way resumed I on the desert slope,
So that the firm foot ever was the lower.
And lo! almost where the ascent began,
A panther light and swift exceedingly,
Which with a spotted skin was covered o'er!
And never moved she from before my face,
Nay, rather did impede so much my way,
That many times I to return had turned.
The time was the beginning of the morning,
And up the sun was mounting with those stars
That with him were, what time the Love Divine
At first in motion set those beauteous things;
So were to me occasion of good hope,
The variegated skin of that wild beast,
The hour of time, and the delicious season;
But not so much, that did not give me fear
A lion's aspect which appeared to me.
He seemed as if against me he were coming
With head uplifted, and with ravenous hunger,
So that it seemed the air was afraid of him;
And a she-wolf, that with all hungerings
Seemed to be laden in her meagreness,
And many folk has caused to live forlorn!
She brought upon me so much heaviness,
With the affright that from her aspect came,
That I the hope relinquished of the height.
And as he is who willingly acquires,
And the time comes that causes him to lose,
Who weeps in all his thoughts and is despondent,
E'en such made me that beast withouten peace,
Which, coming on against me by degrees
Thrust me back thither where the sun is silent.
While I was rushing downward to the lowland,
Before mine eyes did one present himself,
Who seemed from long-continued silence hoarse.
When I beheld him in the desert vast,
"Have pity on me," unto him I cried,
"Whiche'er thou art, or shade or real man!"
He answered me: "Not man; man once I was,
And both my parents were of Lombardy,
And Mantuans by country both of them.
'Sub Julio' was I born, though it was late,
And lived at Rome under the good Augustus,
During the time of false and lying gods.
A poet was I, and I sang that just
Son of Anchises, who came forth from Troy,
After that Ilion the superb was burned.
But thou, why goest thou back to such annoyance?
Why climb'st thou not the Mount Delectable,
Which is the source and cause of every joy?"
"Now, art thou that Virgilius and that fountain
Which spreads abroad so wide a river of speech?"
I made response to him with bashful forehead.
"O, of the other poets honour and light,
Avail me the long study and great love
That have impelled me to explore thy volume!
Thou art my master, and my author thou,
Thou art alone the one from whom I took
The beautiful style that has done honour to me.
Behold the beast, for which I have turned back;
Do thou protect me from her, famous Sage,
For she doth make my veins and pulses tremble."
"Thee it behoves to take another road,"
Responded he, when he beheld me weeping,
"If from this savage place thou wouldst escape;
Because this beast, at which thou criest out,
Suffers not any one to pass her way,
But so doth harass him, that she destroys him;
And has a nature so malign and ruthless,
That never doth she glut her greedy will,
And after food is hungrier than before.
Many the animals with whom she weds,
And more they shall be still, until the Greyhound
Comes, who shall make her perish in her pain.
He shall not feed on either earth or pelf,
But upon wisdom, and on love and virtue;
'Twixt Feltro and Feltro shall his nation be;
Of that low Italy shall he be the saviour,
On whose account the maid Camilla died,
Euryalus, Turnus, Nisus, of their wounds;
Through every city shall he hunt her down,
Until he shall have driven her back to Hell,
There from whence envy first did let her loose.
Therefore I think and judge it for thy best
Thou follow me, and I will be thy guide,
And lead thee hence through the eternal place,
Where thou shalt hear the desperate lamentations,
Shalt see the ancient spirits disconsolate,
Who cry out each one for the second death;
And thou shalt see those who contented are
Within the fire, because they hope to come,
Whene'er it may be, to the blessed people;
To whom, then, if thou wishest to ascend,
A soul shall be for that than I more worthy;
With her at my departure I will leave thee;
Because that Emperor, who reigns above,
In that I was rebellious to his law,
Wills that through me none come into his city.
He governs everywhere, and there he reigns;
There is his city and his lofty throne;
O happy he whom thereto he elects!"
And I to him: "Poet, I thee entreat,
By that same God whom thou didst never know,
So that I may escape this woe and worse,
Thou wouldst conduct me there where thou hast said,
That I may see the portal of Saint Peter,
And those thou makest so disconsolate."
Then he moved on, and I behind him followed.





Last modified on 10/13/14 01:46
        

#2  但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%A5%9E%E6%9B%B2

梗概

但丁以第一人称记述自己35岁时(人生的中途)误入一座黑暗的森林(象征罪恶),在一座小山脚下,有三只猛兽拦住去路,一只母狼(象征贪欲),一只狮子(象征野心),一只豹(象征逸乐),又一种说法是说它们分别象征教皇、法国国王和佛罗伦萨人。他在呼救时出现了古罗马诗人维吉尔的灵魂,对他说:“你不能战胜这三只野兽,我指示你另一条路径”。带领他穿过地狱、炼狱,然后把他交给当年但丁单相思暗恋的情人贝亚德的灵魂,带他游历天堂,一直到见到上帝。

他描述的世界,地狱是一个大漏斗,中心在耶路撒冷,从上到下逐渐缩小,越向下所控制的灵魂罪恶越深重,直到地心,是魔王撒但掌握漏斗顶端,他们从魔王的尾巴爬过地心,另一面是炼狱。炼狱如同一座高山,在耶路撒冷相对的地球另一面海中,灵魂在这里忏悔涤罪,山分七层代表七宗罪,每上升一层就会消除一种罪过,直到山顶就可以升入天堂。天堂分为九层,越往上的灵魂越高尚,直到越过九重天,才是真正的天堂,圣母和所有得救的灵魂所在,经圣母允许,才能一窥圣三位一体的上帝。

在经过地狱、炼狱、天堂的一路上,但丁和所遇到的有名的灵魂交谈,包括历史上好的坏的许多著名人物,他将自己钦佩和厌恶的人物分别纳入各个部位,甚至他痛恨的教皇及一些佛罗伦萨人全打入地狱。有些详细情况《圣经》中并没有记载,是他自己发明的,但也符合逻辑。其中也包括许多他对神学问题的见解,系统地阐述了他对世界的看法。


地獄篇 (Inferno)

地狱形似一个上宽下窄的漏斗,共9层。第一层是林勃,生于基督之前,未能接受洗礼的古代异教徒,在这里等候上帝的审判。在其余8层,罪人的灵魂按生前所犯的罪孽(贪色、饕餮、贪婪、愤怒、信奉邪教、强暴、欺诈、背叛),分别接受不同的严酷刑罚。
地獄之門上的銘刻: 「这裡直通悲慘之城, 由我这裡直通無盡之苦, 这裡直通墮落眾生. . .我永存不朽, 我之前,萬象未形, 只有永恆的事物存在,來者啊!快將一切希望揚棄!」 (Inferno III 1-9)

地獄過道:騎牆派的亡魂在此受苦受難,他們跟隨著一面永遠無法停止的無主旗幟四處飄蕩,一邊受可怕的牛虻和馬蜂叮蜇。其中包含撒旦叛天時沒有表達鮮明立場的天使。

这時將目光放遠一點,看見大河河畔聚集著無數亡魂,这條河名為阿刻戎河(Acheron),亦名苦難之河、禍川。船伕卡戎(Charon)在此將安葬的亡魂送到對岸的冥府。

I. 幽冥
未受洗者,「他們沒有犯罪‧‧‧他們生時基督教未立,無從向你所信仰者回歸,有慾望而無希望,鬱鬱不樂但沒有痛苦。」 另外還特別提到那些:「才能超卓,卻要在地獄邊境徘徊」者,有詩人荷馬、賀拉斯、奧維德、盧卡努斯、維吉爾;有英雄,例如與阿基裡斯齊名的特洛伊王子赫克托耳、伊利亞德中的埃涅阿斯和凱薩大帝;也有哲人,像柏拉圖、蘇格拉底、亞里斯多德…等,其他才能超卓者還有希波克拉底、歐基裡德、西塞羅、托勒密…。

接著但丁和維吉爾來到第一層和第二層的交界,並見到冥界的判官米諾斯(Minos),生前為克里特國王,執法嚴明,死後因而成為冥界判官。他的面前,亡魂一個個聽候裁奪,依罪孽輕重發配,被米諾斯的尾巴擲入深處。

II.縱慾
「地獄的颶風吹颳不已,用狂暴的威力鞭戮陰魂 。 」在此見到諸多英雄美人如:愛上埃涅阿斯的迦太基女王蒂朵、埃及豔后克麗奧佩脫拉、海倫與帕裡斯、阿基裡斯、崔斯坦與伊索德. . .。最後看見保羅與法蘭西斯卡,「他們一起, 在風中似乎飛的輕靈而悠遊。 」,並且聽法蘭西斯卡講述这個淒美的悲劇。

- 「愛慾,不容被愛者不去施愛。
猛然藉此人魅力將我擄住。
你看,他現在仍不肯把我放開。
愛慾,把我們引向同一條死路。」(Inferno V 103-106)

- 「有一天,我們一起看書消遣,
讀到蘭斯洛如何遭愛情桎梏,
那時,我們在一起毫無疑懼。
那個故事, 好幾次使我們抬頭相望,
因而視線交錯,使我們面色泛紅忽變。
不過,把我們征服的只有一處。
那一刻,就決定了我們的命運。
當我們讀到那微笑的嘴唇,如何為她的情人所吻。
他,我永恆的伴侶,向我靠攏。
全身震顫著,親吻我的嘴唇。」 (Inferno V 127-136)

III.暴食
守衛為[[凱洛貝羅斯]](Cerberus),地獄三頭犬。神話中職責為看守冥府之門不讓活人進入。觸犯此罪的人將受寒冷且滂沱不絕的凶雨、冰雹、與污水暴淋,於臭氣肆虐的惡泥中痛苦翻滾。

IV. 貪婪
守衛者為財神普魯托斯(Plutus),傳說宙斯為了讓他施財時不分善惡而將他雙眼弄瞎。貪婪分為揮霍與吝嗇,兩種人推著巨石互撞,重複到永遠。

V.憤怒
兩人來到第五層,看見一道無名的湧泉,其源頭為斯堤克斯河(Styx),又作悔恨之河、誓川。在希臘神話裡,眾神常在此河立誓,違反誓約者將九年無法說話。憤怒分暴怒與慍怒;前者刑罰為相互肉搏,撕咬皮肉;後者浸在黑沼斯提克斯河下發不出聲音。
前進間,兩人來到狄斯之城(或譯狄斯之牆)(The walls of Dis) 外,看見斯堤克斯河引渡的船伕弗勒古阿斯(Phlegyas)駕著小船而來,兩人登船,越過斯提克斯泥沼,來到狄斯城牆外,卻遭到復仇女神和蛇髮女妖梅杜莎的阻擋,幸有天使降臨,並為他們以神之棒將城門開啟。

VI. 異端(也有一說是分裂者)
進入狄斯之城後,但丁和維吉爾來到了地獄的第六層,在这裡異端者將站立在墳墓中,下肢受烈火灼燒的刑罰。其中有古希臘哲學家伊比鳩魯,因不相信靈魂不滅之說,主張靈魂隨肉體見滅,與基督教義相悖,受中世紀神學家聖奧古斯丁猛烈抨擊,故在此被打入異端。

VII. 施暴
守衛為米諾陶洛斯(Minotaur),克里特島的牛頭怪。第七層暴力之罪依施暴對象的不同分三圈,分別是對他人,殺人犯和擄掠者;對自身,自殺者和敗家者;對上帝、自然及技藝,瀆神者、雞姦者和放高利貸者。以對上帝、自然和技藝者施暴的罪孽為最深重。

第一圈:殺人犯和擄掠者在一條名為弗列革吞河(熔岩之河、火川)(Phlegethon)的沸騰的血河中受刑,由人馬克倫(Chiron)等看守。若有亡魂不守本分或欲逃避刑罰將被人馬們用弓箭射穿雙眼。

第二圈:自殺者和敗家者因生前不愛惜自己的身體或是家產,死後將化作樹在妖鳥之林中受妖鳥Hapies的啄食之苦。

第三圈:瀆神者、雞姦者和放高利貸者在燃燒的無垠沙漠,降下的大片火雨中受刑。

來到第七層的最末,眼前出現一懸崖,維吉爾用但丁身上的一繩索為餌,自深淵中喚出怪獸格里昂(Geryon),但丁對他形象的描繪預示著

第八圈的詐欺之罪。 「代表詐欺的骯髒形象. . .他的面龐是一張義人的面龐,表皮由善良的外貌包裡,其餘卻全是毒蛇的軀幹和心腸。 」 (Inferno XVII 7-12)

VIII. 罪惡之囊:
Malebolge,共有十囊。
淫媒、誘姦者:被妖怪用帶刺的皮鞭鞭打。
諂諛者:泡在一堆糞便中。
神棍:身體倒埋在一個小坑洞,腳掌著火。
占卜者:眼睛長在背後,看不見前方。
污吏:沸騰的瀝青中折磨和黑魔鬼的虐待。
偽君子:穿著鍍金的鉛衣,為虛偽的重量所苦。
盜賊:跟毒蛇合體(人蛇形互換)。
獻詐者:被焚體的火焰包裡,吐著火舌。
挑撥離間者:肢體殘缺內臟外流。
作偽者:受病痛的永遠折磨並散發腐爛惡臭。

IX. 背叛者:
分為四界。
該隱界:出賣親屬者。
安忒諾耳界:出賣祖國(所屬團體)者。
多利梅界:出賣客人者。
猶大界:出賣恩人者。猶大、布魯都、卡修斯分別為撒旦的三張嘴啃咬。


煉獄篇 (Purgatorio)

主条目:Purgatorio
炼狱共7级,加上净界山和地上乐园,共9层。生前犯有罪过,但程度较轻,已经悔悟的灵魂,按人类7大罪过(傲慢、忌妒、愤怒、怠惰、贪财、贪食、贪色),分别在这里修炼洗过,而后一层层升向光明和天堂。在净界山顶的地上乐园,维吉尔隐退,贝阿特丽切出现。

天堂篇 (Paradise)

贝阿特丽切责备但丁迷误在罪恶的森林,希望他忏悔,并让他观看表示教堂种种腐败的幻景,饮用忘川水,以遗忘过去的过失,获取新生。随后,贝阿特丽切引导但丁游历天堂九重天。这里是幸福的灵魂的归宿;他们是行善者、虔诚的教士、立功德者、哲学家和神学家、殉教者、正直的君主、修道者、基督和众天使。在九重天之上的天府,但丁得见上帝之面,但上帝的形象如电光之一闪,迅即消失,于是幻象和《神曲》也戛然而止。
        

#3  Re: 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
第二首

但丁的困惑与恐惧(1-42)
维吉尔的慰藉与贝阿特丽切的救援(43-126)
但丁恢复坦然的心情(127-142)

但丁的困惑与恐惧

白昼在离去,昏暗的天色
在使大地上一切生物从疲劳中解脱,
只有我独自一人
在努力承受这艰巨的历程
和随之而来的怜悯之情的折磨,
我记忆犹新的脑海将追述事情的经过。
啊!诗神缪斯啊!或者崇高的才华啊!现在请来帮助我;
要么则是我的脑海啊!请写下我目睹的一切,
这样,大家将会看出你的高贵品德。
我开言道:“指引我的诗人啊!
在你让我从事这次艰险的旅行之前,
请看一看我的能力是否足够强大。
你说过,西尔维乌斯的父亲还活着时,
也曾去过那永恒的世界,
尽管他依然带有肉体的感觉。
但如果说万恶之敌
因为想到埃涅阿斯所必然产生的深远影响,
而对他相待以礼,
不论他的后代是谁,又有什么德能,也都似乎不会有
违明智者的心意;
正是在净火天里,
他被选定为圣城罗马和罗马帝国之父:
这帝国和圣城——倘若想说实情——
也都曾被奠定为圣地,
被奠定为大彼得的后继者的府邸。
通过你所吟诵的那次冥界之行,
埃涅阿斯听到了一些事情,
得知他何以会取胜,教皇的法衣又何以会应运而生。
后来,‘神选的器皿’去到那里,
为信仰带来了鼓励,
而信仰正是走上获救之途的凭依。
但是,我为何要到那里去?又是谁容许我这样做?
我不是埃涅阿斯,我也不是保罗;
我自己和旁人都不会相信我有这样的资格。
因此,如果说我听任自己前往,
我却担心此行是否发狂。
你是明智的;你必能更好地理解我说的理由。”
正如一个人放弃了原先的念头,
由于有了新的想法,改变了主意,
把已经开始做的事全部抛弃,
我在昏暗的山地所做的也正是这样,
我原来的行为实在莽撞,
经过再三考虑,我才舍弃了这大胆的设想。

维吉尔的慰藉与贝阿特丽切的救援

“倘若我对你说的话没有听错”,
这个伟大的灵魂回答我,
“伤害你的心灵的是怯懦;
这怯懦曾不止一次起阻碍作用,
它阻挡人们去采取光荣的行动,
正如马匹看到虚假的现象而受惊。
为了消除你心中的惊恐,
我要告诉你我此来的原因,
我还要告诉你我何以从一开始便对你抱有怜惜之情。
我是悬在半空中的幽魂中间的一个,
那位享有天国之福的美丽圣女召唤我,
而我自己也欢迎她对我发号施令。
她那一双明眸闪闪发光,胜过点点繁星;
她开始用柔和而平静的、天使般的声音,
向我倾诉她的心情:
‘啊!曼图亚的温文尔雅的魂灵!
你的声誉至今仍在世上传颂,
并将和世界一样万古长存,
我的朋友——但他并不走运——
正在那荒凉的山地中途受阻,
他受到惊吓,正在转身走回头路;
我担心他已经迷失路途,
我又不能及时赶去救助,
尽管我在天府听到他陷于危难之中。
如今请你立即行动,
用你那华美的言辞和一切必要的手段救他一命,
你能助一臂之力,也便令我感到心松。
我是贝阿特丽切,是我请你去的;
我来自那个地方,我还要回到那里去,
是爱推动我这样说,是爱叫我对你说。
当我回到我的上帝面前时,
我一定要经常向他赞扬你’。
这时,她不再言语,
我随即说道:‘啊!贤德的圣女!
只是依靠你的贤德,人类才能超越
存在于天上最小圆环之下的一切生灵,
你的命令使我感到喜悦欢欣,
即使我立即从命,似乎也嫌太迟;
你不必再多费心思,只须向我吐露你的心事。
不过,请告诉我:你为何不怕
从那辽阔的空间下降到这地球的中心,
而你还要再返回原来的仙境’。
她答道:‘既然你心中是如此渴望知道其中原因,
我就简略地向你说明究竟,
说明我何以不怕到此一行。
人们只须害怕某些事情:
这些事情有能力去伤害别人;
对其他事情就无须顾忌,因为这些事情并不骇人听闻。
感谢上帝使我得以享有天国之福,
你们的不幸不会令我心动,
地狱酷刑的火焰也不会给我造成伤痛。
天上的慈悲女神怜悯此人面临危境,
命我来请你前往救援,使他绝处逢生,
因而她打破了上无所做的严厉决定。
这位女神把露齐亚召到他的面前,
她说:——如今你的忠实信徒需要你,
我也就把他托付给你——
露齐亚对任何残暴行为都深恶痛绝,
她立即起身,前来找我,
我正和古代的拉结一起,结伴同坐,
她说:——贝阿特丽切,上帝真正赞美的女神!
你为何不去搭救你如此心爱的人?
他曾为你脱离了世上的庸俗的人群。
难道你不曾听见他痛苦的哭泣?
难道你不曾看见威胁着他的死神?
那死神就伏在那大海也难以匹敌的波涛汹涌的江河!——
世上没有任何人会像我
在听罢这番话之后立即迅速动作,
力图寻求安全,逃避灾祸,
我就这样离开我的天国福地,降落到这里,
我相信你的诚恳话语,
这话语使你自己和闻听此言的人都感到光荣无比’。
她向我讲述一番之后,
就转动着她那晶莹的泪眼,
暗示我尽快前来营救。
我如她所愿来到你的身边;
我要救你从这猛兽面前脱险,
这猛兽竟敢阻挡你径直登上那壮丽的高山。
那么,你这是怎么了?为何,为何你又踟躕不前?
为何你心中仍让那怯懦的情绪纠缠?
为何你仍无胆量。仍不坦然?
既然有那三位上天降福的女神,
在天上的法庭保佑你安全脱身,
我自己也对你做了如此诚挚的应允?”

但丁恢复坦然的心情

正如低垂、闭拢的小花,在阳光照耀下,
摆脱了夜间的寒霜,
挺直了茎杆,竟相怒放,
我也就是这样重新振作精神,
鼓起我胸中的坚强勇气,
开始成为一个心胸坦荡的人:
“啊!那位大慈大悲、救我活命的女神!
还有你,如此温文尔雅的灵魂!
对她向你说的那些真情实话,你是那样立即听从!
你的一番叮咛,慰藉了我的心灵,
使我甘心情愿与你同行,
我回心转意,恢复我原来的决定。
现在,走罢!我们二人是同一条心:
你是恩师,你是救主,你是引路人。”
我对他这样说;他随即起步转身,
我于是走上这条坎坷、蛮荒的路径。


Inferno: Canto II

Day was departing, and the embrowned air
Released the animals that are on earth
From their fatigues; and I the only one
Made myself ready to sustain the war,
Both of the way and likewise of the woe,
Which memory that errs not shall retrace.
O Muses, O high genius, now assist me!
O memory, that didst write down what I saw,
Here thy nobility shall be manifest!
And I began: "Poet, who guidest me,
Regard my manhood, if it be sufficient,
Ere to the arduous pass thou dost confide me.
Thou sayest, that of Silvius the parent,
While yet corruptible, unto the world
Immortal went, and was there bodily.
But if the adversary of all evil
Was courteous, thinking of the high effect
That issue would from him, and who, and what,
To men of intellect unmeet it seems not;
For he was of great Rome, and of her empire
In the empyreal heaven as father chosen;
The which and what, wishing to speak the truth,
Were stablished as the holy place, wherein
Sits the successor of the greatest Peter.
Upon this journey, whence thou givest him vaunt,
Things did he hear, which the occasion were
Both of his victory and the papal mantle.
Thither went afterwards the Chosen Vessel,
To bring back comfort thence unto that Faith,
Which of salvation's way is the beginning.
But I, why thither come, or who concedes it?
I not Aeneas am, I am not Paul,
Nor I, nor others, think me worthy of it.
Therefore, if I resign myself to come,
I fear the coming may be ill-advised;
Thou'rt wise, and knowest better than I speak."
And as he is, who unwills what he willed,
And by new thoughts doth his intention change,
So that from his design he quite withdraws,
Such I became, upon that dark hillside,
Because, in thinking, I consumed the emprise,
Which was so very prompt in the beginning.
"If I have well thy language understood,"
Replied that shade of the Magnanimous,
"Thy soul attainted is with cowardice,
Which many times a man encumbers so,
It turns him back from honoured enterprise,
As false sight doth a beast, when he is shy.
That thou mayst free thee from this apprehension,
I'll tell thee why I came, and what I heard
At the first moment when I grieved for thee.
Among those was I who are in suspense,
And a fair, saintly Lady called to me
In such wise, I besought her to command me.
Her eyes where shining brighter than the Star;
And she began to say, gentle and low,
With voice angelical, in her own language:
'O spirit courteous of Mantua,
Of whom the fame still in the world endures,
And shall endure, long-lasting as the world;
A friend of mine, and not the friend of fortune,
Upon the desert slope is so impeded
Upon his way, that he has turned through terror,
And may, I fear, already be so lost,
That I too late have risen to his succour,
From that which I have heard of him in Heaven.
Bestir thee now, and with thy speech ornate,
And with what needful is for his release,
Assist him so, that I may be consoled.
Beatrice am I, who do bid thee go;
I come from there, where I would fain return;
Love moved me, which compelleth me to speak.
When I shall be in presence of my Lord,
Full often will I praise thee unto him.'
Then paused she, and thereafter I began:
'O Lady of virtue, thou alone through whom
The human race exceedeth all contained
Within the heaven that has the lesser circles,
So grateful unto me is thy commandment,
To obey, if 'twere already done, were late;
No farther need'st thou ope to me thy wish.
But the cause tell me why thou dost not shun
The here descending down into this centre,
From the vast place thou burnest to return to.'
'Since thou wouldst fain so inwardly discern,
Briefly will I relate,' she answered me,
'Why I am not afraid to enter here.
Of those things only should one be afraid
Which have the power of doing others harm;
Of the rest, no; because they are not fearful.
God in his mercy such created me
That misery of yours attains me not,
Nor any flame assails me of this burning.
A gentle Lady is in Heaven, who grieves
At this impediment, to which I send thee,
So that stern judgment there above is broken.
In her entreaty she besought Lucia,
And said, "Thy faithful one now stands in need
Of thee, and unto thee I recommend him."
Lucia, foe of all that cruel is,
Hastened away, and came unto the place
Where I was sitting with the ancient Rachel.
"Beatrice" said she, "the true praise of God,
Why succourest thou not him, who loved thee so,
For thee he issued from the vulgar herd?
Dost thou not hear the pity of his plaint?
Dost thou not see the death that combats him
Beside that flood, where ocean has no vaunt?"
Never were persons in the world so swift
To work their weal and to escape their woe,
As I, after such words as these were uttered,
Came hither downward from my blessed seat,
Confiding in thy dignified discourse,
Which honours thee, and those who've listened to it.'
After she thus had spoken unto me,
Weeping, her shining eyes she turned away;
Whereby she made me swifter in my coming;
And unto thee I came, as she desired;
I have delivered thee from that wild beast,
Which barred the beautiful mountain's short ascent.
What is it, then? Why, why dost thou delay?
Why is such baseness bedded in thy heart?
Daring and hardihood why hast thou not,
Seeing that three such Ladies benedight
Are caring for thee in the court of Heaven,
And so much good my speech doth promise thee?"
Even as the flowerets, by nocturnal chill,
Bowed down and closed, when the sun whitens them,
Uplift themselves all open on their stems;
Such I became with my exhausted strength,
And such good courage to my heart there coursed,
That I began, like an intrepid person:
"O she compassionate, who succoured me,
And courteous thou, who hast obeyed so soon
The words of truth which she addressed to thee!
Thou hast my heart so with desire disposed
To the adventure, with these words of thine,
That to my first intent I have returned.
Now go, for one sole will is in us both,
Thou Leader, and thou Lord, and Master thou."
Thus said I to him; and when he had moved,
I entered on the deep and savage way.


Last modified on 04/09/12 22:01
        

#4  Re: 【读诗】 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
我的主要书架上的一格,是留给我最心爱的书的。这些书,都不时会翻翻。如《神曲》这样的经典,实在是应当在学生时代(中学大学)就读的。 现在心境浅浮不安,少有静心下来沉湎其中的时候。




云天 wrote: (4/7/2012 1:13)
http://www.tianyabook.com/shici/danding/1.htm

神  曲
〔意〕但丁著 黄文捷译

  但丁·阿利基埃里(1265-1321) 意大利诗人,被恩格斯誉为“中世纪的最后一位诗人,同时又是新时代的最初一位诗人。”
  但丁一生著作甚丰,其中最有价值的无疑是《神曲》。这部作品通过作者与地狱、炼狱及天国中各种著名人物的对话,反映出中古文化领域的成就和一些重大的问题,带有“百科全书”性质,从中也可隐约窥见文艺复兴时期人文主义思想的曙光。在这部长达一万四千余行的史诗中,但丁坚决反对中世纪的蒙昧主义,表达了执着地追求真理的思想,对欧洲后世的诗歌创作有极其深远的影响。
  除《神曲》外,但丁还写了《新生》、《论俗语》、《飨宴》及《诗集》等著作。《新生》中包括三十一首抒情诗,主要抒发对贝亚特丽契的眷恋之情,质朴清丽,优美动人,在“温柔的新体”这一诗派的诗歌中,它达到了最高的成就。




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自得其乐
        

#5  Re: 【读诗】 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
wow, E教的书架全盘西化啊,而且都是 hardcover books, 绝对贵族。
而我的书多是很奇谱的paperbacks. 百分百劳动人民本色。

被你说对了,像莎士比亚,奥德赛,欧洲史就是中学必读。
为了陪老大读,愚云有的莎剧读了两三遍。前段读二战,这几天冷战。被迫读书,原来也很enjoyable.

《神曲》一百篇,一天一篇。贴完之后还有 quiz 哦。 各位别偷懒哦。
如果考砸,罚贴与但丁相关的绘画音乐。
        

#6  Re: 【读诗】 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
第三首

地狱之门(1-21)
无所作为者(22-69)
阿凯隆特河与卡隆(70-129)
地震与但丁的昏厥(130-136)

地狱之门

“通过我,进入痛苦之城,
通过我,进入永世凄苦之深坑,
通过我,进入万劫不复之人群。
正义促动我那崇高的造物主;
神灵的威力、最高的智慧和无上的慈爱,
这三位一体把我塑造出来。
在我之前,创造出的东西没有别的,只有万物不朽之物,
而我也同样是万古不朽,与世长存,
抛弃一切希望吧,你们这些由此进入的人。”
我看到这些文字色彩如此黝暗,
阴森森地写在一扇城门的上边;
我于是说:“老师啊!这些文字的意思令我毛骨悚然。”
他像一个熟谙此情的人对我说:
“来到这里就该丢掉一切疑惧;
在这里必须消除任何怯懦情绪。
我们已来到我曾对你说过的那个地方,
在这里你将看到一些鬼魂在哀恸凄伤,
因为他们已丧失了心智之善。”
他随即用他的手拉起我的手,
和颜悦色,带我去看人世间所见不到的秘密,
我立即感到无限慰藉。

无所作为者

这里到处都是叹息、哭泣和凄厉的叫苦声,
这些声音响彻那无星的夜空,
因此,我乍闻此声,不由得满面泪痕。
不同的语言,可怕的呼嚎,
惨痛的叫喊,愤怒的咆哮,
有的声高,有的声低,还有手掌拍打声与叫声混在一起,
一直回荡在这昼夜不分的昏天黑地,
犹如旋风卷起黄沙,把太阳遮蔽。
我的头脑被惊恐所缠绕,
我不禁开言道:“老师,我听见的是什么呼叫?
这些是什么人的幽魂?他们似乎已被痛苦所压倒!”
老师对我说:“这凄惨的呼声
发自那些悲哀的灵魂,
他们生前不曾受到称赞,也未留下骂名。
混杂在这可鄙的合唱当中,还有一些天使,
他们曾不忠于上帝,但也不反叛上帝,
他们一心考虑的只有自己。
上天把他们驱逐出去,以免失去上天的美丽,
而万丈深渊的地狱也不愿收留他们,
因为那些罪恶的天使会觉得自己比他们还多少有些光荣。”
我说:“他们究竟有多大的痛苦,
以致发出如此强烈的哀号?”
老师答道:“我会十分简略地让你知道。
这些灵魂无望求得彻底的死,
他们的黯淡一生又是那么一文不值,
因而他们才对任何其他鬼魂的命运羡慕不止。
世上对他们的名声不能容忍;
慈悲和正义对他们也不闻不问:
我们不要再讨论他们,你走顾全,看看吧。”
我于是注目观看,我看到有一面旗帜
在飞速地绕着圈子奔驰,
我觉得,它似乎片刻也不能停下;
在那旗帜后面,有一大群人排成长龙,
我简直不敢相信,
死神竟毁掉这么多人的生命。
接着,我从中认出几个幽魂。
我看出、并且也认得那个人的魂灵,
他就是那曾出于怯懦而放弃重要权位的人。
我立即恍然大悟,并且相信:
这是一群胸无大志的懦弱之徒,
他们得不到上帝以及上帝的敌人的欢心。
这些倒霉鬼生前一直庸庸碌碌,
如今则是露体赤身,
在这里被毒蝇和黄蜂狠狠叮螫。
他们一个个血流满面,
而血又和泪掺合在一起,流到脚上,
被那令人厌恶的蛆虫吮吸饱尝。

阿凯隆特河与卡隆

随后我又举目远望,
我看到一些人聚集在一条大河的岸上;
于是我说:“老师,现在请让我知道。
这是些什么人,是什么本能
使他们显得急不可待地渴望渡河,
这是我借着这微弱的光线所看到的。”
他对我说:“当我们停下脚步,
去到那凄惨的阿凯隆特河上时,
你便会了解所有这些事。”
我叫罢当即垂下羞愧的眼帘,
惟恐他会恼怒我的失言,
我只好默默不语,径直来到河边。
这时,一个老人年逾古稀,须发皆白,
驾着一叶扁舟迎面而来,
他叫道:“你们该倒霉了,可恶的灵魂!
你们永远不要希望能见苍天:
我此来便是要把你们渡到河的另一边,
叫你们去受火烧冰冻之苦,永陷黑暗深渊。
嗨,你这个人,是个活的灵魂,
你快离开那些死的灵魂。”
但是,他见我没有离去,
便说:“你该走另一条路,到另一些港口,
运载你的该是一条更轻便的小舟,
那时你将会到达对岸,而不该由此经过。”
我的导师对他说:“卡隆!不要发火:
是那能够做到随心所欲的地方愿意安排此行,
你就不必多问!”
那个在灰黑的泥沼中划船的船夫有一张毛茸茸的脸,
这时他那脸上立即消褪了怒容,
尽管眼圈仍被怒火染得通红。
但是,那些赤条条,神色凄惨的鬼魂
听到这些话语如此凶狠,
立即面色大变,牙齿也不住打颤。
他们诅咒上帝,诅咒他们的爹娘,
诅咒人类,诅咒祖先对他们的孕育和生养,
还诅咒孕育和生养他们的时间和地方。
所有这些鬼魂随即聚拢在一起,
在那险恶的河岸上嚎啕大哭,呼天抢地,
而那河岸正等待着每个不怕上帝降罪的人上船。
魔鬼卡隆,双眼红如火炭,
他示意他们一个接一个下岸登船;
只要有人延迟一步,他就用船桨把那人打得叫苦连天。
犹如秋天的树叶随风飞扬,
一片接一片,飘然而起,
直到树枝眼见自己的所有衣裳都被吹落在地。
亚当的这些不肖子孙正是这样,
他们一个接一个地纷纷下岸登船,
如同驯鸟应主人召唤而归巢一般。
这样,这些鬼魂就漂浮在黝黑的河浪上面,
而他们尚未抵达对岸,
就又有一批新的亡魂集聚到这边。
“我的孩子”,那位热心的老师说,
“所有那些触怒上帝而死亡的人,
都要从四面八方到这里来集合;
他们都争先恐后地渡河,
因为有神灵的正义在驱赶,
这就使他们从畏惧变成自愿。
这里从来没有善良的灵魂经过;
但是,倘若卡隆对你口出怨言,
你如今就可以明白:他为何对你这样说。”

地震与但丁的昏厥

话刚说完,黑暗的荒郊突然地动山摇,
这把我吓得魂不附体,
至今一想起,我仍然大汗淋漓。
泪水浸透的大地刮起狂风,
血红色的电光闪过夜空,
霎时间,我丧失了一切知觉;
我猝然倒下,犹如一个人昏然入梦。


Inferno: Canto III

"Through me the way is to the city dolent;
Through me the way is to eternal dole;
Through me the way among the people lost.
Justice incited my sublime Creator;
Created me divine Omnipotence,
The highest Wisdom and the primal Love.
Before me there were no created things,
Only eterne, and I eternal last.
All hope abandon, ye who enter in!"
These words in sombre colour I beheld
Written upon the summit of a gate;
Whence I: "Their sense is, Master, hard to me!"
And he to me, as one experienced:
"Here all suspicion needs must be abandoned,
All cowardice must needs be here extinct.
We to the place have come, where I have told thee
Thou shalt behold the people dolorous
Who have foregone the good of intellect."
And after he had laid his hand on mine
With joyful mien, whence I was comforted,
He led me in among the secret things.
There sighs, complaints, and ululations loud
Resounded through the air without a star,
Whence I, at the beginning, wept thereat.
Languages diverse, horrible dialects,
Accents of anger, words of agony,
And voices high and hoarse, with sound of hands,
Made up a tumult that goes whirling on
For ever in that air for ever black,
Even as the sand doth, when the whirlwind breathes.
And I, who had my head with horror bound,
Said: "Master, what is this which now I hear?
What folk is this, which seems by pain so vanquished?"
And he to me: "This miserable mode
Maintain the melancholy souls of those
Who lived withouten infamy or praise.
Commingled are they with that caitiff choir
Of Angels, who have not rebellious been,
Nor faithful were to God, but were for self.
The heavens expelled them, not to be less fair;
Nor them the nethermore abyss receives,
For glory none the damned would have from them."
And I: "O Master, what so grievous is
To these, that maketh them lament so sore?"
He answered: "I will tell thee very briefly.
These have no longer any hope of death;
And this blind life of theirs is so debased,
They envious are of every other fate.
No fame of them the world permits to be;
Misericord and Justice both disdain them.
Let us not speak of them, but look, and pass."
And I, who looked again, beheld a banner,
Which, whirling round, ran on so rapidly,
That of all pause it seemed to me indignant;
And after it there came so long a train
Of people, that I ne'er would have believed
That ever Death so many had undone.
When some among them I had recognised,
I looked, and I beheld the shade of him
Who made through cowardice the great refusal.
Forthwith I comprehended, and was certain,
That this the sect was of the caitiff wretches
Hateful to God and to his enemies.
These miscreants, who never were alive,
Were naked, and were stung exceedingly
By gadflies and by hornets that were there.
These did their faces irrigate with blood,
Which, with their tears commingled, at their feet
By the disgusting worms was gathered up.
And when to gazing farther I betook me.
People I saw on a great river's bank;
Whence said I: "Master, now vouchsafe to me,
That I may know who these are, and what law
Makes them appear so ready to pass over,
As I discern athwart the dusky light."
And he to me: "These things shall all be known
To thee, as soon as we our footsteps stay
Upon the dismal shore of Acheron."
Then with mine eyes ashamed and downward cast,
Fearing my words might irksome be to him,
From speech refrained I till we reached the river.
And lo! towards us coming in a boat
An old man, hoary with the hair of eld,
Crying: "Woe unto you, ye souls depraved!
Hope nevermore to look upon the heavens;
I come to lead you to the other shore,
To the eternal shades in heat and frost.
And thou, that yonder standest, living soul,
Withdraw thee from these people, who are dead!"
But when he saw that I did not withdraw,
He said: "By other ways, by other ports
Thou to the shore shalt come, not here, for passage;
A lighter vessel needs must carry thee."
And unto him the Guide: "Vex thee not, Charon;
It is so willed there where is power to do
That which is willed; and farther question not."
Thereat were quieted the fleecy cheeks
Of him the ferryman of the livid fen,
Who round about his eyes had wheels of flame.
But all those souls who weary were and naked
Their colour changed and gnashed their teeth together,
As soon as they had heard those cruel words.
God they blasphemed and their progenitors,
The human race, the place, the time, the seed
Of their engendering and of their birth!
Thereafter all together they drew back,
Bitterly weeping, to the accursed shore,
Which waiteth every man who fears not God.
Charon the demon, with the eyes of glede,
Beckoning to them, collects them all together,
Beats with his oar whoever lags behind.
As in the autumn-time the leaves fall off,
First one and then another, till the branch
Unto the earth surrenders all its spoils;
In similar wise the evil seed of Adam
Throw themselves from that margin one by one,
At signals, as a bird unto its lure.
So they depart across the dusky wave,
And ere upon the other side they land,
Again on this side a new troop assembles.
"My son," the courteous Master said to me,
"All those who perish in the wrath of God
Here meet together out of every land;
And ready are they to pass o'er the river,
Because celestial Justice spurs them on,
So that their fear is turned into desire.
This way there never passes a good soul;
And hence if Charon doth complain of thee,
Well mayst thou know now what his speech imports."
This being finished, all the dusk champaign
Trembled so violently, that of that terror
The recollection bathes me still with sweat.
The land of tears gave forth a blast of wind,
And fulminated a vermilion light,
Which overmastered in me every sense,
And as a man whom sleep hath seized I fell.


Last modified on 04/09/12 22:09
        

#7  Re: 【读诗】 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
我每天午饭时间就读这个了。相关的音乐作品,除了两个最著名的作品,其它的我真要想想。


云天 wrote: (4/8/2012 1:47)
wow, E教的书架全盘西化啊,而且都是 hardcover books, 绝对贵族。
而我的书多是很奇谱的paperbacks. 百分百劳动人民本色。

被你说对了,像莎士比亚,奥德赛,欧洲史就是中学必读。
为了陪老大读,愚云有的莎剧读了两三遍。前段读二战,这几天冷战。被迫读书,原来也很enjoyable.

《神曲》一百篇,一天一篇。贴完之后还有 quiz 哦。 各位别偷懒哦。
如果考砸,罚贴与但丁相关的绘画音乐。

--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*
自得其乐
        

#8  Re: 【读诗】 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
E教在读啊,那我接着贴。:-)
第四首中译本有好几处别字要改,会花点时间。第一首校正过。 第二/三记得也有别字,明天再改。
明天要早起,另两线明天再聊。 :-)

音乐作品,E教慢慢贴。先谢。
        

#9  Re: 【读诗】 但丁的《神曲》。中译黄文捷;英译 Longfellow 朗费罗             Go Back
第四首

林 勃(1-63)
古代名诗人(64-105)
伟大灵魂的城堡(106-151)

林勃

一声低闷的巨响冲破我头脑中的沉沉睡意,
我倏然从昏厥中苏醒,
犹如一个人猛然从睡梦中震惊。
我睁开眼睛,四下环视了一番,
我站起身来,定睛观看,
想弄清自己究竟来到什么地带。
我果真是来到了岸边,
但那是痛苦深渊的山谷边缘,
那深渊收拢着响声震天的无穷抱怨。
这山谷是如此黑暗,如此深沉,如此雾气腾腾,
尽管我注目凝视那谷底,
却什么东西也看不清。
“现在,让我们下到那里沉沉的世界”,
诗人的脸色顿时变得煞白,
他说,“我在前面走,你跟在后面。”
我一眼看出他面色骤变,
便说:“你总是给我的恐惧以慰藉,
既然你也害怕,我又怎能前去?”
于是他对我说:“是呆在下面的那些人受苦受刑,
令我的面容显出恻隐之情,
而你却把这心情当成惊恐。
我们走罢,因为漫长的道路不容我们稍停。”
这样,他开始动身,并让我跟着走进
那环绕深渊的第一层。
这里,从送入耳际的声音来看,
没有别的,只有长吁短叹,
这叹声使流动在这永劫之地的空气也不住抖颤。
这声音发自那些并未受到酷刑折磨的人的痛苦,
他们人数众多,排成一行行队伍,
其中有男人,也有妇孺。
和善的老师对我说:“你不曾询问:
你看到的这些是什么样的鬼魂?
现在我想让你在走开之前得知:
他们并无罪过;但即使他们有功德也无济于事,
因为他们不曾受过洗礼,
而洗礼正是你所虔信的那个宗教的入门。
因为他们先于基督教而出生,
他们无法对上帝做应有的崇敬,
我本人也归属到这些人当中。
正因为这些缺陷,而并非由于其他罪孽,
我们才遭劫,也仅仅为此而遭惩处,
这使我们生活在无望中,心愿永远得不到满足。”
我听他这样说,心中感到一阵巨大痛楚,
因此,我知道:在这林勃之中,
也有一些功德无量的人悬在半空。
“请告诉我,我的老师,请告诉我,救主”,
我开言道,为的是希望确信:
我的这个信念不致有任何错误。
“难道就不曾有人离开这里,
去享天国之福,不论是靠自己、还是靠别人的功绩?
老师明白我的暧昧话语,
就答道:“过去,我新到此地,
曾看到有一个威力无比的人光临这里,
像是有一顶胜利的王冠戴在他的头顶。
他从这里救出了许多人的亡魂:
其中有:第一个为父之人,他的儿子亚伯,
挪西和摩西——这位服从上帝意旨的立法者;
族长亚伯兰和国王大卫,
以色列及其父,还有他的儿子们,
以及拉结——他为她曾效劳多年;
还有许许多多其他人,这个威力无比的人都让他们得福升天。
我想让你知道:在他们之前,
人类的灵魂无一得到幸免。

古代名诗人

我们一直不曾停步,因为他仍在讲述,
但我们还是穿过这森林
——我说的是:那密密层层宛如森林的一群鬼魂。
从这第一圈的边沿到顶端,
我们要走的路并不算长,我这时看见:
有一片火光照亮了周围地带的一半黑暗。
我距离那火光仍有些远,
但是已相当邻近,以致我多少能发现:
有一些道貌岸然的人站在那边。
“啊!你这位为科学和艺术增光的大师啊!
这些如此荣耀光彩的人究竟是谁?
他们竟享有与其他不同的地位!”
大师对我说:“他们的显赫声名
曾在你的生活中四下传播,
因而也得到上天赋予的恩泽。”
这时,我听到有一个声音:
“大家来向这位至高无上的诗人致敬:
他的灵魂曾离开此地,如今又回到这里。”
接着,这声音停下不响,带来一片寂静,
我看见有四个伟大的灵魂向我们走来:
他们的面容既不欢喜也不悲哀。
好心的老师开言道:
“你瞧那边那个掌剑在手的人,
他走在其他三人前面,像位陛下,
他就是诗人之王荷马;
另一位随之而来的是讽刺诗人贺拉斯,
第三位是奥维德,最后一位则是卢卡努斯。
因为他们与我一样都有诗人的称号,
只须有一个声音就足以呼出众人的头衔,
他们做得真好,这令我感到光彩体面。”
这样,我看到这位唱出无限崇高的诗歌的诗王
荟集了一批美好的精英,
而他则超越众人,宛如雄鹰凌空。
他们聚在一起,畅谈良久,
然后转过身来向我致意颔首,
我的老师也微笑频频:
这使我感到更加光荣,
因为他们把我也纳入他们行列当中,
我竟成为这些如此名震遐迩的智者中的第六名。
这样,我们一直走到火光闪烁之处,
以便谈论着现在最好不必细谈的事情,
因为这些事情该在适合谈论的地方谈论。

伟大灵魂的城堡

我们来到一座高贵的城堡脚下,
有七层高墙把它环绕,
周围还有美丽的护城小河一道。
我们越过这道护城小河如履平地;
我随同这几位智者通过七道城门进到城里:
我们来到一片嫩绿的草地。
那里有一些人目光庄重而舒缓,
相貌堂堂,神色威严,
声音温和,甚少言谈。
我们站到一个角落,
那个地方居高临下,明亮而开阔,
从那里可以把所有的人尽收眼底。
我挺直身子,立在那里,
眼见那些伟大的灵魂聚集在碧绿的草地,
我为能目睹这些伟人而激动不已。
我看到厄列克特拉与许多同伴在一起,
其中我认出了赫克托尔和埃涅阿斯,
还认出那全副武装、生就一双鹰眼的凯撒,
我看到卡密拉和潘塔希莱亚
在另一边,我看到国王拉蒂努斯,
他正与他的女儿拉维妮亚坐在一起。
我看到那赶走塔尔昆纽斯的布鲁图斯,
看到路克蕾齐亚,朱丽亚,玛尔齐娅和科尔妮丽亚,
我看到萨拉丁独自一人,呆在一旁。
接着我稍微抬起眼眉仰望,
我看见了那位大师,
他正与弟子们在哲学大家庭中端坐。
大家都对他十分仰慕,敬重备至,
在这里,我见到苏格拉底和柏拉图,
他们两位比其他人更靠进这位大师;
我看见德谟克里特——他曾认为世界产生于偶然,
我看见狄奥尼索斯,阿那克萨哥拉和泰利斯,
恩佩多克勒斯,赫拉克利特和芝诺;
我还看见那位出色的药草采集者
——我说的是狄奥斯科利德;
我看到奥尔甫斯,图留斯,黎努斯和道德学家塞内加,
我看到几何学家欧几里得,还有托勒密,
希波革拉底,阿维森纳和嘉伦,
以及做过伟大评注的阿威罗厄斯。
我无法把他们一一列举,
因为我急于要谈的问题是那么繁多,
我往往不得不长话短说。
这时六位哲人分为两批:
明智的引路人把我带上另一条路径,
走出那静谧的氛围,进入那颤抖的空气,
我来到一个地方,那里看不见一线光明



Inferno: Canto IV

Broke the deep lethargy within my head
A heavy thunder, so that I upstarted,
Like to a person who by force is wakened;
And round about I moved my rested eyes,
Uprisen erect, and steadfastly I gazed,
To recognise the place wherein I was.
True is it, that upon the verge I found me
Of the abysmal valley dolorous,
That gathers thunder of infinite ululations.
Obscure, profound it was, and nebulous,
So that by fixing on its depths my sight
Nothing whatever I discerned therein.
"Let us descend now into the blind world,"
Began the Poet, pallid utterly;
"I will be first, and thou shalt second be."
And I, who of his colour was aware,
Said: "How shall I come, if thou art afraid,
Who'rt wont to be a comfort to my fears?"
And he to me: "The anguish of the people
Who are below here in my face depicts
That pity which for terror thou hast taken.
Let us go on, for the long way impels us."
Thus he went in, and thus he made me enter
The foremost circle that surrounds the abyss.
There, as it seemed to me from listening,
Were lamentations none, but only sighs,
That tremble made the everlasting air.
And this arose from sorrow without torment,
Which the crowds had, that many were and great,
Of infants and of women and of men.
To me the Master good: "Thou dost not ask
What spirits these, which thou beholdest, are?
Now will I have thee know, ere thou go farther,
That they sinned not; and if they merit had,
'Tis not enough, because they had not baptism
Which is the portal of the Faith thou holdest;
And if they were before Christianity,
In the right manner they adored not God;
And among such as these am I myself.
For such defects, and not for other guilt,
Lost are we and are only so far punished,
That without hope we live on in desire."
Great grief seized on my heart when this I heard,
Because some people of much worthiness
I knew, who in that Limbo were suspended.
"Tell me, my Master, tell me, thou my Lord,"
Began I, with desire of being certain
Of that Faith which o'ercometh every error,
"Came any one by his own merit hence,
Or by another's, who was blessed thereafter?"
And he, who understood my covert speech,
Replied: "I was a novice in this state,
When I saw hither come a Mighty One,
With sign of victory incoronate.
Hence he drew forth the shade of the First Parent,
And that of his son Abel, and of Noah,
Of Moses the lawgiver, and the obedient
Abraham, patriarch, and David, king,
Israel with his father and his children,
And Rachel, for whose sake he did so much,
And others many, and he made them blessed;
And thou must know, that earlier than these
Never were any human spirits saved."
We ceased not to advance because he spake,
But still were passing onward through the forest,
The forest, say I, of thick-crowded ghosts.
Not very far as yet our way had gone
This side the summit, when I saw a fire
That overcame a hemisphere of darkness.
We were a little distant from it still,
But not so far that I in part discerned not
That honourable people held that place.
"O thou who honourest every art and science,
Who may these be, which such great honour have,
That from the fashion of the rest it parts them?"
And he to me: "The honourable name,
That sounds of them above there in thy life,
Wins grace in Heaven, that so advances them."
In the mean time a voice was heard by me:
"All honour be to the pre-eminent Poet;
His shade returns again, that was departed."
After the voice had ceased and quiet was,
Four mighty shades I saw approaching us;
Semblance had they nor sorrowful nor glad.
To say to me began my gracious Master:
"Him with that falchion in his hand behold,
Who comes before the three, even as their lord.
That one is Homer, Poet sovereign;
He who comes next is Horace, the satirist;
The third is Ovid, and the last is Lucan.
Because to each of these with me applies
The name that solitary voice proclaimed,
They do me honour, and in that do well."
Thus I beheld assemble the fair school
Of that lord of the song pre-eminent,
Who o'er the others like an eagle soars.
When they together had discoursed somewhat,
They turned to me with signs of salutation,
And on beholding this, my Master smiled;
And more of honour still, much more, they did me,
In that they made me one of their own band;
So that the sixth was I, 'mid so much wit.
Thus we went on as far as to the light,
Things saying 'tis becoming to keep silent,
As was the saying of them where I was.
We came unto a noble castle's foot,
Seven times encompassed with lofty walls,
Defended round by a fair rivulet;
This we passed over even as firm ground;
Through portals seven I entered with these Sages;
We came into a meadow of fresh verdure.
People were there with solemn eyes and slow,
Of great authority in their countenance;
They spake but seldom, and with gentle voices.
Thus we withdrew ourselves upon one side
Into an opening luminous and lofty,
So that they all of them were visible.
There opposite, upon the green enamel,
Were pointed out to me the mighty spirits,
Whom to have seen I feel myself exalted.
I saw Electra with companions many,
'Mongst whom I knew both Hector and Aeneas,
Caesar in armour with gerfalcon eyes;
I saw Camilla and Penthesilea
On the other side, and saw the King Latinus,
Who with Lavinia his daughter sat;
I saw that Brutus who drove Tarquin forth,
Lucretia, Julia, Marcia, and Cornelia,
And saw alone, apart, the Saladin.
When I had lifted up my brows a little,
The Master I beheld of those who know,
Sit with his philosophic family.
All gaze upon him, and all do him honour.
There I beheld both Socrates and Plato,
Who nearer him before the others stand;
Democritus, who puts the world on chance,
Diogenes, Anaxagoras, and Thales,
Zeno, Empedocles, and Heraclitus;
Of qualities I saw the good collector,
Hight Dioscorides; and Orpheus saw I,
Tully and Livy, and moral Seneca,
Euclid, geometrician, and Ptolemy,
Galen, Hippocrates, and Avicenna,
Averroes, who the great Comment made.
I cannot all of them pourtray in full,
Because so drives me onward the long theme,
That many times the word comes short of fact.
The sixfold company in two divides;
Another way my sapient Guide conducts me
Forth from the quiet to the air that trembles;
And to a place I come where nothing shines.
        

#10  《地狱篇》 第五首 / Inferno: Canto V             Go Back
第五首

第二环,米诺斯(1-24)
淫欲者(25-72)
佛兰切丝卡·达·里米尼(73-142)

第二环,米诺斯

我就是这样从第一环下到第二环,
但第二环所占的地方要比第一环小,
而它所包含的痛苦却大得多,到处都是凄声惨叫。
坐镇那里的是米诺斯,他狰狞可怖,切齿咆哮,
他在进口处审查鬼魂们的罪行;
逐个做出判决,依照尾巴缠绕身上的圈数来遣送鬼魂。
我要说的是:一个生来不幸的亡魂,
一旦来到他眼前,就须向他交待自己的全部罪行:
他对亡魂在人世所犯罪孽了解之后,
就考虑把亡魂打入地狱的哪一层;
他把尾巴绕上若干圈,
这表明他要把亡魂放到哪一环。
他面前总是站立着许多亡魂,
每个亡魂都要轮流受他审问,
他们交待罪行,听候审判,然后下到若干层。
“啊!你这个来到受苦之地的人”,
米诺斯一见我就开口道,
他把如此重要的职务暂搁一边,
“你瞧瞧,你是怎样进来的,你信任的是什么人,
你不要以为进口处如此宽阔,可以随便出进!”
我的老师于是对他说:“你为何叫个不停?
不准你阻挡上天安排他到此一行:
是那能够做到随心所欲的地方做出这个决定,
你不可再多问。”

淫欲者

这时,我开始听到那些惨痛的呼声;
这时,我来到哭声震天之境,
这哭声令我心酸难忍。
我来到连光线也变得喑哑的地方,
那里传出阵阵轰隆浪涛声,仿佛大海在暴风雨中,
吹打这大海的正是那逆向的顶头风。
地狱里的狂飙始终吹个不停,
它那狂暴的力量把鬼魂吹得东飘西荡;
鬼魂随风上下旋转,左右翻腾,苦不堪言。
他们被吹撞断壁残岩,
他们惨叫,哀号,怨声不断;
他们在这里诅咒神明的威力。
我恍然大悟:正是那些肉欲横流的幽灵
在此经受如此痛苦的酷刑,
因为他们放纵情欲,丧失理性。
正像紫翅 鸟的双翼
把它们一群群带入寒风冷气,
那狂风也同样使这些邪恶的阴魂
上下左右不住翻腾;
他们永远不能抱有任何希望:
哪怕只是希望少受痛苦折腾,而不是停下不飞。
正像空中排成长列的大雁,
不住发出凄惨的悲鸣,
我所目睹的这些凄厉叫苦的幽魂
也同样被那狂风吹个不停;
因此,我说道:“老师,这些是什么人?
他们被那昏暗的气流折腾得如此惨痛!”
“你想知道这些人的情况”,
我的老师于是对我说,
“其中第一个就是那位统治多国人民的女皇。
她是如此糜烂荒淫,
甚至她的法律也定得投其所好,
以免世人唾骂她的秽行。
她就是塞米拉密斯,观看史书,
可知她是尼诺之妻,还继承了他的王位,
她当时掌管的疆土就是苏丹今天统辖的国度。
另一个女人是为了爱情而自寻短见,
她毁弃了忠于希凯斯骨灰的誓言;
接踵而来的则是淫妇克丽奥帕特拉。
你看,那是海伦,为了她,
多少悲惨的岁月流逝过去;你再看伟大的阿奇琉斯,
为了她,他一直战斗到死。
你看,那是帕里斯,还有特里斯丹”;
老师向我指点一千多个阴魂,一一叫出他们的姓氏,
正是爱情使他们离开了人世。
由于我听到我的老师说出
这些古代贵妇和骑士的姓名,
怜悯之情顿时抓住我的心灵,

佛兰切丝卡·达·里米尼

我几乎晕倒过去,开始说:“诗人!
我真想跟那一对比翼双飞的人谈一谈,
他们随风飘荡,似乎身轻如燕。”
他于是告诉我:“你可以看一看,
他们何时靠我们更近,你就以支配他们行动的爱情名义,
请求他们,他们一定会飞过来的。”
当大风把他们吹到我们身边时,
我立即喊道:“啊!备受折磨的幽魂啊!
倘若别人不反对,请到我们这边来叙谈一下!”
犹如两只被情欲召来的鸽子,
心甘情愿地展翅翱翔天际,
随后飞回到甜蜜的窝里;
这一对脱离了狄多所在的那个行列,
透过那黝暗的气流飞到我面前,
随之而来的一声呼叫是如此响亮而亲切。
“啊!慈悲而和善的灵魂!
你在昏天黑地中游荡,
来拜访我们这用鲜血染红世界的一双,
如果宇宙之王对你友好,
我们愿求他保佑你平安无恙,
因为你对我们的邪恶之罪抱有恻隐心肠。
你们喜欢听什么,谈什么,
只要狂风像现在这样减弱,
我们都会与你们攀谈,向你们诉说。
我诞生的那片土地坐落在海滨,
波河及其支流倾泻入海,
随即变得平波如镜。
是爱迅速启示我那高贵的心灵,
使我得知他爱上那美丽的身躯,
但这身躯却被人无情夺去,至今我为此仍不胜欷歔。
是爱不能原谅心爱的人不以爱相报,
他的英俊令我神魂颠倒,
你可以看出,至今这爱仍未把我轻抛。
是爱使我们双双丧命。
该隐环正在等待那杀害我们的人。”
他们把这些话语讲给我们听。
听罢这双受害幽魂的诉说,
我不由得把头低低垂落,
这时,诗人对我说:“你在想什么?”
我答道:“唉!多么缠绵的情思,
多么炽烈的欲火,
这使他们犯下惨痛的罪过!”
接着我又转向他们,开言道:
“佛兰切丝卡,你的不幸遭遇
令我伤心怜惜,泪流如注。
但是,请告诉我:当初发出甜蜜的叹息时,
爱是用什么办法,又是以怎样的方式,
使你们洞悉那难以捉摸的情欲?”
她于是对我说:“没有比在凄惨的境遇之中
回忆幸福的时光更大的痛苦;
你的老师对此是一清二楚。
但是,既然你如此热切地想知道
我们相爱的最初根苗,
我就说出来,那个正在哭泣的人儿也会直言奉告。
有一天,我们一道阅读朗斯洛消遣,
我们看到他如何被爱所纠缠;
当时只有我们二人,而我们也并无任何疑虑之感。
我们一起阅读这部著作,
这使我们情不自禁多次含情相望,面容也为之失色;
但是,其中只有一段令我们无法解脱。
就在我们阅读时,那被他渴求的、嫣然含笑的嘴唇
终于得到这如此难得的情人的亲吻,
正是此人,我与他永远不会离分,
他的嘴亲吻我,浑身抖个不停。
这本书和书的作者就是加列奥托:
那一天,我们再也读不下去了。”
一个幽魂则在不住哀啼;这使我不胜怜惜,
我蓦地不省人事,如同突然断气。
我晕倒在地,好像一具倒下的尸体。


Inferno: Canto V

Thus I descended out of the first circle
Down to the second, that less space begirds,
And so much greater dole, that goads to wailing.
There standeth Minos horribly, and snarls;
Examines the transgressions at the entrance;
Judges, and sends according as he girds him.
I say, that when the spirit evil-born
Cometh before him, wholly it confesses;
And this discriminator of transgressions
Seeth what place in Hell is meet for it;
Girds himself with his tail as many times
As grades he wishes it should be thrust down.
Always before him many of them stand;
They go by turns each one unto the judgment;
They speak, and hear, and then are downward hurled.
"O thou, that to this dolorous hostelry
Comest," said Minos to me, when he saw me,
Leaving the practice of so great an office,
"Look how thou enterest, and in whom thou trustest;
Let not the portal's amplitude deceive thee."
And unto him my Guide: "Why criest thou too?
Do not impede his journey fate-ordained;
It is so willed there where is power to do
That which is willed; and ask no further question."
And now begin the dolesome notes to grow
Audible unto me; now am I come
There where much lamentation strikes upon me.
I came into a place mute of all light,
Which bellows as the sea does in a tempest,
If by opposing winds 't is combated.
The infernal hurricane that never rests
Hurtles the spirits onward in its rapine;
Whirling them round, and smiting, it molests them.
When they arrive before the precipice,
There are the shrieks, the plaints, and the laments,
There they blaspheme the puissance divine.
I understood that unto such a torment
The carnal malefactors were condemned,
Who reason subjugate to appetite.
And as the wings of starlings bear them on
In the cold season in large band and full,
So doth that blast the spirits maledict;
It hither, thither, downward, upward, drives them;
No hope doth comfort them for evermore,
Not of repose, but even of lesser pain.
And as the cranes go chanting forth their lays,
Making in air a long line of themselves,
So saw I coming, uttering lamentations,
Shadows borne onward by the aforesaid stress.
Whereupon said I: "Master, who are those
People, whom the black air so castigates?"
"The first of those, of whom intelligence
Thou fain wouldst have," then said he unto me,
"The empress was of many languages.
To sensual vices she was so abandoned,
That lustful she made licit in her law,
To remove the blame to which she had been led.
She is Semiramis, of whom we read
That she succeeded Ninus, and was his spouse;
She held the land which now the Sultan rules.
The next is she who killed herself for love,
And broke faith with the ashes of Sichaeus;
Then Cleopatra the voluptuous."
Helen I saw, for whom so many ruthless
Seasons revolved; and saw the great Achilles,
Who at the last hour combated with Love.
Paris I saw, Tristan; and more than a thousand
Shades did he name and point out with his finger,
Whom Love had separated from our life.
After that I had listened to my Teacher,
Naming the dames of eld and cavaliers,
Pity prevailed, and I was nigh bewildered.
And I began: "O Poet, willingly
Speak would I to those two, who go together,
And seem upon the wind to be so light."
And, he to me: "Thou'lt mark, when they shall be
Nearer to us; and then do thou implore them
By love which leadeth them, and they will come."
Soon as the wind in our direction sways them,
My voice uplift I: "O ye weary souls!
Come speak to us, if no one interdicts it."
As turtle-doves, called onward by desire,
With open and steady wings to the sweet nest
Fly through the air by their volition borne,
So came they from the band where Dido is,
Approaching us athwart the air malign,
So strong was the affectionate appeal.
"O living creature gracious and benignant,
Who visiting goest through the purple air
Us, who have stained the world incarnadine,
If were the King of the Universe our friend,
We would pray unto him to give thee peace,
Since thou hast pity on our woe perverse.
Of what it pleases thee to hear and speak,
That will we hear, and we will speak to you,
While silent is the wind, as it is now.
Sitteth the city, wherein I was born,
Upon the sea-shore where the Po descends
To rest in peace with all his retinue.
Love, that on gentle heart doth swiftly seize,
Seized this man for the person beautiful
That was ta'en from me, and still the mode offends me.
Love, that exempts no one beloved from loving,
Seized me with pleasure of this man so strongly,
That, as thou seest, it doth not yet desert me;
Love has conducted us unto one death;
Caina waiteth him who quenched our life!"
These words were borne along from them to us.
As soon as I had heard those souls tormented,
I bowed my face, and so long held it down
Until the Poet said to me: "What thinkest?"
When I made answer, I began: "Alas!
How many pleasant thoughts, how much desire,
Conducted these unto the dolorous pass!"
Then unto them I turned me, and I spake,
And I began: "Thine agonies, Francesca,
Sad and compassionate to weeping make me.
But tell me, at the time of those sweet sighs,
By what and in what manner Love conceded,
That you should know your dubious desires?"
And she to me: "There is no greater sorrow
Than to be mindful of the happy time
In misery, and that thy Teacher knows.
But, if to recognise the earliest root
Of love in us thou hast so great desire,
I will do even as he who weeps and speaks.
One day we reading were for our delight
Of Launcelot, how Love did him enthral.
Alone we were and without any fear.
Full many a time our eyes together drew
That reading, and drove the colour from our faces;
But one point only was it that o'ercame us.
When as we read of the much-longed-for smile
Being by such a noble lover kissed,
This one, who ne'er from me shall be divided,
Kissed me upon the mouth all palpitating.
Galeotto was the book and he who wrote it.
That day no farther did we read therein."
And all the while one spirit uttered this,
The other one did weep so, that, for pity,
I swooned away as if I had been dying,
And fell, even as a dead body falls.
        

#11  Re: 《地狱篇》 第五首 / Inferno: Canto V             Go Back
柴科夫斯基交响幻想曲《佛兰切丝卡·达·里米尼》





--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*
自得其乐
        

#12  Re: 《地狱篇》 第五首 / Inferno: Canto V             Go Back
这首中还有我熟悉的警句:



云天 wrote: (4/9/2012 22:37)
第五首


。。。没有比在凄惨的境遇之中
回忆幸福的时光更大的痛苦;
。。。

--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*--*
自得其乐
        

#13  Re: 《地狱篇》 第五首 / Inferno: Canto V             Go Back
这句真的让人凝眸。

"There is no greater sorrow than to be mindful of the happy time in misery."

多谢E教的音乐,另开线了。 :-)



BBB wrote: (4/9/2012 21:59)
这首中还有我熟悉的警句:

。没有比在凄惨的境遇之中
回忆幸福的时光更大的痛苦;


        

#15  Re: 《地狱篇》 第五首 / Inferno: Canto V             Go Back
第六首

贪食者与刻尔勃路斯(1-33)
恰科及其预言(34-93)
最后审判后的受苦亡魂(94-115)

贪食者与刻尔勃路斯

我已经恢复了神志,
这神志在我因为怜悯那一对叔嫂
而伤心过度时,曾一度丧失。
此刻,我移动、翻转我的身躯,
朝四下凝眸环顾,
我看到新的苦刑在折磨,新的一批人在受苦。
我来到了第三环,
那诅咒的永恒的苦雨冷凄凄,
不停地下,又下得那么急,还有纷飞的雪花,
在浓黑的空气中倾盆泼下,
泼在那大地上,恶臭到处散发。
刻尔勃路斯,那凶残而怪异的猛兽,
它有三个咽喉,
朝着那些沉沦此地的人狗吠似地狂吼。
它有血红的眼睛,油污而黝黑的胡须,
肚皮很大,手上长着尖锐的指甲;
他猛抓住那些鬼魂,剥他们的皮,把他们撕碎。
雨雪也使鬼魂们如狗一般嚎叫不止。
这些悲惨的受苦亡魂不断地转来转去,
用这边的身躯遮蔽那边的身躯。
刻尔勃路斯这条大蛆虫,一见我们
便大张三张血口,向我们龇出他那满嘴獠牙;
他那四肢无一能够停下。
我的老师伸出他的双手,
抓起泥土,满把攥成泥球,
投入那些贪婪的大口。
如同一条饿狗狂吠不停,
只是在咬住食物时才变得安静,
因为它要使出力气,把食物一口吞进,
魔鬼刻尔勃路斯的三副丑恶嘴脸,此刻也是这样平静下来,
但他仍在朝着鬼魂们吼叫不止,
闹得鬼魂们真想变成聋子。

恰科及其预言

我们从这凄风苦雨击打着的幽魂中通过,
用脚践踏着他们的身体,
而这些身体却空荡缥缈,形同虚设。
幽魂全部在地上躺倒,
除了有一个,一见我们从他面前走过,
就迅速直起身来,席地而坐。
“啊!你这个人被领到地狱一行”,
他对我说:“认一认我吧,如果你能:
你是在我去世之前降生。”
我随即对他讲:“你如今遭受苦刑,
这也许令我的头脑无法将你记清,
我似乎从未见过你的形影。
不过,请告诉我你是何人,
竟落到如此痛苦的田地,受此苦刑,
哪怕其他苦刑比这更甚,也绝不会令人如此伤情。”
他对我说:“你的城市遍地都是嫉妒,
在我活在那明朗的人世时,
它就已经是恶贯满盈。
你们的市民都曾叫我恰科:
因为我犯下贪图美食之罪,十恶不赦,
正如你所看到的,我如今受尽雨雪折磨。
像我这样悲惨的灵魂,并非只有一个,
因为所有的灵魂犯下类似的罪过,
都要受同样的酷刑折磨。”
别的话他不再多说。
我回答他:“恰科,你所受的煎熬令我心疼,
我泪流如注,情不自禁,
不过,请告诉我,如果你能,
这灾难深重的城市的市民,将会落到怎样的光景;
那里是否还有正直的人,请告诉我原因:
为何这个城市被如此严重的不和所围困。”
他回答我:“经过长期紧张对立之后,
将会发生流血争斗,
那村野的一方将会驱逐另外一方,并使它屈辱蒙羞。
然后,再过三载,
那村野的一方也要倒台,
另一方则会借助那个左右逢源的人之力上台。
它将长期称霸这个城市,
使另一方备受欺凌压迫,
尽管另一方为此而怨言载道,怒不可遏。
有两位为人公正,却无人听从他们;
嫉妒、贪婪、骄横,
正是燃烧人们心灵的三个火星。”
说到这里,他中止了那如泣如诉的声音。
我于是对他说:“我还想向你求救,
请再费心向我多谈一些事情。
法里纳塔和泰加尤,这两位曾是如此尊敬的人,
雅可波·鲁斯蒂库齐、阿里哥和莫斯卡,
以及其他那些把才能用于善行的人,
请告诉我他们现在哪里,请让我见一见他们;
因为我抱有炽烈的渴望,想知道:
他们是得到上天之福,还是遭受地狱之苦;“
”不同的罪过把他们打入底层:
你若能到很深的地方,你就可以见到他们。
但是,等你将来回到那甜美的世界里,
请你把我送入众人的脑际,
我现在不再跟你多说,我也不再答复你。”
这时,他把一双直视我的眼睛斜了过去,
他注视了我一会儿。随即低下头去,
像其他双目失明的鬼魂一样倒下,连头带身躯。

最后审判后的受苦亡魂

我的老师对我说:“他不会再苏醒,
除非传来天使的号角声,
那时节,众鬼魂敌视的权威将会驾临;
每个鬼魂将会重见自己的悲惨墓地,
重拾自己的肉身和形影,
将会聆听那永远震荡寰宇的判决声。”
我们通过那鬼魂和雨雪混在一起的地面,
迈着缓缓的步伐,
一边在略略谈及来世的生涯;
于是我说:“老师,在伟大的判决之后,
这些苦刑将会增加还是减少,
要么则是跟现在一样难熬?”
老师回答我:“你可以再读一读你的学说,
你的学说认为:事物越是完美,
就越会感到快乐和伤悲。
尽管这些该诅咒的人,
永远不会臻至真正的完美,
但他们在最后审判后要比在最后审判前更加指望变得尽善尽美。”
我团团绕着这条道路行走,
谈论着许多问题,我现在不再多说;
我们来到那向下倾斜的陡坡:
正是在这里,我们遇到人类之大敌——普鲁托。


Inferno: Canto VI

At the return of consciousness, that closed
Before the pity of those two relations,
Which utterly with sadness had confused me,
New torments I behold, and new tormented
Around me, whichsoever way I move,
And whichsoever way I turn, and gaze.
In the third circle am I of the rain
Eternal, maledict, and cold, and heavy;
Its law and quality are never new.
Huge hail, and water sombre-hued, and snow,
Athwart the tenebrous air pour down amain;
Noisome the earth is, that receiveth this.
Cerberus, monster cruel and uncouth,
With his three gullets like a dog is barking
Over the people that are there submerged.
Red eyes he has, and unctuous beard and black,
And belly large, and armed with claws his hands;
He rends the spirits, flays, and quarters them.
Howl the rain maketh them like unto dogs;
One side they make a shelter for the other;
Oft turn themselves the wretched reprobates.
When Cerberus perceived us, the great worm!
His mouths he opened, and displayed his tusks;
Not a limb had he that was motionless.
And my Conductor, with his spans extended,
Took of the earth, and with his fists well filled,
He threw it into those rapacious gullets.
Such as that dog is, who by barking craves,
And quiet grows soon as his food he gnaws,
For to devour it he but thinks and struggles,
The like became those muzzles filth-begrimed
Of Cerberus the demon, who so thunders
Over the souls that they would fain be deaf.
We passed across the shadows, which subdues
The heavy rain-storm, and we placed our feet
Upon their vanity that person seems.
They all were lying prone upon the earth,
Excepting one, who sat upright as soon
As he beheld us passing on before him.
"O thou that art conducted through this Hell,"
He said to me, "recall me, if thou canst;
Thyself wast made before I was unmade."
And I to him: "The anguish which thou hast
Perhaps doth draw thee out of my remembrance,
So that it seems not I have ever seen thee.
But tell me who thou art, that in so doleful
A place art put, and in such punishment,
If some are greater, none is so displeasing."
And he to me: "Thy city, which is full
Of envy so that now the sack runs over,
Held me within it in the life serene.
You citizens were wont to call me Ciacco;
For the pernicious sin of gluttony
I, as thou seest, am battered by this rain.
And I, sad soul, am not the only one,
For all these suffer the like penalty
For the like sin;" and word no more spake he.
I answered him: "Ciacco, thy wretchedness
Weighs on me so that it to weep invites me;
But tell me, if thou knowest, to what shall come
The citizens of the divided city;
If any there be just; and the occasion
Tell me why so much discord has assailed it."
And he to me: "They, after long contention,
Will come to bloodshed; and the rustic party
Will drive the other out with much offence.
Then afterwards behoves it this one fall
Within three suns, and rise again the other
By force of him who now is on the coast.
High will it hold its forehead a long while,
Keeping the other under heavy burdens,
Howe'er it weeps thereat and is indignant.
The just are two, and are not understood there;
Envy and Arrogance and Avarice
Are the three sparks that have all hearts enkindled."
Here ended he his tearful utterance;
And I to him: "I wish thee still to teach me,
And make a gift to me of further speech.
Farinata and Tegghiaio, once so worthy,
Jacopo Rusticucci, Arrigo, and Mosca,
And others who on good deeds set their thoughts,
Say where they are, and cause that I may know them;
For great desire constraineth me to learn
If Heaven doth sweeten them, or Hell envenom."
And he: "They are among the blacker souls;
A different sin downweighs them to the bottom;
If thou so far descendest, thou canst see them.
But when thou art again in the sweet world,
I pray thee to the mind of others bring me;
No more I tell thee and no more I answer."
Then his straightforward eyes he turned askance,
Eyed me a little, and then bowed his head;
He fell therewith prone like the other blind.
And the Guide said to me: "He wakes no more
This side the sound of the angelic trumpet;
When shall approach the hostile Potentate,
Each one shall find again his dismal tomb,
Shall reassume his flesh and his own figure,
Shall hear what through eternity re-echoes."
So we passed onward o'er the filthy mixture
Of shadows and of rain with footsteps slow,
Touching a little on the future life.
Wherefore I said: "Master, these torments here,
Will they increase after the mighty sentence,
Or lesser be, or will they be as burning?"
And he to me: "Return unto thy science,
Which wills, that as the thing more perfect is,
The more it feels of pleasure and of pain.
Albeit that this people maledict
To true perfection never can attain,
Hereafter more than now they look to be."
Round in a circle by that road we went,
Speaking much more, which I do not repeat;
We came unto the point where the descent is;
There we found Plutus the great enemy.
        

#15  Re: 《地狱篇》 第七首 / Inferno: Canto VII             Go Back
第七首


普鲁托(1-15)
贪财者与挥霍者(16-66)
幸运女神(67-99)
斯提克斯沼泽:易怒者(100-130)

普鲁托

“帕佩 撒旦,帕佩 撒旦 阿莱佩!”
普鲁托用他那嘶哑刺耳的声音开言道;
那位高贵的哲人——他无事不晓——
为了给我壮胆,说道:
“但愿你的恐惧不要把你压倒;
不论他威力多大,也无法阻挡我们下到这断岩残崖。”
接着,他转身面向那怒气冲冲的嘴脸,
说道:“住口,你这该死的恶狼;
把你的怒火咽进你的胸膛。
来到这地狱深层不是没有原因:
是上天愿意这样决定,
因为米迦勒要惩办这嚣张的叛逆罪行。”
正如那鼓胀的船帆被风卷起,
随桅杆断裂而倒落下去,
这残暴的猛兽也正是这样扑倒在地。

贪财者与挥霍者

我们就这样下到第四个坑谷,
沿着那地狱的陡坡往下行进,
这里包拢了整个宇宙的恶行。
唉!上帝的正义啊!我看到
他聚拢的新的折磨和苦刑有多少?
为何我们的罪过竟使我们受到如此煎熬?
正如卡里迪漩涡区的浪潮
与另一股浪潮相遇,撞击在一起,
这里的人也不得不像这两股浪潮一样,绕着圆圈,撞来撞去。
我看见这里的人数比别的地方更多,
他们从一个方向和另一个方向大声吆喝,
用前胸的力量滚动着重物。
他们相互碰撞在一处,
就在那里,每个人又掉过头去,往回走,一面呼叫:
“你为何抱着不放?”“你为何任意乱抛?”
他们就是这样,绕着那幽暗的第四圈,
从这一边转到那一边,
再次相互叫骂着无穷尽的秽语脏言;
然后,他们又各自转回去,绕个半圈,
决斗在相反的地点。
我见此光景,几乎感到于心不忍,
我说:“我的老师,现在请指教我:
这些人是何许人,我们左边的这些削发者
是否都是神职人员。”
他对我说:“所有这些鬼魂
生前都是缺乏头脑的人,
他们不懂得适度地花销钱财。
每逢他们来到第四环的两个相撞地点,
他们那狗吠似的叫骂声就足以把问题说明,
因为在那里他们相互责骂的正是相反的罪行。
这些鬼魂没有头发遮盖头顶,
他们都是神职人员,有教皇和枢机主教,
他们爱财如命达到无以复加之境。”
我于是说:“老师,在这些人当中,
我想必能认出几个人,
他们曾犯下贪财挥霍的罪行。”
他回答我:“你的想法是枉费心机:
他们生前不分善恶,这曾使他们沾满罪恶泥污,
现在也使他们面目全非,令人辨认不出。
他们永远要来到这两个相遇点碰撞,
他们从坟墓中冒出:这边的人是紧握拳头,
那边的人则是毛发皆光。
挥霍无度和一毛不拔使他们不能荣升天堂,
他们总是要相互较量,
我不想用什么美好的言辞老描述他们如何对抗。
现在,孩子,你可以看出钱财对人们的短暂愚弄,
因为钱财是掌握在幸运女神手中,
而人们为获得钱财仍在疲于奔命;
这是因为不论是过去还是现在,
月天之下的所有黄金
都会使这些疲惫的魂灵无一能得到安宁。

幸运女神

“老师”,我对他说,“现在,请再告诉我:
你向我提到的那位幸运女神,
她究竟是什么神,何以会把天下的钱财都抓在手中?”
他回答我:“啊!愚蠢的生灵们,
你们受到多大的无知的伤损!
我现在希望像喂孩子吃食那样,让你记住我的说明。
智慧超越一切者创造了天体多重
并指派了天使操纵各重天体的运行,
使每个部分都能各自发光,
并把光芒分配均匀,普照四方:
同样,他也命令一位总管天神
掌管世间的荣华富贵,
要她及时把这富贵虚荣
从这个人转到那个人,从一个血统转到另一个血统,
而人类的智慧却无力与之抗争;
因此,一国人民耀武扬威,另一国人民则没落衰颓,
一切都要听从她的判断,
而她则像隐伏草中的蛇,人所不能见。
你们的智慧无法与她抗衡:
她安排一切,判决一切,各行其事,
正如其他天神也各尽其职。
她转移世间荣华富贵的工作永无休止;
而遵照上帝意旨的必要性也令她从速而行;
因此,世人的处境也便经常变化不定。
正是她遭到一些人的百般咒骂,
而这些人本该极口赞扬她,
他们把她错怪,使她留下骂名;
但是,她却自得其乐,对此充耳不闻:
她与其他最早的创造物一起,
愉快地转动自己的轮盘,幸福地自享乐趣。
现在,让我们下到更加悲惨的地方;
我动身时正在升起的众星辰,此刻都已在下降,
我们逗留的时间不可过长。

斯提克斯沼泽:易怒者

我们穿过第四圈,到达彼岸,
靠近一条沸腾、倾泻的水泉,
顺沿着被这泉水冲成的沟壑。
这水与其说是黝黑,莫如说是浑浊;
而我们,在这灰黑色的水浪伴随下,
沿着一条陡峭的道路进入下层断崖。
这条惨淡的水道流入一个沼泽地,
它的名字叫斯提克斯,
那黑水往下流淌,流到昏暗而险峻的断崖脚下。
我这时注目观定,
看到浸泡在泥沼中满身泥污的人,
他们都赤身露体,满脸怒容。
他们不仅用手相打,
而且还用头相撞,用脚相踢,用胸相碰。
他们用牙齿把彼此的肉一块块咬下,咬得遍体伤痕。
善良的老师说道:“孩子,现在你可以看到
那些被怒火战胜的人的魂灵;
我还想让你确信:
在这水下还有一些哀叹之人,
他们使这水面咕噜咕噜地冒着气泡,
正如你的眼睛不论转到何处,都会告诉你这般情景。
他们没入这泥泞当中,
言道:‘我们在那阳光普照的温和空气里,
曾是那么抑郁寡欢,因为我们把郁怒的烟雾带到里面:
现在,我们就该在这黑水污泥当中自艾自怨。’
他们的喉咙里咕哝着这赞歌似的怨言。
因为他们无法把话讲清说全。”
我们就这样沿着这污泥浊水绕行,
在那干燥的堤岸和泥塘之间走了一段路程,
眼睛则一直盯视着那些身陷污泥的人:
我们终于来到一座塔楼的墙根。


Inferno: Canto VII

"Pape Satan, Pape Satan, Aleppe!"
Thus Plutus with his clucking voice began;
And that benignant Sage, who all things knew,
Said, to encourage me: "Let not thy fear
Harm thee; for any power that he may have
Shall not prevent thy going down this crag."
Then he turned round unto that bloated lip,
And said: "Be silent, thou accursed wolf;
Consume within thyself with thine own rage.
Not causeless is this journey to the abyss;
Thus is it willed on high, where Michael wrought
Vengeance upon the proud adultery."
Even as the sails inflated by the wind
Involved together fall when snaps the mast,
So fell the cruel monster to the earth.
Thus we descended into the fourth chasm,
Gaining still farther on the dolesome shore
Which all the woe of the universe insacks.
Justice of God, ah! who heaps up so many
New toils and sufferings as I beheld?
And why doth our transgression waste us so?
As doth the billow there upon Charybdis,
That breaks itself on that which it encounters,
So here the folk must dance their roundelay.
Here saw I people, more than elsewhere, many,
On one side and the other, with great howls,
Rolling weights forward by main force of chest.
They clashed together, and then at that point
Each one turned backward, rolling retrograde,
Crying, "Why keepest?" and, "Why squanderest thou?"
Thus they returned along the lurid circle
On either hand unto the opposite point,
Shouting their shameful metre evermore.
Then each, when he arrived there, wheeled about
Through his half-circle to another joust;
And I, who had my heart pierced as it were,
Exclaimed: "My Master, now declare to me
What people these are, and if all were clerks,
These shaven crowns upon the left of us."
And he to me: "All of them were asquint
In intellect in the first life, so much
That there with measure they no spending made.
Clearly enough their voices bark it forth,
Whene'er they reach the two points of the circle,
Where sunders them the opposite defect.
Clerks those were who no hairy covering
Have on the head, and Popes and Cardinals,
In whom doth Avarice practise its excess."
And I: "My Master, among such as these
I ought forsooth to recognise some few,
Who were infected with these maladies."
And he to me: "Vain thought thou entertainest;
The undiscerning life which made them sordid
Now makes them unto all discernment dim.
Forever shall they come to these two buttings;
These from the sepulchre shall rise again
With the fist closed, and these with tresses shorn.
Ill giving and ill keeping the fair world
Have ta'en from them, and placed them in this scuffle;
Whate'er it be, no words adorn I for it.
Now canst thou, Son, behold the transient farce
Of goods that are committed unto Fortune,
For which the human race each other buffet;
For all the gold that is beneath the moon,
Or ever has been, of these weary souls
Could never make a single one repose."
"Master," I said to him, "now tell me also
What is this Fortune which thou speakest of,
That has the world's goods so within its clutches?"
And he to me: "O creatures imbecile,
What ignorance is this which doth beset you?
Now will I have thee learn my judgment of her.
He whose omniscience everything transcends
The heavens created, and gave who should guide them,
That every part to every part may shine,
Distributing the light in equal measure;
He in like manner to the mundane splendours
Ordained a general ministress and guide,
That she might change at times the empty treasures
From race to race, from one blood to another,
Beyond resistance of all human wisdom.
Therefore one people triumphs, and another
Languishes, in pursuance of her judgment,
Which hidden is, as in the grass a serpent.
Your knowledge has no counterstand against her;
She makes provision, judges, and pursues
Her governance, as theirs the other gods.
Her permutations have not any truce;
Necessity makes her precipitate,
So often cometh who his turn obtains.
And this is she who is so crucified
Even by those who ought to give her praise,
Giving her blame amiss, and bad repute.
But she is blissful, and she hears it not;
Among the other primal creatures gladsome
She turns her sphere, and blissful she rejoices.
Let us descend now unto greater woe;
Already sinks each star that was ascending
When I set out, and loitering is forbidden."
We crossed the circle to the other bank,
Near to a fount that boils, and pours itself
Along a gully that runs out of it.
The water was more sombre far than perse;
And we, in company with the dusky waves,
Made entrance downward by a path uncouth.
A marsh it makes, which has the name of Styx,
This tristful brooklet, when it has descended
Down to the foot of the malign gray shores.
And I, who stood intent upon beholding,
Saw people mud-besprent in that lagoon,
All of them naked and with angry look.
They smote each other not alone with hands,
But with the head and with the breast and feet,
Tearing each other piecemeal with their teeth.
Said the good Master: "Son, thou now beholdest
The souls of those whom anger overcame;
And likewise I would have thee know for certain
Beneath the water people are who sigh
And make this water bubble at the surface,
As the eye tells thee wheresoe'er it turns.
Fixed in the mire they say, 'We sullen were
In the sweet air, which by the sun is gladdened,
Bearing within ourselves the sluggish reek;
Now we are sullen in this sable mire.'
This hymn do they keep gurgling in their throats,
For with unbroken words they cannot say it."
Thus we went circling round the filthy fen
A great arc 'twixt the dry bank and the swamp,
With eyes turned unto those who gorge the mire;
Unto the foot of a tower we came at last.
        

#16  《地狱篇》 第八首 / Inferno: Canto VIII             Go Back
第八首

渡斯提克斯沼泽:弗列居阿斯(1-30)
腓力普·阿尔詹蒂(31-63)
狄斯城(64-81)
魔鬼的抗拒与维吉尔的失意(82-140)

渡斯提克斯沼泽:弗列居阿斯

我现在继续往下说:
早在我们到达那高耸的塔楼脚下之前,
我们的眼睛就仰视到那塔顶,
我们看到那里有两束火光通明,
另有一束火光与之遥相呼应,
但那束火光距离太远,眼睛勉强才能把它看清。
我转身朝向那一切智慧之海,
说道:“这是何意?那另一束火光在做何反应?
那些打火光的究竟是何人?”
他对我说:“倘若泥潭的雾气不曾把你的视线遮拢,
你就可以从那污泥的水浪上,
看出他们所期待的是什么人。”
弓弦从不会这样把弓箭发出:
让它凌空飞驰如此神速,
我看见一条小船
顺水仰面驶来,恰如那弓箭离弦。
只有一个船夫在驾驶,
他叫道:“可恶的鬼魂,你到底来了!”
“弗列居阿斯!弗列居阿斯!你在空喊一气,”
我的救主说,“这一次,你只能在渡河时把我们控制在手,
你控制的时间不会比这更久。”
正如一个人发觉受骗,上了大当,
随后感到十分沮丧,
弗列居阿斯这时也只好把怒火压在胸膛。
我的老师下到船里,
然后叫我也随他进去,
而只是在我上船之后,那船才仿佛装载了东西。
老师和我方才在船上坐定,
那古老的船首便破浪而行,
那船也比素常运载亡灵时吃水更深。

腓力普·阿尔詹蒂

我们正在那一潭死水中行进,
忽然在我面前出现一个满身泥污的人,
他说:“你这提前到来的究竟是谁?”
我对他说:“我确是来了,但我不会在此停留;
可你又是谁,弄得浑身如此龌龊?”
他答道:“你可以看出,我是个受苦啼哭的人。”
我于是对他说:“该诅咒的鬼魂!
你会永远这样啼哭、受苦下去;
我认得出你,尽管你浑身都是污泥。”
这时他把双手朝小船伸了过来;
机智的老师立即把他推开,
一边说道:“快跟其他的狗一起滚开!”
老师接着用双臂搂住我的脖颈;
他亲吻我的面孔,并说:“义愤填膺的魂灵!
生养你的那位,真好福分!
那人在世曾是个目空一切的人;
他未给世人留下美名:
正因如此,他的亡魂才在此怒气冲冲。
多少人眼下在世间享有显赫名声,
将来到这里则会像污泥中的猪群,
身后也留下可憎的臭名!”
我于是说:“老师,我多么渴望,
在我们离开这水潭之前,
看到他淹没泥塘。”
他对我说:“在你看到彼岸之前,
你就会心满意足:
因为理应让你满足心愿。”
片刻之后,我就看见
那些,满身泥污的人把那人撕裂,
我再次赞美上帝,感谢他使我的义愤得以发泄。
大家都在喊叫:“痛打腓力普·阿尔詹蒂!”
而那狂怒的佛罗伦萨人的亡魂
则气得用牙齿痛咬自身。

狄斯城

我们离开了这里,详情我不想多叙;
但这时一片惨叫声震动了我的耳鼓,
于是我注目向前望去。
慈祥的老师说:“现在,孩子,
那座城池正在临近,它名叫狄斯,
那里有受重刑折磨的人,还有一列大军。”
我说:“老师,我已经从这山谷中看出,
那城池的塔楼一座座十分清楚,
他们是那样红如赤铁,仿佛才从烈火中烘出。”
他对我说:“那永生的烈火把他们烧灼,
烧得他们遍体通红,
正如你在地狱低处所看到的情景。”
我们径直来到那深深的沟渠,
那沟渠把这凄惨的城池团团围拢:
我觉得那城墙仿佛是用铁铸成。
我们事先不得不绕行一大段河沟,
最后才来到一个地方,
那船夫厉声喝道:“下船去!这就是入口!”

魔鬼的抗拒与维吉尔的失意

我看到那些城门之上,
有一千多个从天上坠落的魔鬼,
他们气势汹汹地说:“那人是谁?
他尚未死去却来到这死人的都城!”
我那博闻广识的老师作了一个手势,
表示要私下与他们交谈。
这时,那些魔鬼的巨大怒气稍见收敛,
说道:“你自己过来,叫那人走开,
他竟如此大胆,擅闯这冥界。
让他独自返回他胆大包天走过的路径,
让他试一试,倘若他能;
你则必须留下,既然你把他带进这黑暗地带。”
读者啊!请想一想,
听到这该死的话语,我是多么胆战心慌,
因为我绝不相信我能回到世上。
“啊!我亲爱的恩师啊!
每逢我遇到严重危险,
你都令我鼓起勇气,化险为夷,达七次以上。
不要撇下我”,我说,“如果我无路可投,
如果他们不准我们再往前走,
我们就赶快一起按原路回去。”
那位把我领到此地的老师对我说:
“不要畏惧;谁都不能截断我们的去路:
因为这是那一位叮嘱。
但是,你且在此等候,
振作起颓丧的精神,抱起美好的希冀,
我是不会把你撇在这阴曹地府的。”
那位温和的父亲就这样走了过去,
他把我留在原地,
我一直忐忑不安,“成”与“不成”在我脑海中交战。
我听不到他向那些魔鬼讲的话语,
但他也不曾与他们长久地呆在一起,
因为城里的那些魔鬼都争先恐后地退了回去。
我们的这些对头把城门朝我的老师迎面关闭,
老师于是只能呆在城门之外,
他迈着缓慢的步伐,转身向我走来。
他眼望着地,眉宇之间没有丝毫怡然自得之气,
他唉声叹气地说道:
“这帮人竟然不让我进入这痛苦之城!”
他对我说:“你不可泄气,尽管我气恼万分,
我必将战胜这场斗争,
不论城里怎样拼命抵御,不让我们进城。
他们如此气焰嚣张,这并不新鲜:
他们早已在那道不如这里秘密的城门就干过这种勾当,
而那道城门至今还未被门闩关上。
你曾在那道城门上方看过那阴森的字句,
现在已经有一位正顺着陡坡,从那道城门下到这里,
他经过一环又一环,无须护卫,
而这座城池的大门正是要由这一位来为我们开启。”

Inferno: Canto VIII

I say, continuing, that long before
We to the foot of that high tower had come,
Our eyes went upward to the summit of it,
By reason of two flamelets we saw placed there,
And from afar another answer them,
So far, that hardly could the eye attain it.
And, to the sea of all discernment turned,
I said: "What sayeth this, and what respondeth
That other fire? and who are they that made it?"
And he to me: "Across the turbid waves
What is expected thou canst now discern,
If reek of the morass conceal it not."
Cord never shot an arrow from itself
That sped away athwart the air so swift,
As I beheld a very little boat
Come o'er the water tow'rds us at that moment,
Under the guidance of a single pilot,
Who shouted, "Now art thou arrived, fell soul?"
"Phlegyas, Phlegyas, thou criest out in vain
For this once," said my Lord; "thou shalt not have us
Longer than in the passing of the slough."
As he who listens to some great deceit
That has been done to him, and then resents it,
Such became Phlegyas, in his gathered wrath.
My Guide descended down into the boat,
And then he made me enter after him,
And only when I entered seemed it laden.
Soon as the Guide and I were in the boat,
The antique prow goes on its way, dividing
More of the water than 'tis wont with others.
While we were running through the dead canal,
Uprose in front of me one full of mire,
And said, "Who 'rt thou that comest ere the hour?"
And I to him: "Although I come, I stay not;
But who art thou that hast become so squalid?"
"Thou seest that I am one who weeps," he answered.
And I to him: "With weeping and with wailing,
Thou spirit maledict, do thou remain;
For thee I know, though thou art all defiled."
Then stretched he both his hands unto the boat;
Whereat my wary Master thrust him back,
Saying, "Away there with the other dogs!"
Thereafter with his arms he clasped my neck;
He kissed my face, and said: "Disdainful soul,
Blessed be she who bore thee in her bosom.
That was an arrogant person in the world;
Goodness is none, that decks his memory;
So likewise here his shade is furious.
How many are esteemed great kings up there,
Who here shall be like unto swine in mire,
Leaving behind them horrible dispraises!"
And I: "My Master, much should I be pleased,
If I could see him soused into this broth,
Before we issue forth out of the lake."
And he to me: "Ere unto thee the shore
Reveal itself, thou shalt be satisfied;
Such a desire 'tis meet thou shouldst enjoy."
A little after that, I saw such havoc
Made of him by the people of the mire,
That still I praise and thank my God for it.
They all were shouting, "At Philippo Argenti!"
And that exasperate spirit Florentine
Turned round upon himself with his own teeth.
We left him there, and more of him I tell not;
But on mine ears there smote a lamentation,
Whence forward I intent unbar mine eyes.
And the good Master said: "Even now, my Son,
The city draweth near whose name is Dis,
With the grave citizens, with the great throng."
And I: "Its mosques already, Master, clearly
Within there in the valley I discern
Vermilion, as if issuing from the fire
They were." And he to me: "The fire eternal
That kindles them within makes them look red,
As thou beholdest in this nether Hell."
Then we arrived within the moats profound,
That circumvallate that disconsolate city;
The walls appeared to me to be of iron.
Not without making first a circuit wide,
We came unto a place where loud the pilot
Cried out to us, "Debark, here is the entrance."
More than a thousand at the gates I saw
Out of the Heavens rained down, who angrily
Were saying, "Who is this that without death
Goes through the kingdom of the people dead?"
And my sagacious Master made a sign
Of wishing secretly to speak with them.
A little then they quelled their great disdain,
And said: "Come thou alone, and he begone
Who has so boldly entered these dominions.
Let him return alone by his mad road;
Try, if he can; for thou shalt here remain,
Who hast escorted him through such dark regions."
Think, Reader, if I was discomforted
At utterance of the accursed words;
For never to return here I believed.
"O my dear Guide, who more than seven times
Hast rendered me security, and drawn me
From imminent peril that before me stood,
Do not desert me," said I, "thus undone;
And if the going farther be denied us,
Let us retrace our steps together swiftly."
And that Lord, who had led me thitherward,
Said unto me: "Fear not; because our passage
None can take from us, it by Such is given.
But here await me, and thy weary spirit
Comfort and nourish with a better hope;
For in this nether world I will not leave thee."
So onward goes and there abandons me
My Father sweet, and I remain in doubt,
For No and Yes within my head contend.
I could not hear what he proposed to them;
But with them there he did not linger long,
Ere each within in rivalry ran back.
They closed the portals, those our adversaries,
On my Lord's breast, who had remained without
And turned to me with footsteps far between.
His eyes cast down, his forehead shorn had he
Of all its boldness, and he said, with sighs,
"Who has denied to me the dolesome houses?"
And unto me: "Thou, because I am angry,
Fear not, for I will conquer in the trial,
Whatever for defence within be planned.
This arrogance of theirs is nothing new;
For once they used it at less secret gate,
Which finds itself without a fastening still.
O'er it didst thou behold the dead inscription;
And now this side of it descends the steep,
Passing across the circles without escort,
One by whose means the city shall be opened."
        

#17  Re: 《地狱篇》 第九首 / Inferno: Canto IX             Go Back
第九首




但丁的恐惧与维吉尔的安慰(1-33)
复仇女神(34-60)
天国使者(61-105)
但丁和维吉尔进入第六环(106-133)

但丁的恐惧与维吉尔的安慰

一见我的老师掉头返回,我心中顿感惊骇,
这惊骇使我的面色变得一片煞白,
老师立即克制住他那惶惑神色,镇静下来。
他止住脚步,像倾听什么似的仔细谛听,
因为天色黑暗,雾气又浓,
视线无法把远处看清。
“不论如何,我们总要战胜拦阻,”
他开言道,“除非……不过,那一位也曾慨然相助。
啊!我奇怪来人何以到得如此迟延!”
我清楚地看出,他用后来说的话
掩盖开头说的话,
而后几句话与前几句话则又相差很大;
但他的说法毕竟令我感到害怕,
因为我发现,那中断了的话语
也许有更为不祥的含意。
“在这地狱深坑的底部,
难道第一环的人从不曾下来过?
而第一环的苦刑无非是使希望永得不到满足!”
我提出了这个问题,老师就此答道:
“曾走过我所走的路的人
在我们当中为数寥寥。
我诚然有一次下到这里,
是受那残暴的厄里托魔法的驱使,
她能召唤魂灵复归死者的身躯。
当时我的肉体刚刚死去,
她便差我进入这城墙之中,
为的是从犹大环带出一个魂灵。
那一环地势最低,也最黑暗,
距离那环绕一切而转动的天也最远:
这天道路我很熟悉,因此,你尽可把心放宽。
这沼泽散发着恶臭,
它把那痛苦之城团团围住,
如今若不通过抗争,我们就无法进入。”

复仇女神

他还说了别的,但是我已记不甚清;
因为我的视线已经转向
那高耸塔楼的火红塔顶,
那里霎时间突然出现三个地狱复仇女神,
她们浑身上下,鲜血淋淋,
她们的四肢和模样则酷似女性;
一条条青绿色的水蛇把她们的腰部缠紧,
她们的头发也由一条条小蛇和有角蛇构成,
这些蛇把她们那狰狞可怖的双鬓盘定。
对那永恒悲泣之国的王后的女仆,
老师了解得一清二楚,
“看啊!他对我说,”那是三个凶恶的厄里尼厄斯。
左边这个是梅盖拉;
右边哭泣的那个是阿列克托;
中间的是提希丰涅;”说罢,他便沉默不语。
她们用指甲划破各自的前胸;
用手掌击打着自己,并且高声喊叫,
吓得我向诗人紧紧靠拢。
“叫梅杜萨来!我们要把他变成石头,”
她们三个齐声这样说,一边往下瞅;
“我们不曾对特修斯的攻击进行报复,这是错打念头。”
“你快转过身去,闭上眼睛,
因为果尔冈一旦出现,你若看她们一眼,
你就再也无法返回人间。”
老师这样说道,并且亲自掉转我的身躯,
他不让我自己动手,
却用他的手捂住我的眼睛。

天国使者

啊!你们这些思维健全的人啊!
请注意发现那奇特的诗句
纱幕隐蔽下的教益。
这时从那混浊的波浪上,
发生惊天动地的一声巨响,
骇得人失魂丧魄,震得两岸索索发颤,
这无异于冷热两股对立气流相撞,
促使一阵狂风倏起,
扫荡森林,所向披靡,
把树枝吹断,挂落,席卷而去;
眼前是一片飞沙走石,
惊得走兽和牧人四下逃避。
他把双手从我的眼睛上移开,
说道:“现在你可以仔细看一看
那泡沫翻腾的古老河面,雾气更浓的那一边。”
正如青蛙遇上它的死对头——长虫,
吓得纷纷没入水中,
各自蜷缩成团,与泥土混同。
我目睹一千多个受苦亡魂,
也与青蛙一样吓得四处逃奔,
因为他们看到有人步行渡过斯提克斯沼泽,却不湿脚跟。
他不时把左手放到面前摇摆,
把那浓密的烟雾从眼前扇开;
他似乎只是厌倦这浓雾的纠缠。
我恍然大悟,他是受上天派遣,
我于是转向老师;老师则向我示意,
叫我保持肃穆,向来人鞠躬敬礼。
啊!在我看来,他是多么满怀怒气!
他来到城门前面,就用一根小杖,
打开城门,未见有任何抵抗。
“啊!你们这些被天国逐出的败类,可鄙之辈!”
他开言道,伫立在阴森可怖的门坎,
“你们哪里来的这种嚣张气焰?
你们为何抗拒上天的意旨?
而你们对此又无能加以阻止!
以往多次尝试也曾加剧你们的痛苦,
与天命对抗究竟有何好处?
倘若你们还能记得清楚,
你们的刻尔勃路斯的下巴和脖颈至今仍无完肤。
他随即转身走回满是污泥的路途,
他不曾与我们搭话,却像是一个人
另有公务在身,促其速行,
而无暇顾及眼前的人;
我们移动脚步走向鬼城,
听罢这番圣言,我们都大放宽心。

但丁和维吉尔进入第六环

我们扬长而进,未遇任何阻挡;
我很想把城堡观察一番,
看看其中究竟有怎样的景象,
因此,我一进城就四下张望:
我看到到处都是一抹平川,
到处都可听到痛苦的呻吟,看到受刑的惨状。
就像在罗讷河游积其内的阿尔,
就像在夸尔纳罗海湾附近的普拉
——意大利囊括这海湾,它的边疆也恰好浸沐在海湾水下,
在那一大片坎坷不平的地带,到处都是墓穴,
这里也与那里一样,遍地都是坟冢,
除了这里有更加惨不忍睹的苦痛;
因为在那坟墓与坟墓之间,散布着熊熊烈焰,
这就把所有坟墓都烧得红遍,
任何铁匠都不会要求烧出更红的铁件。
所有棺柩的棺盖都支在一边,
从里面传出阵阵凄厉的抱怨,
显然这都是些可怜人和受刑者在哭声震天。
我于是说道:“老师,那些葬在棺柩之内的人
究竟是什么人?他们
发出痛苦的叹息声,这些坟墓
所装人数大大超出你的设想。
他们在这里是同类与同类一起埋葬,
坟墓焚烧的热度则高低不一样。”
随后我们向右转去,
走过那火烧的坟场与高高的城墙之间的地方。


Inferno: Canto IX

That hue which cowardice brought out on me,
Beholding my Conductor backward turn,
Sooner repressed within him his new colour.
He stopped attentive, like a man who listens,
Because the eye could not conduct him far
Through the black air, and through the heavy fog.
"Still it behoveth us to win the fight,"
Began he; "Else. . .Such offered us herself. . .
O how I long that some one here arrive!"
Well I perceived, as soon as the beginning
He covered up with what came afterward,
That they were words quite different from the first;
But none the less his saying gave me fear,
Because I carried out the broken phrase,
Perhaps to a worse meaning than he had.
"Into this bottom of the doleful conch
Doth any e'er descend from the first grade,
Which for its pain has only hope cut off?"
This question put I; and he answered me:
"Seldom it comes to pass that one of us
Maketh the journey upon which I go.
True is it, once before I here below
Was conjured by that pitiless Erictho,
Who summoned back the shades unto their bodies.
Naked of me short while the flesh had been,
Before within that wall she made me enter,
To bring a spirit from the circle of Judas;
That is the lowest region and the darkest,
And farthest from the heaven which circles all.
Well know I the way; therefore be reassured.
This fen, which a prodigious stench exhales,
Encompasses about the city dolent,
Where now we cannot enter without anger."
And more he said, but not in mind I have it;
Because mine eye had altogether drawn me
Tow'rds the high tower with the red-flaming summit,
Where in a moment saw I swift uprisen
The three infernal Furies stained with blood,
Who had the limbs of women and their mien,
And with the greenest hydras were begirt;
Small serpents and cerastes were their tresses,
Wherewith their horrid temples were entwined.
And he who well the handmaids of the Queen
Of everlasting lamentation knew,
Said unto me: "Behold the fierce Erinnys.
This is Megaera, on the left-hand side;
She who is weeping on the right, Alecto;
Tisiphone is between;" and then was silent.
Each one her breast was rending with her nails;
They beat them with their palms, and cried so loud,
That I for dread pressed close unto the Poet.
"Medusa come, so we to stone will change him!"
All shouted looking down; "in evil hour
Avenged we not on Theseus his assault!"
"Turn thyself round, and keep thine eyes close shut,
For if the Gorgon appear, and thou shouldst see it,
No more returning upward would there be."
Thus said the Master; and he turned me round
Himself, and trusted not unto my hands
So far as not to blind me with his own.
O ye who have undistempered intellects,
Observe the doctrine that conceals itself
Beneath the veil of the mysterious verses!
And now there came across the turbid waves
The clangour of a sound with terror fraught,
Because of which both of the margins trembled;
Not otherwise it was than of a wind
Impetuous on account of adverse heats,
That smites the forest, and, without restraint,
The branches rends, beats down, and bears away;
Right onward, laden with dust, it goes superb,
And puts to flight the wild beasts and the shepherds.
Mine eyes he loosed, and said: "Direct the nerve
Of vision now along that ancient foam,
There yonder where that smoke is most intense."
Even as the frogs before the hostile serpent
Across the water scatter all abroad,
Until each one is huddled in the earth.
More than a thousand ruined souls I saw,
Thus fleeing from before one who on foot
Was passing o'er the Styx with soles unwet.
From off his face he fanned that unctuous air,
Waving his left hand oft in front of him,
And only with that anguish seemed he weary.
Well I perceived one sent from Heaven was he,
And to the Master turned; and he made sign
That I should quiet stand, and bow before him.
Ah! how disdainful he appeared to me!
He reached the gate, and with a little rod
He opened it, for there was no resistance.
"O banished out of Heaven, people despised!"
Thus he began upon the horrid threshold;
"Whence is this arrogance within you couched?
Wherefore recalcitrate against that will,
From which the end can never be cut off,
And which has many times increased your pain?
What helpeth it to butt against the fates?
Your Cerberus, if you remember well,
For that still bears his chin and gullet peeled."
Then he returned along the miry road,
And spake no word to us, but had the look
Of one whom other care constrains and goads
Than that of him who in his presence is;
And we our feet directed tow'rds the city,
After those holy words all confident.
Within we entered without any contest;
And I, who inclination had to see
What the condition such a fortress holds,
Soon as I was within, cast round mine eye,
And see on every hand an ample plain,
Full of distress and torment terrible.
Even as at Arles, where stagnant grows the Rhone,
Even as at Pola near to the Quarnaro,
That shuts in Italy and bathes its borders,
The sepulchres make all the place uneven;
So likewise did they there on every side,
Saving that there the manner was more bitter;
For flames between the sepulchres were scattered,
By which they so intensely heated were,
That iron more so asks not any art.
All of their coverings uplifted were,
And from them issued forth such dire laments,
Sooth seemed they of the wretched and tormented.
And I: "My Master, what are all those people
Who, having sepulture within those tombs,
Make themselves audible by doleful sighs?"
And he to me: "Here are the Heresiarchs,
With their disciples of all sects, and much
More than thou thinkest laden are the tombs.
Here like together with its like is buried;
And more and less the monuments are heated."
And when he to the right had turned, we passed
Between the torments and high parapets.


Last modified on 04/16/12 20:28
        

#18  Re: 《地狱篇》 第十首 / Inferno: Canto X             Go Back
第十首




伊壁鸠鲁派信徒的坟墓(1-21)
法里纳塔·德利·乌贝尔蒂(22-51)
卡瓦尔坎泰(52-72)
法里纳塔的预言(73-93)
亡魂预卜的局限性(94-120)
但丁的惶惑(121-136)

伊壁鸠鲁派信徒的坟墓

现在我们走在一条狭窄难行的羊肠小径,
在那鬼城的城墙和火烧的坟冢之间,
我的老师走在前面,我尾随在他的后边。
“拥有岁高美德的导师阿!”我开言道,“你随心所愿
带领我绕过这罪孽深重的一环又一环,
请告诉我,也请满足我的愿望:
那些躺在坟墓中的人能否看到外面的东西?
既然这些棺盖都已竖起,
任何看守又已不见踪影。”
老师对我说:“等我们从约沙法谷回到这里,
带着他们如今留在人世的那些肉体,
所有的棺盖就将紧闭。
这一带都是伊壁鸠鲁派信徒的墓地,
他们与伊壁鸠鲁本人葬在一起,
他们认为,灵魂是与肉体一道死去。
因此,对你向我提出的问题,
不出这个地方,你就可以很快得到满意的答复。
你的心愿也会得到满足,尽管你不曾向我说出。”
我说,“好师长,我并非想把话埋在心里不说,
我只不过是不想噜苏,
你并非只是现在才乐意我这样做。”

法里纳塔·德利·乌贝尔蒂

“啊!你这个谈吐如此文雅的托斯坎纳人!
你竟然活着便来到这火之城,
请你在这个地方暂且停一停。
你的言谈说明
你是出生在那高贵的家乡,
或许我曾给它带来祸殃。”
这声音是突然从一个坟墓中发出,
因此,我吓得肉跳心惊,
向我的老师身边稍许靠得更近。
老师读我说,“转过去吧!你怎么了?
你看法里纳塔在那边已经站立:
你可以看到他从腰部以上的全部身体。”
我早已把我的视线盯住他的视线;
他正挺胸昻首,巍然屹立,
仿佛把地狱根本不放在眼里。
老师用他那鼓励而灵敏的双手,
把我推到坟墓丛中的那人身旁,
一边说道:“你说话切要得当。”
我来到他的坟墓脚下,
他打量我一眼,随即几乎是盛气凌人,
问我:“你的祖辈是谁?”
我一心只想诸事依从,
因而对他并不隐瞒,而是把一切说明,
这一来,他把眉毛稍稍向上一抬,
然后说道:“他们对我,对我的祖先,对我的党派,
曾视如仇敌,不共戴天,
我曾先后两次,把他们驱散。”
我回答他,“他们尽管曾被赶走,却仍从各地重返,
先后两次,都是如此,
可你们的人却不曾很好地学会这套本事。”

卡瓦尔坎泰

这时,从棺盖打开的地方,
有一个鬼魂在此人身旁出现,
他只露出了下巴,我想他是起身跪下:
他朝我的四周张望了一下,
仿佛想要看看是否有人与我在一起,
随后,他的猜疑完全消失,他边说边泣:
“既然你凭借你的卓著才华,
来到这黑暗的监狱,
那末我的儿子在哪里?他为何不与你在一起?”
我对他说,“我并非独自来到这里:
是那个等在那边的人带领我经过此地,
去见也许您的圭多还不屑于见的那位。”
此人的话语和他所受的苦刑
都已经使我知道他的名姓;
因此,我才做出这样明确的回答。
他一听立即挺起身来,叫道:“你说什么?
他怎么了?难道他不再活着?
难道那和煦的阳光不再照射他的眼睛?”
他见我在回答之前有些踟蹰,
便立即重又仰面倒下,
不再从墓中显露。

法里纳塔的预言

但是,另一个气魄豪迈的人仍留在我身边,
他的神情丝毫未变,
他既不转动脖颈,又不屈下腰身:
他继续把方才的话讲下去,
说道:“倘若他们不曾把本事学好,
这会使我受到比躺倒墓地更加痛苦的煎熬。
但是,那统治这里的女人的面孔
照亮不到五十次,
你就将领教那本事的后果会多么严重。
但愿你能回归那温馨的世界,
请告诉我:为何那里的人民在他们制订的各项法律中,
对我的家人总是那么残酷无情?”
于是我对他说:“那惨绝人寰的大屠杀
把阿尔比亚合染成一片血红,
这使我们不得不在我们的殿堂宣读祷文。”
这时,他摇了摇头,长叹一声,
他说,“干出此事的并非只我一人,
而我与其他人一道行动也肯定并非毫无原因。
不过,在众人都同意摧毁佛罗伦萨的当儿,
只有我单枪匹马,
挺身而出保卫它。”

亡魂预卜的局限性

“哦!但愿您的亲族有朝一日得到安宁”,
我向他恳求道,“请您为我解开那症结,
它在这个问题上困扰我,使我无法把真相判明。
倘若我不曾听错,你们似乎能预见
随时间流逝而发生的事件。
而对于眼前的事,你们则无力卜算。”
他说:“我们就像眼力不济的人,
能看到距今遥远的事情;
这也是仰仗最高的主宰给我们带来的光明。
一旦事情临近或业已发生,
我们的智力就完全不起作用;
倘若无人向我们通报,我们对你们人间的事物就无从知晓。
因此,你可以明白:
未来的大门一旦关闭,
我们的认识也便完全消失。”
这时,我像对自己的过错感到愧疚,
说道:“现在请您告诉那倒下去的人,
他的儿子还与活人一起在世上生存。
倘方才我不曾马上回答,
请您告诉他:我之所以如此,是因为
我当时在思索您已经为我解决的那个疑团。”
这时我的老师已经在向我召唤;
我不得不急忙请求他那魂灵
告诉我:与他在一起的是何人。
他对我说:“我与一千余人躺在这里,
坟墓里有腓特烈二世,
还有枢机主教;至于其他人,我就不再说明。”

但丁的惶惑

说罢,他便重又倒下,我转动脚步,
走向那古代诗人,一边则在回想
刚才的谈话,我觉得那内容似很不祥。
他开始动身;随即一边走着,
一边对我说:“你为何如此惶惑?”
我对他的问话作了答复。
这位智者对我说:“你的脑海依然记住
你所听到的不利于你的话语”,
“现在,你要注意听着”,他随即竖起一个手指:
“等你将来面对那位圣女的温柔的目光,
你就将得到你一生经历的旅程,
因为那圣女的秀目能把一切看清。”
说罢此话,他便把脚左右移动:
我们离开城墙,走向这层地狱的中心,
沿着一条通往山谷的小径,
那山谷的浊气一直冲到上边,奇臭难闻。


Inferno: Canto X

Now onward goes, along a narrow path
Between the torments and the city wall,
My Master, and I follow at his back.
"O power supreme, that through these impious circles
Turnest me," I began, "as pleases thee,
Speak to me, and my longings satisfy;
The people who are lying in these tombs,
Might they be seen? already are uplifted
The covers all, and no one keepeth guard."
And he to me: "They all will be closed up
When from Jehoshaphat they shall return
Here with the bodies they have left above.
Their cemetery have upon this side
With Epicurus all his followers,
Who with the body mortal make the soul;
But in the question thou dost put to me,
Within here shalt thou soon be satisfied,
And likewise in the wish thou keepest silent."
And I: "Good Leader, I but keep concealed
From thee my heart, that I may speak the less,
Nor only now hast thou thereto disposed me."
"O Tuscan, thou who through the city of fire
Goest alive, thus speaking modestly,
Be pleased to stay thy footsteps in this place.
Thy mode of speaking makes thee manifest
A native of that noble fatherland,
To which perhaps I too molestful was."
Upon a sudden issued forth this sound
From out one of the tombs; wherefore I pressed,
Fearing, a little nearer to my Leader.
And unto me he said: "Turn thee; what dost thou?
Behold there Farinata who has risen;
From the waist upwards wholly shalt thou see him."
I had already fixed mine eyes on his,
And he uprose erect with breast and front
E'en as if Hell he had in great despite.
And with courageous hands and prompt my Leader
Thrust me between the sepulchres towards him,
Exclaiming, "Let thy words explicit be."
As soon as I was at the foot of his tomb
Somewhat he eyed me, and, as if disdainful,
Then asked of me, "Who were thine ancestors?"
I, who desirous of obeying was,
Concealed it not, but all revealed to him;
Whereat he raised his brows a little upward.
Then said he: "Fiercely adverse have they been
To me, and to my fathers, and my party;
So that two several times I scattered them."
"If they were banished, they returned on all sides,"
I answered him, "the first time and the second;
But yours have not acquired that art aright."
Then there uprose upon the sight, uncovered
Down to the chin, a shadow at his side;
I think that he had risen on his knees.
Round me he gazed, as if solicitude
He had to see if some one else were with me,
But after his suspicion was all spent,
Weeping, he said to me: "If through this blind
Prison thou goest by loftiness of genius,
Where is my son? and why is he not with thee?"
And I to him: "I come not of myself;
He who is waiting yonder leads me here,
Whom in disdain perhaps your Guido had."
His language and the mode of punishment
Already unto me had read his name;
On that account my answer was so full.
Up starting suddenly, he cried out: "How
Saidst thou,—he had? Is he not still alive?
Does not the sweet light strike upon his eyes?"
When he became aware of some delay,
Which I before my answer made, supine
He fell again, and forth appeared no more.
But the other, magnanimous, at whose desire
I had remained, did not his aspect change,
Neither his neck he moved, nor bent his side.
"And if," continuing his first discourse,
"They have that art," he said, "not learned aright,
That more tormenteth me, than doth this bed.
But fifty times shall not rekindled be
The countenance of the Lady who reigns here,
Ere thou shalt know how heavy is that art;
And as thou wouldst to the sweet world return,
Say why that people is so pitiless
Against my race in each one of its laws?"
Whence I to him: "The slaughter and great carnage
Which have with crimson stained the Arbia, cause
Such orisons in our temple to be made."
After his head he with a sigh had shaken,
"There I was not alone," he said, "nor surely
Without a cause had with the others moved.
But there I was alone, where every one
Consented to the laying waste of Florence,
He who defended her with open face."
"Ah! so hereafter may your seed repose,"
I him entreated, "solve for me that knot,
Which has entangled my conceptions here.
It seems that you can see, if I hear rightly,
Beforehand whatsoe'er time brings with it,
And in the present have another mode."
"We see, like those who have imperfect sight,
The things," he said, "that distant are from us;
So much still shines on us the Sovereign Ruler.
When they draw near, or are, is wholly vain
Our intellect, and if none brings it to us,
Not anything know we of your human state.
Hence thou canst understand, that wholly dead
Will be our knowledge from the moment when
The portal of the future shall be closed."
Then I, as if compunctious for my fault,
Said: "Now, then, you will tell that fallen one,
That still his son is with the living joined.
And if just now, in answering, I was dumb,
Tell him I did it because I was thinking
Already of the error you have solved me."
And now my Master was recalling me,
Wherefore more eagerly I prayed the spirit
That he would tell me who was with him there.
He said: "With more than a thousand here I lie;
Within here is the second Frederick,
And the Cardinal, and of the rest I speak not."
Thereon he hid himself; and I towards
The ancient poet turned my steps, reflecting
Upon that saying, which seemed hostile to me.
He moved along; and afterward thus going,
He said to me, "Why art thou so bewildered?"
And I in his inquiry satisfied him.
"Let memory preserve what thou hast heard
Against thyself," that Sage commanded me,
"And now attend here;" and he raised his finger.
"When thou shalt be before the radiance sweet
Of her whose beauteous eyes all things behold,
From her thou'lt know the journey of thy life."
Unto the left hand then he turned his feet;
We left the wall, and went towards the middle,
Along a path that strikes into a valley,
Which even up there unpleasant made its stench.


Last modified on 04/22/12 23:47
        

#19  Re: 《地狱篇》 第十一首 / Inferno: Canto XI             Go Back
第十一首




教皇阿纳斯塔修斯墓前(1-15)
地狱中鬼魂的分布(16-90)
高利贷者的下场(91-115)

教皇阿纳斯塔修斯墓前

我们来到一片高高的断崖上边,
这断崖是由巨大的残石围成一圈,
一批受着更加残酷的刑罚的鬼魂就在我们下面;
这里,那深邃的坑谷散发的恶臭
气味可怕,令人难捱,
我们不得不退后几步,躲进一个硕大石墓的棺盖,
我看到墓上有一块碑文,
写道:“我看管的是教皇阿纳斯塔修斯,
浮提努斯曾引诱他离开正路。”
“我们可以停顿一下,再下去,
这样,就可以先使嗅觉能稍微
适应那难闻的气味,然后对它就不必在乎。”
老师这样说,我则对言道:
“可否想些办法,让时间不致荒废掉。”
他于是说:“我已经想到这一点,你可以看到。”

地狱中鬼魂的分布

“我的孩子”,他随即开言道,“在这些断裂的岩石里面,
有三个小圈圈,它们一圈小于一圈,
就像前面经过的那几环。
各圈都布满了该诅咒的幽灵,
但既然你随后就会亲眼得见,足以弄清,
你就可以领悟他们是怎样、又为何被如此囚禁。
任何遭到天怒的恶行
其目的都是伤害别人,
要达到任何此类目的,不论是用暴力还是以欺诈,都会对他人造成伤损。
而由于欺诈是人固有的罪恶,
为上帝最不容,因此,欺诈者
也便被囚在底层,所受苦刑也更重。
第一环监禁的都是施暴者;
但由于他们对三种人进行暴力侵犯,
他们就被分成三类,放在三大圈。
他们施暴的对象是上帝、他们自身和他人,
我说的是:这三种人的身体和东西,
你将会听到我详尽地加以说明。
用暴力把别人置于死地,令别人遭到严重伤害,
破坏、焚烧、肆无忌惮地掠夺他人家财;
因此,杀人者、所有严重残害他人的家伙,
洗劫纵火者和强取豪夺者,
全部被分成不同的队伍,在第一个大圈中受苦。
一个人也可能施暴于他自己的身体和财物;
因此,凡是迫使自己离开你们人世的人,
就必须在第一个大圈中徒劳地忏悔过去;
同样,凡是用赌博挥霍和荡尽家财的人,
也要在这个大圈中白白哀叹悔不当初,
而这类人在阳间本该为拥有家财而欢悦,不是为丧失家财而啼哭。
也可能以暴力对待神灵,
从心底里否定和咒骂他们,
蔑视自然和自然的恩宠。
因此,最小的那一圈是给多玛和卡奥尔
以及那些心里蔑视上帝、口里公开亵渎的人,
打上他特有的烙印。
欺诈损害所有良心,
一个人可以用它来对待信任他的人,
也可以用来对待并不相信他的人。
这后一种做法显然会割断
自然给人们建立的爱的纽带;
因而在下一环里 集着
伪善、献媚、妖言惑众者,
造谣生事、盗窃和买卖圣职、
作淫媒者、贪赃卖放者以及类似的污垢。
这是用另一种方式把自然赋与的爱置诸脑后,
同时也忘记了后来增加的那种爱:
正是这后一种爱把特殊的信任关系建立起来;
然后就是宇宙的中心,有狄斯在上面坐镇,
凡有叛卖行为的人都要在那里承受苦刑。”
于是我说:“老师,你的讲解相当明确,
你把这深渊描述得也相当贴切,
包括它所囚禁的那些鬼魂。
但请告诉我:那些陷在泥泞的沼泽中的幽灵,
那些被狂飙吹荡、雨雷击打的亡魂,
以及那些不断相撞、互相辱骂的魂灵,
他们为何不在这烧得红如赤铁的城池中受惩?
既然上帝如此憎恶他们!
倘若上帝对他们并不恼怒,他们又为何落到这般光景?”
他于是对我说:“为何你的才智
竟然偏离了常轨?
要么就是你的脑海竟有了其他思维?
你难道忘怀了你的伦理学详尽阐述的那些话?
其中谈到有三种劣性
为上天所不容:
即放纵、奸诈和疯狂的兽性,
而放纵尚不致触怒上帝太甚,
它所受的责罚也较轻。
倘若你善自考虑一下这个论断,
再回忆一下狄斯城外
头几圈受刑的那些人,
你就会清楚地看出:为何他们
要与这些恶人如此区分,
为何神的正义对他们的打击没有那么凶狠。”

高利贷者的下场

“啊!拨开挡住一切视线的云的太阳!
你为我解决疑难,令我多么欢畅,
尽管疑问令我感到的愉快并不下于知晓。
请再把你说过的话题略微追述一遍”,我说道,
“请再讲一讲高利贷者如何触犯神的恩典,
为我解开这个疑团。”
他对我说:“哲学不仅在一处
向理解它的人指出:
自然如何起源于神的思维和艺术,
倘若你把你的物理学
好好地钻研一番,
你就会在不多几页之后发现,
你们的艺术是尽可能追随自然,
犹如学生追随师尊;
因此,你们的艺术几乎就像是上帝之孙。
你倘还记得《创世纪》的开头部分,
人类就应当以这两点
来维持生计和改善生存;
而由于高利贷者走的是另一条路,
他既轻看自然本身,又蔑视随自然而来的艺术,
因而他把希望寄托在其他方面。
不过,现在随我来吧,我想继续向前,
因为双鱼宫已在水平线上闪烁升起,
北斗星则完全斜卧在西北方向,
从那断崖高处再前行几步,便可走向下方。”


Inferno: Canto XI

Upon the margin of a lofty bank
Which great rocks broken in a circle made,
We came upon a still more cruel throng;
And there, by reason of the horrible
Excess of stench the deep abyss throws out,
We drew ourselves aside behind the cover
Of a great tomb, whereon I saw a writing,
Which said: "Pope Anastasius I hold,
Whom out of the right way Photinus drew."
"Slow it behoveth our descent to be,
So that the sense be first a little used
To the sad blast, and then we shall not heed it."
The Master thus; and unto him I said,
"Some compensation find, that the time pass not
Idly;" and he: "Thou seest I think of that.
My son, upon the inside of these rocks,"
Began he then to say, "are three small circles,
From grade to grade, like those which thou art leaving.
They all are full of spirits maledict;
But that hereafter sight alone suffice thee,
Hear how and wherefore they are in constraint.
Of every malice that wins hate in Heaven,
Injury is the end; and all such end
Either by force or fraud afflicteth others.
But because fraud is man's peculiar vice,
More it displeases God; and so stand lowest
The fraudulent, and greater dole assails them.
All the first circle of the Violent is;
But since force may be used against three persons,
In three rounds 'tis divided and constructed.
To God, to ourselves, and to our neighbour can we
Use force; I say on them and on their things,
As thou shalt hear with reason manifest.
A death by violence, and painful wounds,
Are to our neighbour given; and in his substance
Ruin, and arson, and injurious levies;
Whence homicides, and he who smites unjustly,
Marauders, and freebooters, the first round
Tormenteth all in companies diverse.
Man may lay violent hands upon himself
And his own goods; and therefore in the second
Round must perforce without avail repent
Whoever of your world deprives himself,
Who games, and dissipates his property,
And weepeth there, where he should jocund be.
Violence can be done the Deity,
In heart denying and blaspheming Him,
And by disdaining Nature and her bounty.
And for this reason doth the smallest round
Seal with its signet Sodom and Cahors,
And who, disdaining God, speaks from the heart.
Fraud, wherewithal is every conscience stung,
A man may practise upon him who trusts,
And him who doth no confidence imburse.
This latter mode, it would appear, dissevers
Only the bond of love which Nature makes;
Wherefore within the second circle nestle
Hypocrisy, flattery, and who deals in magic,
Falsification, theft, and simony,
Panders, and barrators, and the like filth.
By the other mode, forgotten is that love
Which Nature makes, and what is after added,
From which there is a special faith engendered.
Hence in the smallest circle, where the point is
Of the Universe, upon which Dis is seated,
Whoe'er betrays for ever is consumed."
And I: "My Master, clear enough proceeds
Thy reasoning, and full well distinguishes
This cavern and the people who possess it.
But tell me, those within the fat lagoon,
Whom the wind drives, and whom the rain doth beat,
And who encounter with such bitter tongues,
Wherefore are they inside of the red city
Not punished, if God has them in his wrath,
And if he has not, wherefore in such fashion?"
And unto me he said: "Why wanders so
Thine intellect from that which it is wont?
Or, sooth, thy mind where is it elsewhere looking?
Hast thou no recollection of those words
With which thine Ethics thoroughly discusses
The dispositions three, that Heaven abides not,—
Incontinence, and Malice, and insane
Bestiality? and how Incontinence
Less God offendeth, and less blame attracts?
If thou regardest this conclusion well,
And to thy mind recallest who they are
That up outside are undergoing penance,
Clearly wilt thou perceive why from these felons
They separated are, and why less wroth
Justice divine doth smite them with its hammer."
"O Sun, that healest all distempered vision,
Thou dost content me so, when thou resolvest,
That doubting pleases me no less than knowing!
Once more a little backward turn thee," said I,
"There where thou sayest that usury offends
Goodness divine, and disengage the knot."
"Philosophy," he said, "to him who heeds it,
Noteth, not only in one place alone,
After what manner Nature takes her course
From Intellect Divine, and from its art;
And if thy Physics carefully thou notest,
After not many pages shalt thou find,
That this your art as far as possible
Follows, as the disciple doth the master;
So that your art is, as it were, God's grandchild.
From these two, if thou bringest to thy mind
Genesis at the beginning, it behoves
Mankind to gain their life and to advance;
And since the usurer takes another way,
Nature herself and in her follower
Disdains he, for elsewhere he puts his hope.
But follow, now, as I would fain go on,
For quivering are the Fishes on the horizon,
And the Wain wholly over Caurus lies,
And far beyond there we descend the crag."


Last modified on 04/23/12 00:03
        

#20  Re: 《地狱篇》 第十二首 / Inferno: Canto XII             Go Back
第十二首




塌方与米诺陀(1-45)
弗列格通河与肯陶尔(46-75)
奇 隆(76-99)
涅索斯(100-139)


塌方与米诺陀

我们来到一个地方,从那里可以从断崖边上走下去,
这地方山势险峻,陡峭难行,
目光所及之处还有那个东西,它令我任何视线都不敢观望。
那山崩地裂险恶异常,
恰如从特兰特下游一侧,波及阿迪治河左岸的那片塌方,
或是由于地震,或是由于塌陷地基,
险峭的巉岩从山顶迸裂,
一直滚落到平地,
像是要给来到崖上的人开辟一条路途;
走下那深沟巨壑,就须沿着这条通路;
在那断崖残壁的顶端,
克里特岛的耻辱之物正匍匐卧定,
它曾在那假造的母牛腹中孕育而成:
它一见我们就啃咬自身,
犹如一个人无可奈何,把怒火压在心中。
我的智者向他喝道:“难道你
以为那位雅典公爵来到这里?
他曾在人世把你置于死地!
滚开,畜牲:此人前来
并非受你姐姐的指派,
而是要见识一下你们给鬼魂施加的酷刑。”
这时它正像一头遭到致命一击的雄牛,
在挣脱绳索,猛冲狂奔,
它不知闯往何处,却又知东跳西蹦。
我见米诺陀就是这样胡窜乱动;
那位机智的老师于是叫道:“快跑到那坑口:
趁着他狂怒不止,你最好赶紧往下走。”
这样,我们就沿着那乱石滚成的蹊径往下行,
这些石头因为有了新的负重,
不时在我的脚下滑动。
我这时在沉思默想,老师问道:
“你或许在想到那怒气冲冲的野兽看守的断壁残岩,
而我如今已经打掉它的气焰。
现在我想让你知晓:
上一次我降入这地狱的底层,
这片山岩尚未塌陷;
但是,我倘若不曾记错,
肯定是在那位驾临此地不久之前,
他曾从地狱的最高一环从狄斯手中救走许多猎物,
当时,那幽深而又污秽的山谷
曾四下发生巨震,
我想,这是宇宙在感受到爱,因为有人
认为:由于有了爱,世界往往才变得一片混沌;
正是在那时,这带古老的巉岩
才在这里和别处崩坍。

弗列格通河与肯陶尔

但是,你注意看那山谷下边:
血河就在眼前,
它在熬煮着用暴力伤害别人的罪犯。”
啊!疯狂的愤怒和盲目的贪婪
驱使他们在短促的一生中犯下这种罪,
如今则浸泡在滚烫的血水中永受磨难!
我看见一条宽阔的弧形沟壑,
正如我的护卫者所说,
它把整片平地囊括;
在悬崖底部和沟壑之间,
奔驰着肯陶尔,他们排成一列,身背弓箭,
如同在世上通常前往狩猎一般。
他们看到我们走下山崖,便都停步不前,
有三个从队伍中走上前来,
手持弯弓和事先选好的雕翎箭;
有一个从远处喊道:“你们这些从山上下来的人。
到此受什么苦刑?
你们就站在原地说话;不然,我们就要拉弓。”
我的老师说道:“等我们去到你们跟前,
我们就会向奇隆答话:
你们总是这样飞扬浮躁,这很糟糕。”
接着,他碰了我一下,说:“此人是涅索斯,
他曾为美丽的德伊阿妮拉而死,
并亲自为自己报仇雪恨。
中间那个垂头注视自己胸膛的人,
就是伟大的奇隆,他曾把阿奇琉斯扶养成人;
另一个是福罗斯,他曾如此怒火填胸。
他们来到沟壑周围,有成千上万,
凡有鬼魂从血水中冒出,超过为惩罚其罪行而限定的深度,
他们就把箭向这些鬼魂射出。”

奇隆

我们走近这些飞速灵巧的怪物身边,
奇隆拿出一只雕翎箭,
用箭尾把胡须向后左右分开,拨到两腮上面。
当那大嘴巴显露出来时,
他对同伴说:“你们可曾发觉:
那后面的人能触动所有他碰上的东西?
死人的双脚通常则不能这样。”
我那善良的老师这时已站在他的胸前,
而那胸部正是人马两性联接的地方,
老师应声道:“他确是个大活人,而且只有他孤零一个,
我须要向他指点那黑暗的坑谷深壑,
他来到此地是出于必要,而不是为了娱乐。
一位圣女暂停歌唱“赞美上帝”,
她赋予我这个新的使命:
他不是强盗,我也不是盗贼的魂灵。
但是,既然我是依照神的意旨移动我的脚步,
走上这如此荒凉难行的道路,
也请你遵奉神的意旨,派出你们当中一人来伴我们同行,
让他告诉我们何处可以涉水渡河,
让他把此人驮在背上,飞渡沟壑,
因为此人不是凌空翱翔的魂魄。”
奇隆向右转过身去,
对涅索斯说:“你转身回去,带领他们前往,
倘若遇上别的队伍,你就让他们闪开,不要阻挡。”

涅索斯

这时,我们与那可以信赖的护卫一起动身,
沿着那沸腾的赤红色河水的堤岸,
河里那些被煮沸的人不断发出刺骨的惨叫声。
我看到有的人浸在水下,一直没到眼眉,
那位身材魁梧的肯陶尔说道:这些都是暴君,
他们血腥镇压和强取豪夺他们的臣民。
他们在这里痛哭流涕,为残酷伤害他人的罪孽而受刑。
这里有亚历山大,还有残暴的狄奥尼西奥斯,
后者曾使西西里度过多少痛苦的岁月,
那个额前被漆黑的毛发遮住的人,
是阿佐利诺;另一个头发则是金黄色,
他是奥比佐·达·埃斯蒂,他确实
曾在人世被他的私生子所弑。”
于是我转身去看诗人,诗人说道:
“现在,这位是你的第一个向导,我则是第二个。”
向前稍走了一段路,这位肯陶尔突然站住,
因为有一些人似乎从那滚烫的血河中冒出,
甚至露出他们的喉部。
他向我们指出一个独自呆在一边的鬼魂,
说道:“此人在上帝怀中刺穿了一颗心,
这颗心依然在泰晤士河上得到世人的尊敬。”
随后,我看到有些人把头放在血河的水面,
有的甚至露出整个上半身;
我倒认清其中不少人。
这样,血河逐渐变得低浅,
甚至仅能盖住脚面;
这里正是我们可以渡河的所在。
“既然你从这里可以看出,
滚烫的血河在逐渐减少深度”,
这位肯陶尔说:“我希望你能相信,
在另一边,河床则越来越下沉,
一直沉到最深处:
暴君在那里不得不痛苦呻吟。
神的正义在惩办那个阿提拉,
他曾是人世间的鞭子,
被惩办的还有皮鲁斯和塞克斯图斯;
另有里尼埃尔·达·科尔索托、里尼埃尔·帕佐,
他们在沸水煎熬下泪水横流,永无休止,
因为他们生前曾拦路抢劫,杀人越货。”
说罢,他掉转身躯,渡过那段浅水河。


Inferno: Canto XII

The place where to descend the bank we came
Was alpine, and from what was there, moreover,
Of such a kind that every eye would shun it.
Such as that ruin is which in the flank
Smote, on this side of Trent, the Adige,
Either by earthquake or by failing stay,
For from the mountain's top, from which it moved,
Unto the plain the cliff is shattered so,
Some path 'twould give to him who was above;
Even such was the descent of that ravine,
And on the border of the broken chasm
The infamy of Crete was stretched along,
Who was conceived in the fictitious cow;
And when he us beheld, he bit himself,
Even as one whom anger racks within.
My Sage towards him shouted: "Peradventure
Thou think'st that here may be the Duke of Athens,
Who in the world above brought death to thee?
Get thee gone, beast, for this one cometh not
Instructed by thy sister, but he comes
In order to behold your punishments."
As is that bull who breaks loose at the moment
In which he has received the mortal blow,
Who cannot walk, but staggers here and there,
The Minotaur beheld I do the like;
And he, the wary, cried: "Run to the passage;
While he wroth, 'tis well thou shouldst descend."
Thus down we took our way o'er that discharge
Of stones, which oftentimes did move themselves
Beneath my feet, from the unwonted burden.
Thoughtful I went; and he said: "Thou art thinking
Perhaps upon this ruin, which is guarded
By that brute anger which just now I quenched.
Now will I have thee know, the other time
I here descended to the nether Hell,
This precipice had not yet fallen down.
But truly, if I well discern, a little
Before His coming who the mighty spoil
Bore off from Dis, in the supernal circle,
Upon all sides the deep and loathsome valley
Trembled so, that I thought the Universe
Was thrilled with love, by which there are who think
The world ofttimes converted into chaos;
And at that moment this primeval crag
Both here and elsewhere made such overthrow.
But fix thine eyes below; for draweth near
The river of blood, within which boiling is
Whoe'er by violence doth injure others."
O blind cupidity, O wrath insane,
That spurs us onward so in our short life,
And in the eternal then so badly steeps us!
I saw an ample moat bent like a bow,
As one which all the plain encompasses,
Conformable to what my Guide had said.
And between this and the embankment's foot
Centaurs in file were running, armed with arrows,
As in the world they used the chase to follow.
Beholding us descend, each one stood still,
And from the squadron three detached themselves,
With bows and arrows in advance selected;
And from afar one cried: "Unto what torment
Come ye, who down the hillside are descending?
Tell us from there; if not, I draw the bow."
My Master said: "Our answer will we make
To Chiron, near you there; in evil hour,
That will of thine was evermore so hasty."
Then touched he me, and said: "This one is Nessus,
Who perished for the lovely Dejanira,
And for himself, himself did vengeance take.
And he in the midst, who at his breast is gazing,
Is the great Chiron, who brought up Achilles;
That other Pholus is, who was so wrathful.
Thousands and thousands go about the moat
Shooting with shafts whatever soul emerges
Out of the blood, more than his crime allots."
Near we approached unto those monsters fleet;
Chiron an arrow took, and with the notch
Backward upon his jaws he put his beard.
After he had uncovered his great mouth,
He said to his companions: "Are you ware
That he behind moveth whate'er he touches?
Thus are not wont to do the feet of dead men."
And my good Guide, who now was at his breast,
Where the two natures are together joined,
Replied: "Indeed he lives, and thus alone
Me it behoves to show him the dark valley;
Necessity, and not delight, impels us.
Some one withdrew from singing Halleluja,
Who unto me committed this new office;
No thief is he, nor I a thievish spirit.
But by that virtue through which I am moving
My steps along this savage thoroughfare,
Give us some one of thine, to be with us,
And who may show us where to pass the ford,
And who may carry this one on his back;
For 'tis no spirit that can walk the air."
Upon his right breast Chiron wheeled about,
And said to Nessus: "Turn and do thou guide them,
And warn aside, if other band may meet you."
We with our faithful escort onward moved
Along the brink of the vermilion boiling,
Wherein the boiled were uttering loud laments.
People I saw within up to the eyebrows,
And the great Centaur said: "Tyrants are these,
Who dealt in bloodshed and in pillaging.
Here they lament their pitiless mischiefs; here
Is Alexander, and fierce Dionysius
Who upon Sicily brought dolorous years.
That forehead there which has the hair so black
Is Azzolin; and the other who is blond,
Obizzo is of Esti, who, in truth,
Up in the world was by his stepson slain."
Then turned I to the Poet; and he said,
"Now he be first to thee, and second I."
A little farther on the Centaur stopped
Above a folk, who far down as the throat
Seemed from that boiling stream to issue forth.
A shade he showed us on one side alone,
Saying: "He cleft asunder in God's bosom
The heart that still upon the Thames is honoured."
Then people saw I, who from out the river
Lifted their heads and also all the chest;
And many among these I recognised.
Thus ever more and more grew shallower
That blood, so that the feet alone it covered;
And there across the moat our passage was.
"Even as thou here upon this side beholdest
The boiling stream, that aye diminishes,"
The Centaur said, "I wish thee to believe
That on this other more and more declines
Its bed, until it reunites itself
Where it behoveth tyranny to groan.
Justice divine, upon this side, is goading
That Attila, who was a scourge on earth,
And Pyrrhus, and Sextus; and for ever milks
The tears which with the boiling it unseals
In Rinier da Corneto and Rinier Pazzo,
Who made upon the highways so much war."
Then back he turned, and passed again the ford.


Last modified on 04/25/12 01:22
        

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