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【历史长河 】 BBC之英国史(5):King Death 灾难中的英国
A History Of Britain - Episode 5 King Death - BBC series



英国史 BBC A History Of Britain 05 King Death (中文字幕)
http://tiny.cc/9gmk6x


BBC英国历史纪录片汇总
http://www.en8848.com.cn/tingli/video/britain-history/186000.html


BBC英国史英语视频第05章:King Death 灾难中的英国(中英字幕)
http://www.en8848.com.cn/tingli/video/britain-history/185955.html

zt:

In the summer of 1348, the English could be forgiven for thinking themselves unconquerable.

They had vanquished the old enemies, the Scots and the French.

Their king, Edward III, seemed the most powerful ruler in Europe.

But they would be conquered, and by a king against whom neither longbows nor warships offered any defence...

King Death.

...............
   
  sing     11/24/2015 22:12

Edward III, detail from his bronze effigy in Westminster Abbey


zt维基中文:

爱德华三世 (英格兰)

爱德华三世(英文:Edward III,1312年11月13日-1377年6月21日),英格兰国王,1327年到1377年在位。

早年

爱德华三世是被谋杀的爱德华二世的儿子,生于伯克郡温莎。其母法兰西的伊莎贝拉与马奇伯爵罗杰·莫蒂默合谋废黜爱德华二世后成为英格兰的实际统治者。马奇伯爵获得大量封地(包括著名的登比封地)并在英格兰飞扬跋扈。

父王遭废黜后,爱德华三世由坎特伯雷大主教沃尔特·雷诺兹(此人是爱德华二世的宠臣之一)加冕为英格兰国王。实权被摄政的太后和其情夫马奇伯爵掌握。然而,爱德华三世很快聚集起实力惩罚杀死他父亲的人。1330年,爱德华三世亲政,立刻下令处死马奇伯爵并没收其财产。



爱德华三世与百年战争

1336年,为报复法国国王腓力六世侵犯在佛兰德的英国商人,爱德华三世曾下令禁止向法国出口羊毛。由于对腓力六世继承法兰西王位不满(爱德华是法国卡佩王朝最后一代国王查理四世的外甥),爱德华三世对法国怀有越来越大的敌意。1337年,爱德华三世正式自称为法兰西国王,而且此后直到1801年,每个英国君主也都自称是法兰西国王。他旋即联合神圣罗马帝国皇帝路易四世,拼凑一支反法力量。当1338年腓力六世宣布没收他在法国的一切领地时,爱德华的怒气爆发了。1339年、1340年他从法国北部发动了两次失败的进攻尝试;1340年6月,英格兰舰队在斯鲁伊斯海战中大获全胜。但军费开支过于巨大使爱德华三世无力持续作战。1344年他甚至宣布破产,导致佛罗伦萨的两家大银行倒闭。

1346年,爱德华三世携长子黑太子爱德华卷土重来,在克雷西战役中大败法军。这次战斗是杰出的将领黑太子爱德华初次亮相,也是在此战中,欧洲人第一次使用了火器。到1347年,爱德华三世已攻占法国重镇加来,并准备进军巴黎加冕。1348年,他拒绝了竞选神圣罗马帝国皇帝的邀请。

1356年英军在普瓦捷战役中再度取得大胜,并俘获了法兰西国王约翰二世。爱德华三世即与各怀鬼胎的各方法兰西贵族签订加来条约,控制了法国北方的大片领土,但承诺放弃法兰西王位。

1359年爱德华三世再次入侵法国,围攻兰斯,而后更推进到巴黎;在那里,他与法兰西王国摄政王太子查理(后为国王查理五世)签署了布勒丁尼和约。1360年,他在法兰西封黑太子爱德华为阿基坦公爵。

1364年查理五世正式即位后,拒绝承认加来条约,爱德华就又开始使用法兰西国王的称号。但查理五世是一个难以对付的对手,他采取了不少有力度的改革措施。同时,在法兰西出现了迪·盖克兰这样的优秀将领。总之,爱德华三世的战争计划从此就开始失利。他的扩张活动到此为止了。


其他政绩

1348年,爱德华三世统治之下的英国遭受了有史以来最大的灾难之一——黑死病。他颁布了一些法令来强迫人们继续劳动。1353年,议会通过法案,禁止民众向教会法庭上诉及向教皇交纳什一税。大约在1348年,爱德华三世创立了嘉德骑士团。

爱德华三世在位时的另一个主要的敌对目标是苏格兰。早在1333年,爱德华三世击退过入侵英格兰的苏格兰国王罗伯特一世。1356年他又曾进入苏格兰南部。

晚年受到情妇佩雷斯夫人的控制。也是在这时,被认为是异端的罗拉德派宗教改革运动盛行起来。
   
  sing     11/24/2015 22:13
King Edward III (1312-1377)

   
  sing     11/25/2015 01:01

The coronation of Philippa of Hainault as Queen of England.


爱德华三世同其祖父爱德华一世很相像,都是强势国王,都有如意婚姻。

爱德华三世之母法兰西的伊莎贝拉与罗杰·莫蒂默合谋废黜爱德华二世后,14岁的爱德华三世于1327年1月25日加冕。一年后,1328年1月24日,15岁的爱德华迎娶13岁的王后Philippa。 二人是second cousins who shared the same great grandparents, 法王菲利三世Philip III of France 是二人的曾祖父。 因二人是四代之内的血亲,得到教皇豁免 Papal dispensation 后,才得以成亲。

做为王后,Philippa 口碑极佳: "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." 较之Philippa, 爱德华一世的王后Eleanor of Castile 无此赞誉: "Eleanor is warmly remembered by history as the queen who inspired the Eleanor crosses, but she was not so loved in her own time. Her reputation was primarily as a keen businesswoman."

Philippa 也像Eleanor 一样,跟着丈夫南征北战。 Philippa 为加莱义民向爱德华三世求情的慈悲善举,最令世人感动赞赏。后面会提。

牛津大学王后学院就是以这位仁慈王后之名而建。



wiki:

Philippa of Hainault (24 June 1314 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.

Philippa married Edward at York Minster, on 24 January 1328, eleven months after his accession to the English throne; although, the de facto rulers of the kingdom were his mother, Queen Dowager Isabella and her avaricious lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, who jointly acted as his regents. Soon after their marriage the couple retired to live at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. Unlike many of her predecessors, Philippa did not alienate the English people by retaining her foreign retinue upon her marriage or by bringing large numbers of foreigners to the English court. As Isabella did not wish to relinquish her own status, Philippa's coronation was postponed for two years. She eventually was crowned queen on 4 March 1330 at Westminster Abbey when she was almost six months pregnant;[14] and she gave birth to her first son, Edward, the following June just nine days before her sixteenth birthday.

In October 1330, King Edward commenced his personal rule when he staged a coup and ordered the arrest of his mother and Mortimer. Shortly afterward, the latter was executed for treason, and Queen Dowager Isabella was sent to Castle Rising in Norfolk, where she spent the remainder of her life.
Joshua Barnes, a medieval writer, said "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." Chronicler Jean Froissart described her as "The most gentle Queen, most liberal, and most courteous that ever was Queen in her days."

Philippa accompanied Edward on his expeditions to Scotland, and the European continent in his early campaigns of the Hundred Years War where she won acclaim for her gentle nature and compassion. She is best remembered as the kind woman who, in 1347, persuaded her husband to spare the lives of the Burghers of Calais, whom he had planned to execute as an example to the townspeople following his successful siege of that city.

She acted as regent in England on several occasions when her husband was away from his kingdom. She also influenced the king to take an interest in the nation's commercial expansion. Philippa was a patron of the chronicler Jean Froissart, and she owned several illuminated manuscripts, one of which currently is housed in the national library in Paris.
   
  sing     11/25/2015 01:20

The Provost and Scholars of The Queen's College in the University of Oxford


zt:

王后学院(The Queen's College)是牛津大学的一个学院,位于英国牛津。它由罗伯特·Eglesfield创建于1341年,以纪念王后埃诺的菲利帕。该学院的特点是其新古典主义建筑,其中一些建筑是由克里斯多佛·雷恩爵士和尼古拉斯霍克斯莫尔设计。

The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield (d'Eglesfield) in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault (wife of King Edward III of England). The college is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor.




Architecture of The Queen's College, Oxford: Michael Riordan
   
  sing     11/26/2015 01:40
英法之间的第一次百年战争始于爱德华三世在位时。

“百年战争(英语:Hundred Years' War,法语:Guerre de Cent Ans)
1337年-1453年,交战双方是英格兰和法国,后来又加入勃艮地等。它是世界最长的战争之一,长达116年,最后由法胜出,不少新的战术和武器因而发明。

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.”---wiki
   
  sing     11/26/2015 01:41
百年战争起因主要有二,一为历史原因,二为王位之争。

1066年征服英格兰的威廉一世为诺曼底公爵。创立金雀花王朝的亨利二世身兼诺曼底公爵、安茹伯爵和曼恩伯爵。亨利二世之子约翰是失地王,诺曼底在他手中丧失,只有他母亲Eleanor of Aquitaine 的阿基坦公国尚属英格兰管辖。失地之痛英格兰历代国王都挥之不去。而历代法王则处心积虑想统一法国,把英格兰人彻底赶走。

wiki:

中世纪前期,法国海岸渔民长期遭受北欧维京海盗打劫侵略。西法兰克王国加洛林王朝的查理三世以协助抵御其他海盗为条件,于公元911年,同意维京人领袖洛罗及其族人定居在英吉利海峡沿岸一块肥沃的土地上,并封洛罗为公爵。由于维京人又称为诺曼人,这块土地称为诺曼底(意思为诺曼人的封土)。维京人在此建立了诺曼底公国,停止海盗行为,并改奉天主教及接受法国文化,但诺曼底公国自此割据一方。

1066年,诺曼底公爵征服者威廉渡海征服英格兰。其后150年内,说法语的诺曼底公爵同时为英格兰王,统治英格兰和诺曼第。可是诺曼底公国却是法国国王的附属国,导致了原来平等的两个国王,变得完全不平等[2]:1。后来,控制着阿基坦公国的法国王后阿基坦的埃莉诺与法国国王路易七世离婚,并且嫁给了作为诺曼底公爵和安茹伯爵的亨利。

1154年,亨利加冕成为英格兰国王。又因为联姻,英格兰王国获得了阿基坦的领土,同时控制了英格兰以及法国近半的地区。

13世纪初,当时的英王约翰失政,法王乘机夺回诺曼底及安茹两地,约翰返回英格兰。

1215年,在当地贵族逼迫之下订立大宪章,才保住英格兰王位。此后百多年,这位法国贵族出身的英王,念念不忘要向法王取回祖宗的失地,而英王亦仍然控有法国西南沿岸一隅的阿基坦,也成为锐意一统全国的法国王室的眼中钉。

14世纪时,法国想赶走仍然盘据西南地区的英格兰,统一法国。后者非但不肯,还想夺回其祖先的土地,如诺曼底、曼恩、安茹等。两国另因法兰德斯的贸易纠纷,加深彼此的冲突。该地位于法国北疆,表面隶属法国,实则独自行政,且与英格兰有很多羊毛贸易。
   
  sing     11/26/2015 01:43

Coronation of King Philip III


王位之争,先从爱德华三世和菲利琶的曾祖父法王菲利三世Philip III of France 说起。

前面提到十字军第八次东征时,1270年8月法王路易九世准备围攻突尼斯时,染病身亡。随父东征的Philip 当即被宣布继任法王,成为腓力三世。

”腓力三世(勇敢者)(法语:Philippe III le Hardi,1245年4月30日-1285年10月5日)卡佩王朝第10位国王(1270年—1285年在位)。 “

腓力三世有六个子女,其中女儿Margaret是英王爱德华一世的第二任王后。长子Louis 早逝。次子后来继位,即腓力四世。三子Charles,Count of Valois瓦卢瓦伯爵,因是腓力六世之父, 遂成瓦卢瓦王朝的始祖。
   
  sing     11/28/2015 20:48

Philip IV of France


美男子腓力四世Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King, 有三子一女,其女即为爱德华三世之母,Isabella of France , She-Wolf of France。 

腓力四世的三个儿子分别为Louis, Philip, and Charles. 后来都登上王位, 成为 Louis X, King of France, Philip V, King of France, and Charles IV, King of France。


腓力四世被但丁称为”France's harm”, 绝非妄加之言。腓力四世在位期间,犹太人被逐,圣殿骑士团被灭。


英王爱德华一世于1290年驱逐犹太人,腓力四世于1306年followed suit,当然这并非法兰西首次驱逐犹太人。 赶走犹太人后,王室收债人负责催债,欲将原归犹太人的欠款吞入王室财库。如意算盘虽打得精明,但王室收债人仗势压人,得罪了不少客户,名声狼藉。不得已,1315年又把犹太人请回法国,许诺他们12年定居期。但1322年,犹太人又遭查理四世驱逐。


zt:

While King Edward ordered the Jews to leave England in 1290, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France in 1306. With the Jews gone, Philip appointed royal guardians to collect the loans made by the Jews, and the money was passed to the Crown. The scheme did not work well. The Jews were regarded to be good businessmen who satisfied their customers, while the king's collectors were universally unpopular. Finally, in 1315, because of the "clamour of the people", the Jews were invited back with an offer of 12 years of guaranteed residence, free from government interference. In 1322, the Jews were expelled again by the King's successor, who did not honour his commitment.
   
  sing     11/28/2015 20:49

圣殿骑士团的徽章,著名的双人骑单马图像,象征他们早期的贫困,内环的希腊文和拉丁文 Sigillum Militum Xpisti,搭配中央的十字架,表示基督的士兵


圣殿骑士团创建于第一次十字军东征后。从维基摘抄与腓力四世相关的部分:

“1241年,蒙古拔都西征入侵波兰。在列格尼卡战役中,圣殿骑士团的参战部队几乎灭绝。其大首领阿尔芒(Armond de Perigord)写信给法国国王路易说,中欧已无任何军事力量可以阻挡蒙古铁骑直抵法国。1291年,卡拉温的继承者卡利尔攻占圣-让-阿克,叙利亚的十字军王国灭亡。圣殿骑士团和医院骑士团撤到塞浦路斯,再返回法国。他们在法国是国王的大债主,拥有几千座城堡和巨额财富,因此受到国王和主教的嫉恨。法国国王腓力四世编织“异端”罪名去铲除他们。

1307年10月13日星期五(这是“黑色星期五”迷信的由来之一),事前并无任何征兆,全法国的圣殿骑士团成员几乎都被逮捕,并被限制使用任何财产,以防止被移转出国。原因是以精明能干著称的“美男子”法王腓力四世先已广发密函,命令各地官员同时打开,执行他的整肃行动。巴黎一地就逮捕了138名,包括其大团长雅克·德·莫莱。他们很多死于审讯,其余处以火刑。

当时教廷位于法国亚维侬的教宗克雷芒五世在圣殿骑士审判中扮演的角色并不单单作为一个帮助迫害者,其多次要求将审判权交付战火浮生,但未得到菲力四世同意。

1307年10月13日星期五(这是“黑色星期五”迷信的由来之一),事前并无任何征兆,全法国的圣殿骑士团成员几乎都被逮捕,并被限制使用任何财产,以防止被移转出国。原因是以精明能干著称的“美男子”法王腓力四世先已广发密函,命令各地官员同时打开,执行他的整肃行动。巴黎一地就逮捕了138名,包括其大团长雅克·德·莫莱。他们很多死于审讯,其余处以火刑。

1314年,莫莱在上火刑架之前,诅咒法王腓力四世和教皇克雷芒五世,说他们会在一年内面临永恒的审判。事实的确与之符合。教皇克雷芒五世一个月后患病而死,“美男子”腓力四世半年后打猎时突然身亡。 ”

Please refer to http://tiny.cc/f0mv6x for more info about Knights Templar.


犹太人及圣殿骑士团的灾难,皆因财富而起。腓力四世为财而驱赶烧杀。



Templars burned at the stake
   
  sing     11/28/2015 20:55

Some of the principal actors in the Tour de Nesle Affair, depicted in 1315, the year after the scandal broke: Philip IV of France (centre) and his family: l-r: his sons, Charles and Philip, his daughter Isabella, himself, his eldest son and heir Louis, and his brother, Charles of Valois.




果如莫莱所咒,腓力四世于 1314年11月29日猝死。腓力四世死前,另一桩事件也或多或少影响了卡佩王朝的走向和终结。

Tour de Nesle Affair 奈斯尔塔丑闻

1313年英王爱德华二世携王后伊莎贝拉赴巴黎拜访老丈人腓力四世。伊莎贝拉的兄长路易和查理请客人们看了一场木偶戏。过后,伊莎贝将精致的绣花钱包分赠给两位哥哥及他们的太太。爱德华二世同王后返回伦敦后,大设晚宴洗尘。席间,王后留意到两个诺曼骑士所佩钱包正是她前些时赠给两位兄嫂的。于是心中起疑,并在1314年访问巴黎时告与其父。

腓力四世遂派眼线监视,发现长子路易之妻玛格丽特和三子查理之妻布兰奇在奈斯尔塔与人吃酒幽会。二子腓力之妻Joan亦有嫌疑。玛格丽特与布兰奇被国会判罪,罚终身监禁。玛格丽特卒于1315年,布兰奇先被羁囚后入修道院。涉嫌二骑士则被处死。琼因丈夫力保,才被判无罪。

史学家虽不乏对此案存疑者,但大都认为确有其事,并且认为伊莎贝拉告发此事,乃别有用心 --- 想让自己的儿子爱德华三世更有希望登上法王宝座。

zt:

Most accounts of the scandal begin with the visit of the king and queen of England to the queen's father in France during 1313. During the visit, Louis and Charles had had a satirical puppet show put on for their guests, and after this Isabella had given new embroidered purses both to her brothers and to their wives. Later in the year, Isabella and Edward held a large dinner in London to celebrate their return and Isabella apparently noticed that the purses she had given to her sisters-in-law were now being carried by two Norman knights, Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay. Isabella concluded that the pair must have been carrying on an illicit affair, and appears to have informed her father of this during her next visit to France in 1314.

Philip IV placed the knights under surveillance for a period, and the scandal began to take shape. The accusations centred on suggestions that Blanche and Margaret had been drinking, eating and engaging in adultery with Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay in the Tour de Nesle over a period. The Tour de Nesle was an old guard tower in Paris next to the river Seine and had been bought by Philip IV in 1308. The third sister-in-law, Joan, was initially said to have been present on some of these occasions and to have known of the affair; later accusations were extended to have included suggestions that she had also been involved in adultery herself.



A 19th-century representation of the Tour de Nesle, where much of the adulterous activity was alleged to have occurred, by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.



A plaque on the northern wall of the Institut de France shows the ancient location of the Tour de Nesle.
   
  sing     11/28/2015 20:58

路易十世 Louis X of France


腓力四世死后,长子路易继位。路易十世吵架王(Louis X the quarreler)为卡佩王朝第十二位国王。在位不足两年:from November 29 , 1314 – June 5, 1316.

“Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I) andCount of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death. ”

路易继位后,第一任妻子玛格丽特仍被监禁,等于以犯人身份做queen consort 。据说王后是被害的,如此,便清除了国王丈夫顺利再婚的路障。王后于 August 14,1315 归天,5天之后,August 19, 1315, 路易就与Clementia 成亲。

路易十世是网球史上记载的第一位有名有姓的player. 一次对打后,路易豪饮冰镇酒,因急性肺炎或脑膜炎, 猝死于1316年6月5日。路易亡殁时王后正身怀六甲。而玛格丽特所生女儿Joan,其血缘被疑。

当时摄政者为路易之弟Philip。 腓力否决了4岁的Joan的王位继承权,原因有二:一是琼年龄尚幼,二是路易与琼的父女关系值得怀疑。当然年龄问题是次要的。

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When Philip IV of France died, his eldest son, Louis I of Navarre, became King of France. Louis’ wife Margaret had been locked up in Chateau Gaillard since 1314 after being found guilty of adultery by King Philip, on the testimony of, amongst others, Louis's sister Isabella. Since there had been no formal annulment, Margaret technically became queen consort when Louis acceded to the throne upon Philip's death, though she was kept locked up. In 1315, the queen died, allegedly strangled or otherwise murdered to clear the way for her husband to remarry. Louis chose Clementia and they married on 19 August 1315; she was crowned queen at Reims on 24 August.

Louis died in June 1316, leaving Clementia several months pregnant.Louis’ brother Philip became regent, denying the rights of Clementia's stepdaughter Joan, who was too young and whose paternity was questioned; and of Clementia herself, who was considered unsuitable to be regent. She gave birth to a son named John in November 1316. King from the moment of his birth, he lived only four days, whereupon the throne was seized by his uncle, who now became Philip V. Clementia and Philip quarrelled over this and he refused to pay her the income Louis had promised her. She wrote repeatedly to Pope John XXII and to her family for help.
   
  sing     11/30/2015 00:20

Funerary convoy of John I.

1316年11月15日,路易的遗腹子出生并当即成为约翰一世John I of France,但这个婴儿国王只活了短短五天。传言说他被叔叔腓力掉包或谋杀。

卡佩王朝首次面临没有男性继承人的局面。约翰一世的叔叔腓力马上自命国王 ---- 腓力五世。

因为支持约翰一世同父异母姐姐Joan继位的不在少数,经过一番斡旋,腓力才争取到叔叔瓦卢瓦伯爵Charles of Valois 的支持,于1317年1月9日在法国东北部的加冕之都兰斯Rheims 匆匆加冕,但大部分贵族拒绝参加,认为腓力是篡权夺位。

1317年2月2日,腓力五世在巴黎临时召集议会,制定规则,指出Joan 作为女性,不能继承法国王位。此举巩固了他既成事实的篡权。自此,萨利克继承法明确规定女性不能继承法国王位,后来延伸为女性的男性后裔也不能继承王位。

如果不是Tour de Nesle Affair ,或是当时能用DNA 确定血缘关系,腓力五世未必能坐上王位宝座,萨利克法也未必会更改。 历史常因许多偶然事件而改变走向。


萨利克法:
http://tinyurl.com/gw8z8ul


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With only his niece between himself and the throne, Philip engaged in some rapid political negotiations and convinced Charles of Valois, who along with Odo IV was championing Joan's rights, to switch sides and support him instead. In exchange for marrying Philip's daughter, Odo IV abandoned his niece's cause, not only her claim to the French throne but also her claim to Navarre's. On the 9 January 1317, with Charles's support, Philip was hastily crowned at . The majority of the nobility, however, refused to attend, there were demonstrations in Champagne, Artois, and Burgundy, and Philip called a rapid assembly of the nobility on 2 February in Paris. Philip laid down the principle that Joan, as a woman, could not inherit the throne of France, played heavily upon the fact that he was now the anointed king, and consolidated what some authors have described as his effective "usurpation" of power. The exclusion of women, and later of their male descendants, was later popularized as the Salic law by the Valois monarchy. Joan, however, did accede in 1328 to the throne of Navarre, which did not hold to the Salic law.
   
  sing     11/30/2015 00:31
Trip to Reims in France | Euromaxx City




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兰斯 (法国城市兰斯(Reims))

兰斯历史可以追溯到罗马帝国时代,市中心还存有古罗马时期的遗迹。兰斯在法国历史上扮演着非常重要的角色,因为它是历任法国国王加冕的地方,前后一共16位法国国王在此接受主教加冕。兰斯做为法国的历史文化名城,城市里有许多世界文化遗产,其中包括历任法国国王加冕之处的兰斯圣母院(Cathedral Notre-Dame de Reims,又译作理姆斯大教堂),法国国王于加冕前后居住、召见大臣的所居所陶宫(Palais du Tau),及守护着加冕用圣油瓶的圣雷米教堂及修道院。兰斯圣母院在第一次世界大战期间被德军毁坏,但随即花费20年重建,它在法国的作用相当于英国的威斯敏斯特教堂,巴黎圣母院亦是仿照其建造。

兰斯(Reims,又译汉斯),法国东北部城市,香槟-阿登大区(Région Champagne-Ardenne)马恩省(Marne,51号省)的一个副省会(Sous préfecture),是整个香槟-阿登大区最大的城市,也是全法国最大的副省会城市。兰斯市区的人口数量和城市规模是该大区首府香槟沙隆(Chalons en Champagne)的四倍以上。兰斯是法国著名的宗教文化中心,被称为“王者之城”。

自11世纪起,法国国王都必须到这个“加冕之都”受冕登基。在法国历史上,共有25位国王在兰斯圣母大教堂加冕,其中包括法兰克王国的奠基者克洛维一世(Clovis I)、路易一世(Louis le Pieux)、路易八世(Louis VIII)、查理七世(Charles VII)、路易十三(Louis XIII)等。

也是在这座圣城,纳粹德国于1945年5月7日签署了第二次世界大战投降书,欧洲乃至世界的历史翻开了崭新的一页。兰斯也是世界名酒香槟(Champagne)的产地,兰斯附近有大约两万处葡萄农家和上百家家香槟厂,每年出产约有2亿瓶香槟,是香槟-阿登大区最大的经济支柱产业。



The windows of Marc Chagall at Cathedral Notre-Dame de Reims
   
  sing     12/05/2015 02:12

Philip the Tall 腓力五世


高大者腓力五世,卡佩王朝第14任国王。现代史学家对其评价相当高,赞扬他有”极富智慧与敏感度 of considerable intelligence and sensitivity", 在三兄弟中”他最明智,最适合搞政治, the wisest and politically most apt of Philip IV's three sons”。 为避免篇幅过长,腓力五世政治上的作为在此略过。

"Philip V (c.1292/1293 – 3 January 1322), the Tall (French: Philippe le Long), was King of France and King of Navarre (as Philip II). He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. "--- wiki



腓力五世在位也只有6年(1316年至1322年),1322年1月3日病逝,年29。

腓力五世身后4朵金花,但并无男嗣。因他1316年修订的萨利克继承法禁止女性继位,他的弟弟查理遂在兰斯大教堂加冕,为查理四世。
   
  sing     12/05/2015 02:14

Charles the Fair 查理四世


“Charles IV (Clermont 18/19 June 1294 – Vincennes 1 February 1328), called the Fair  ”。

美男子查理四世不擅治国,苛捐杂税令百姓不堪重负。

“1327年,查理四世在其妹、英格兰王后法兰西的伊莎贝拉废黜其丈夫英格兰国王爱德华二世的事件中扮演了合谋的角色。 ”

卡佩王朝最后的国王查理四世在位六年,1328年2月1日去世。

查理四世先后有三位王后。

第一任王后布兰奇Blanche of Burgundy 因Tour de Nesle Affair 被监禁后入修道院。两人育有一女一子,儿子1322年早亡。

查理四世1322年继位后解除与布兰奇的婚姻后,先后迎娶了两位王后。第二任王后生产时死亡,男婴只存活了几小时。第三位王后与查理四世生一女,一岁即夭折,后来又生一遗腹女。

查理四世命中无子继位。
   
  sing     12/05/2015 02:15
查理四世无子,卡佩王朝就此终结。谁坐王位?

1328年,查理四世的妹妹伊莎贝拉还在世,身为儿子爱德华三世的regent摄政,实权在握。萨利克继承法禁止女性继位,但伊莎贝拉称她儿子爱德华三世有继承权。

做为查理四世的侄子nephew,爱德华三世是与国王血缘最近的男性亲属。但爱德华三世身份独特。法国贵族岂能让英格兰国王统治法国?! 法国方面因此进步修订萨利克继承法,规定王室女性的后代(不论男女)也不能继承王位。" 1340年,教皇确定在萨利克法下男性不能通过母亲的血统继承王位"。



Philip VI the Fortunate

排除爱德华三世后,即由查理四世的堂兄继位,称腓力六世。幸运王腓力六世的父亲是瓦卢瓦伯爵查理Charles, Count of Valois。瓦卢瓦的查理与查理四世的父亲腓力四世是兄弟,同为腓力三世之子。 腓力六世与查理四世为1st cousin. 因腓力六世之父为瓦卢瓦伯爵,腓力六世遂为瓦卢瓦王朝的第一位国王。瓦卢瓦王朝是卡佩王朝的侧枝,自1328年-1589 年统治法国。

爱德华三世的王后为Philippa of Hainault。 菲利琶的母亲Joan of Valois是菲利六世的妹妹。因此,菲利六世同菲利琶的舅舅。 爱德华三世同菲利六世则是 first cousins once removed.

开始时,爱德华三世倒不反对腓力六世继承王位。但后来由于两国之间的一系列纷争,爱德华三世又声称自己才是法国王位的合法继承人,并以此为借口开打。英法百年战争遂于1337年爆发。

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Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. When King Charles IV the Fair died without a male heir in 1328, the nearest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, who inherited his claim through his mother Isabella of France, the sister of the dead king. It was held in France, however, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the female line according to the ancient Salic Law. At first, Edward seemed to accept Philip's accession as the nearest male relative of Charles IV descended through the male line, however he pressed his claim to the throne of France after a series of disagreements with Philip. The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337.
   
  sing     12/09/2015 01:08
英法之间的主要纷争:

1. Gascony 加斯科涅

约翰王时,英格兰丧失了在法国的大部分领地,只余阿基坦--- 亨利二世的王后Eleanor of Aquitaine 的嫁妆。爱德华三世时,缩为Gascony --- 阿基坦的一部分。法国是想收回Gascony的宗主国,英格兰是又不情愿进贡的诸侯国。英法之间在这方面冲突不断。

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Gascony under the King of England

In the 11th century, Gascony in southwest France had been incorporated into Aquitaine (also known as Guyenne or Guienne) and formed with it the province of Guyenne and Gascony (French: Guyenne-et-Gascogne). The Angevin kings of England became Dukes of Aquitaineafter Henry II married the former Queen of France, Eleanor of Aquitaine, in 1152, from which point the lands were held in vassalage to the French crown. By the 13th century the terms Aquitaine, Guyenne and Gascony were virtually synonymous. At the beginning of Edward III's reign on 1 February 1327, the only part of Aquitaine that remained in his hands was the Duchy of Gascony. The term Gascony came to be used for the territory held by the Angevin (Plantagenet) Kings of England in southwest France, although they still used the title Duke of Aquitaine.

For the first 10 years of Edward III's reign, Gascony had been a major point of friction. The English argued that, as Charles IV had not acted in a proper way towards his tenant, Edward should be able to hold the duchy free of any French suzerainty. However, this line of argument could not be maintained by the English, so in 1329 the 17-year-old Edward III paid homage to Philip VI. Tradition demanded that vassals should approach their liege unarmed with heads uncovered, however Edward demonstrated his reluctance by attending the ceremony by wearing his crown and sword. Despite Edward complying, albeit reluctantly, the French continued to pressure the English administration.


Gascony Tour
   
  sing     12/09/2015 01:19

Map of France with the Loire highlighted



Chateau d'Azay-le-Rideau


说到Gascony, 顺便提下称为法国的花园的世界遗产卢瓦尔河流域(法语:Vallée de la Loire)

百年战争中,英法以卢瓦尔河为界。“During the Hundred Years' War from 1337 to 1453, the Loire River marked the border between the French and the English, who occupied territory to the north.”

"卢瓦尔河(法语:Loire),法国最长的河流,发源于塞文山脉,流程1,020公里(630英里),先向北、西北,后向西注入比斯开湾,两岸有闻名世界的卢瓦尔城堡群。

卢瓦尔河谷城堡(Chateaux of the Loire Valley)是位于法国卢瓦尔河谷地的一个城堡群。卢瓦尔河谷的城堡群大多开始兴建于16世纪中期,现在是法国重要的观光景点。

卢瓦尔河流域(法语:Vallée de la Loire)被称为“法国的花园”和“法语的摇篮”,以其高质量的建筑遗产著称。这些建筑不仅分布在昂布瓦斯、昂热、布卢瓦、希农、南特、奥尔良、索米尔和图尔等历史名城,尤其以众多的城堡世界闻名,例如昂布瓦斯城堡、香波尔城堡、 薇雍德希堡、丽芙城堡和舍农索城堡。

The Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand chateaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. They were originally created as feudal strongholds, over centuries past, in the strategic divide between southern and northern France; now many are privately owned."


France From Above HD - High Definition Views of the Chateaux de la Loire
   
  sing     12/09/2015 01:22
英法纷争之二

法国-苏格兰同盟

The enemy of my enemy is my friend. 英格兰一直想征服苏格兰,苏格兰自然成了法国的盟友。爱德华一世时,苏格兰就同法王腓力四世签订了同盟协约Auld Alliance (Old Alliance),抵抗英格兰入侵。1326年,查理四世又正式续签“老同盟”。

腓力六世为了东征,在马赛港组建了一支庞大的海军舰队。后放弃东征。遂于1336年,将舰队,包括当中的苏格兰海军部分,转至诺曼底,隔着英吉利海峡威胁英格兰。

为应对危机,爱德华三世建议英格兰组建两支军队,一支在“适当时候”对付苏格兰,另一支马上开到Gascony. 同时派大使同法王谈判。


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Franco-Scot alliance

The Kings of England had attempted to subjugate the Scots for some time, which made Scotland a natural ally of France. In 1295 a treaty was signed between France and Scotland during the reign of Philip the Fair. Charles IV formally renewed the treaty in 1326, promising Scotland that if England invaded then France would support the Scots. Similarly, the French would find Scottish support if their own kingdom was attacked. Edward could not succeed in his plans for Scotland if they could count on French support.

Philip VI had assembled a large naval fleet off Marseilles as part of an ambitious plan for a crusade to the Holy Land. However, the plan was abandoned and the fleet, including elements of the Scottish Navy, moved to the English Channel of Normandy in 1336, threatening England. To deal with this crisis, Edward proposed that the English raise two armies, one to deal with the Scots "at a suitable time", the other to proceed at once to Gascony. At the same time ambassadors were to be sent to France with a proposed treaty for the French king.
   
  sing     12/09/2015 01:26
英法纷争之三: Robert III of Artois


也可以说,百年战争是Robert III of Artois 引发的。

1337年4月30日,腓力六世拒绝了英格兰代表团的邀请,并向全法国发出the arrière-ban --- 总动员令。

1337年5月,腓力六世与他的Great Council 大议事会商议后,决定将英格兰的领地Gascony 收归法王,理由:爱德华三世身为法王的诸侯,原该效忠法王,竟公然庇护法王的仇敌---”mortal enemy ” Robert d'Artois.

爱德华三世挑战腓力六世的王位,称自己才是法国王位的合法继承人,并于1340年自封法王。

“It is in the nature of the human being to seek a justification for his actions.” 
Robert d'Artois 不过是双方开战的借口。

另外,佛兰德的纺织业依靠从英格兰进口的羊毛。但因英法交恶,法国的海上势力阻碍了英格兰的羊毛出口和与Gascony之间的葡萄酒贸易。(佛兰德是比利时西部的一个地区。传统意义的“佛兰德”亦包括法国北部和荷兰南部的一部分。-- wiki )


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End of homage

At the end of April 1337, Philip of France was invited to meet the delegation from England but refused. The arrière-ban, literally a call to arms, was proclaimed throughout France starting on 30 April 1337. Then, in May 1337, Philip met with his Great Council in Paris. It was agreed that the Duchy of Aquitaine, effectively Gascony, should be taken back into the king's hands on the grounds that Edward III was in breach of his obligations as vassal and had sheltered the king's 'mortal enemy' Robert d'Artois. Edward responded to the confiscation of Aquitaine by challenging Philip's right to the French throne. When Charles IV died, Edward had made a claim for the succession of the French throne, through the right of his mother Isabella (Charles IV's sister), daughter of Philip IV. Any claim was considered invalidated by Edward's homage to Philip VI in 1329. Edward revived his claim and in 1340 formally assumed the title 'King of France and the French Royal Arms'.

On 26 January 1340, Edward III formally received homage from Guy, half-brother of the Count of Flanders. The civic authorities of Ghent, Ypres and Bruges proclaimed Edward King of France. Edward's purpose was to strengthen his alliances with the Low Countries. His supporters would be able to claim that they were loyal to the "true" King of France and were not rebels against Philip. In February 1340, Edward returned to England to try and raise more funds and also deal with political difficulties.

Relations with Flanders were also tied to the English wool trade, since Flanders' principal cities relied heavily on textile production and England supplied much of the raw material they needed. Edward III had commanded that his chancellor sit on the woolsack in council as a symbol of the pre-eminence of the wool trade. At the time there were about 110,000 sheep in Sussexalone. The great medieval English monasteries produced large surpluses of wool that were sold to Europe. Successive governments were able to make large amounts of money by taxing it. France's sea power led to economic disruptions for England, shrinking the wool trade to Flanders and the wine trade from Gascony.
   
  sing     12/09/2015 01:27

Statue of Robert d'Artois in Versailles



Robert III of Artois 原是法国大贵族,父亲Philip of Artois和母亲Blanche of Brittany 均为卡佩王朝的王室后裔。祖父是阿图瓦伯爵 Robert II, Count of Artois。

1297年8月20日法国与佛兰德人交战---Battle of Furnes,法军由阿图瓦伯爵领兵。法军虽获胜,但阿图瓦伯爵之子Philip of Artois 战死。Philip 之子Robert III of Artois 当时仅十岁。

1302年7月阿图瓦伯爵死于Battle of the Golden Spurs。老伯爵原有三个子女,幼子夭折,儿子Philip 也已丧生,遂根据习俗将领地阿图瓦传给女儿Mahaut.

Robert III of Artois 却认为,他的父亲Philip才是合法继承人,父亲既死,阿图瓦应该传给他--- Robert III of Artois。 但15岁的他无法为自己争取继承权。

1320年,33岁的 Robert 与瓦卢瓦王朝始祖瓦卢瓦伯爵的女儿 Joan of Valois 成亲。腓力六世(Joan 的half brother)1328年登上王位,Robert 功不可没。Robert 后来有段时期还为腓力六世出谋划策,颇受信赖。

1329年,Mahaut 过世,将阿图瓦传给她的女儿Joan II, Countess of Burgundy ---- 腓力五世的王后。

Robert 不甘心,以佛兰德地产遗传例子为据,又提出对阿图瓦的继承权一事。 于是阿图瓦被置于国王监管之下。

Robert又生一计,伪造他父亲的遗嘱。被识破后,得到阿图瓦的希望彻底破灭。1331年,他的财产遭腓力六世没收,他的妻子和两个儿子被监禁。

为了逃避被羁押被处死的厄运,Robert 逃离法国寻求庇护,但他的亲友们都不敢收留他。谁留他,法王向谁宣战。

Robert 最后跑到英格兰,成为英格兰王室顾问的一员,向爱德华三世提供了大量法国宫廷的信息,并且鼓动爱德华三世开战,夺回法兰西王国。

14世纪40年代末,在英格兰和法国流传着一首起誓诗a vowing poem,题为苍鹭之誓 Vow of the Heron(效仿爱德华一世加封骑士的Feast of the Swans), 描述爱德华三世如何进攻法国,以践他向Robert 所许的骑士之诺--- 坐上原归他的法兰西王位。

1342年11月,Robert III of Artois 在War of the Breton Succession 中受伤后,死于痢疾。


zt:

Robert III of Artois (1287–1342) was Lord of Conches-en-Ouche, of Domfront, and of Mehun-sur-Yèvre, and in 1309 he received as appanage the county of Beaumont-le-Roger in restitution for the county of Artois which he claimed. He was also briefly Earl of Richmond in 1341 after the death of John III, Duke of Brittany.

Robert was the son of Philip of Artois, Lord of Conches-en-Ouche, and Blanche of Brittany, daughter of Duke John II, Duke of Brittany, both descended in male line from the Capetian dynasty.

He was only eleven when his father died on 11 September 1298 from wounds he received at the Battle of Furnes on 20 August 1297 against the Flemish people. The early death of his father was an indirect cause of the dispute over the succession to the County of Artois. After the death of his grandfather, Robert II, Count of Artois, in the Battle of Courtrai in 1302, the latter's daughter, Mahaut, inherited the County of Artois in accordance with custom. Because of his age, Robert III could not object to his aunt and assert the rights which he inherited from his father. He would do so later. The rancor and intrigues between Mahaut (sometimes called Mathilde) and Robert occurred within a period of strife between France and England, before the Hundred Years' War.
Around 1320 Robert married Joan of Valois, Countess of Beaumont, daughter of Charles of Valois and his second wife Catherine I of Courtenay.

Robert played an important role in the succession of Philip VI of France (his wife's half-brother) to the throne, and was his trusted adviser for some time. From this he drew a certain influence in the royal council which he used to try to wrest from Mahaut what he considered his county. At Mahaut's death in 1329, the claim passed to her daughter Joan II, Countess of Burgundy. Building on the example of the estate of the County of Flanders, he again raised the matter of succession. Artois was put under the custody of the King of France. However, in 1331, he used a forgery created by Jeanne Divion attesting to the will of his father. This deception was discovered, and Robert lost any hope of acquiring Artois. The forger Divion was condemned at the stake. Robert's property was confiscated by Philip in 1331, and his wife and his sons John and Charles imprisoned. Robert fled France in 1332 to escape arrest and execution, and took refuge with his nephew John II, Marquis of Namur. Philip requested that the Bishop of Liège attack Namur. Accordingly, Robert fled again to John III, Duke of Brabant, his nephew-in-law. Again, the influence of Philip stirred up a war against Brabant, and Robert was exiled again, this time to England. There he joined Edward III and urged Edward–whose wife Philippa of Hainault also descended from Charles of Valois–to start a war to reclaim the Kingdom of France. While in England, he became a member of Edward's royal council and provided extensive information on the French court to the English king. Numerous contemporary chroniclers relate how Robert's influence led directly to the start of the Hundred Years War, specifically because Philip VI cited Edward's unwillingness to expel Robert as the reason for confiscating the Duchy of Aquitaine in May 1337. A vowing poem called the Voeux du héron (Vow of the Heron) circulated in France and England in the late 1340s that depicted Edward's invasion of France as the fulfilment of a chivalric oath made to Robert that he would take the French throne, as was his dynastic right.

Robert followed Edward in his campaigns thereafter, including command of the Anglo-Flemish army at the Battle of Saint-Omer in 1340. He ultimately succumbed to dysentery after being wounded while retreating from the city of Vannes in November 1342, during the War of the Breton Succession. He was originally buried in the Blackfriarschurch, in London, though his grave is now in St. Paul's Cathedral.
   
  sing     12/10/2015 23:08
http://www.york.ac.uk/teaching/history/pjpg/heron.pdf

The Vows of the Heron


I

In the month of September, when summer is on the wane, when the happy birds have ceased to sing and the vines dry up and the grapes are ripe and the trees lose their leaves which cover the roads, in the year 1338, I tell you truthfully, Edward was at London in his marble palace. With him sat dukes, earls, and courtiers and ladies and maidens and many others. Those close to him call him Edward Louis. The king was seated at table, without evil thoughts; with his head bowed, he was thinking of love. He was cousin to the good king of France and held him dear, as his loyal neighbour; he had no thought of war or strife against him. But, when Fortune changes, I believe, then words are spoken that give birth to evil. Thus it occurred at that time, because of a noble vassal who was of high lineage: his name, according to the courtiers, was Robert of Artois. He began the war and the terrible strife in which many fine knights were struck down dead, many ladies were made widows, and there were many orphans, and many fine seamen had their lives shortened, and many good women were forcibly corrupted; and a great many churches were burned and destroyed – and many more will be, unless Jesus brings this to an end.


.............
   
  sing     12/11/2015 01:45
Shakespeare's EDWARD III


《爱德华三世 Edward III》一剧,1596年匿名发行,现在通常归在莎翁名下.
“The Raigne of King Edward the Third, commonly shortened to Edward III, is an Elizabethan play printed anonymously in 1596. It has frequently been claimed that it was at least partly written by William Shakespeare, a view that Shakespeare scholars have increasingly endorsed.[1] The rest of the play was probably written by Thomas Kyd.”---wiki)



戏一开场, Robert III of Artois 即鼓动爱德华三世reclaim 法国王位:


http://www.shakespearealoud.com/edward-iii-full-text/

ACT I. SCENE I. London. A Room of State in the Palace. Flourish.

[Enter King Edward, Derby, Prince Edward, Audley, and
Artois.]

KING EDWARD.
Robert of Artois, banished though thou be
>From France, thy native Country, yet with us
Thou shalt retain as great a Seigniorie:
For we create thee Earl of Richmond here.
And now go forwards with our pedigree:
Who next succeeded Phillip le Bew?

ARTOIS.
Three sons of his, which all successfully
Did sit upon their father’s regal Throne,
Yet died, and left no issue of their loins.

KING EDWARD.
But was my mother sister unto those?

ARTOIS.
She was, my Lord; and only Isabel
Was all the daughters that this Phillip had,
Whom afterward your father took to wife;
And from the fragrant garden of her womb
Your gracious self, the flower of Europe’s hope,
Derived is inheritor to France.
But note the rancor of rebellious minds:
When thus the lineage of le Bew was out,
The French obscured your mother’s Privilege,
And, though she were the next of blood, proclaimed
John, of the house of Valois, now their king:
The reason was, they say, the Realm of France,
Replete with Princes of great parentage,
Ought not admit a governor to rule,
Except he be descended of the male;
And that’s the special ground of their contempt,
Wherewith they study to exclude your grace:
But they shall find that forged ground of theirs
To be but dusty heaps of brittle sand.
Perhaps it will be thought a heinous thing,
That I, a French man, should discover this;
But heaven I call to record of my vows:
It is not hate nor any private wrong,
But love unto my country and the right,
Provokes my tongue, thus lavish in report.
You are the lineal watchman of our peace,
And John of Valois indirectly climbs;
What then should subjects but embrace their King?
Ah, where in may our duty more be seen,
Than striving to rebate a tyrant’s pride
And place the true shepherd of our commonwealth?

KING EDWARD.
This counsel, Artois, like to fruitful showers,
Hath added growth unto my dignity;
And, by the fiery vigor of thy words,
Hot courage is engendered in my breast,
Which heretofore was raked in ignorance,
But now doth mount with golden wings of fame,
And will approve fair Isabel’s descent,
Able to yoke their stubborn necks with steel,
That spurn against my sovereignty in France.
   
  sing     12/27/2015 14:44

To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377


爱德华三世自封法王后,就把盾徽加入了法国的fleurs-de-lys。
   
  sing     12/27/2015 14:49
wiki:

百年战争(英语:Hundred Years' War,法语:Guerre de Cent Ans)1337年-1453年,交战双方是英格兰和法国,后来又加入勃艮地等。它是世界最长的战争之一,长达116年,最后由法胜出,不少新的战术和武器因而发明。

百年战争依局势转变,大约可分四阶段:

第一阶段

1337年-1360年之间,英法争夺佛兰德斯和阿基坦。1340年,英军在斯鲁伊斯海战打败法军,夺得制海权,防止法军渡海入侵。1346年8月,英军先于陆上的克雷西会战大胜,再围攻法国海防要塞加莱港,11个月后成功占领。接着又于本土的内维尔十字之战打败苏格兰入侵,擒获亲法的苏格兰王大卫二世,大大减少其威胁。

1348年,黑死病横扫整个欧洲,两国停战十年。1356年,英格兰再度进攻,夺取法国西南部的基恩和加斯科涅。随即在普瓦捷战役以相同战术再次获胜。法国王室则承受英军横征暴敛、国家经济崩溃、平民起义反抗等内外煎熬,情势非常不利。1360年于布勒丁尼,法国被迫签订极不平等的布勒丁尼和约,割让出卢瓦尔河以南至比利牛斯山脉的全部领土。
   
  sing     12/27/2015 15:00

A miniature of the battle from Jean Froissart's Chronicles, 14th century.


百年战争是后世为英法这个时期的纷争所起的称谓。这段时期由一连串的conflicts 及大战组成。

第一场大战为Battle of Sluys, 斯鲁伊斯海战.

wiki:

斯鲁伊斯海战发生在公元1340年6月24日,为英法百年战争揭开序幕。在这次战役中,法国海军舰队受到严重的打击,使法军无法跨过海峡入侵英国,也让之后的战役大多发生在法国本土。

这场战役发生在斯鲁伊斯(Sluys或Sluys,法语为écluse),当时那是个足以停泊军舰的港口,约在现今比利时西佛兰德省及荷兰西兰省之间。此处的法国舰队为爱德华三世寄给他儿子黑太子爱德华的信中所提到的舰队,数量约有190艘,指挥官为库尔特(Quiéret)及贝胡切特(Béhuchet),当中还有少部分的热那亚雇佣军是由巴巴内罗 (Barbavera) 所指挥。虽然有很多英国史学家声称此战中英国舰队少于法国,但英国舰队6月22日从奥威尔(Orwell)启航时,数量约在200艘左右。在法兰德斯附近时,又与另一支约有50艘船的舰队会合,不过这支舰队上大多是非战斗人员,包括了英王爱德华三世的妻子。

在这次的战役中,法国海军舰队几乎被毁灭。两个指挥官当中,库尔特死在战场上,贝胡切特则是据说被英王爱德华三世处以绞刑,而担任热那亚雇佣军指挥的巴巴内罗则是在隔天早上逃离这片海域。根据当时英国史学家的说法,英军只花了极少的代价便得到胜利,并歼灭两万人左右的法军,不过此数据正确的可能性相当低。战役结束之后,英国舰队停止行动数天,显示其可能也受到相当程度的损失。
   
  sing     12/28/2015 00:38

Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force.



1340年6月22日爱德华三世亲率英国舰队从奥威尔(Orwell)启航, 对,就是George Orwell 深爱的并以之为名的那条河(The writer Eric Blair chose the pen name under which he would later become famous, "George Orwell", because of his love for the river).

据说爱德华三世在涨潮时启航,背对太阳,顺风顺水,占了天时。法军方面迎战时则须面向刺眼的阳光。另外,战术不当的法军的对手是由军事天才爱德华三世统帅的英军。

爱德华三世遣派战船三艘一组,两艘满载弓箭手,一艘装满披甲戴盔的士兵。弓箭手先朝一艘法国舰船雨点般放箭,待靠近时,英军士兵便跳上法船甲板短兵相接,然后获得控制权。 英军的弓箭手使用的是长弓--- longbows, 即 English longbow, 亦称 Welsh longbow ,射箭速度是 20支箭/每分钟, 射程为270米。 法军的弓箭手是热那亚(意大利)雇佣军,使用十字弩---crossbow,一分钟仅能放两只箭。英军的长弓在这次海战和以后几次大战中都大显身手,为英军取胜起了关键性的作用。

战后交战水域尸体横浮,血水腥浓。 "青山寂寂水澌澌,正是将士战死时。浪打尸骨血染水,月冷黄昏鬼守尸。(篡自《姽婳词》)". 一人争王位,多少性命丧!

Battle of Sluys一战法军惨败,英军只损失两艘战船。 制海权落入英军手中。

wiki:

The extant records report that Edward entered the roadstead at high tide on 24 June 1340, and that after maneuvering his ships to windward, sailed his fleet with the sun behind them towards the French. However, as the English fleet approached the Zwin estuary from the northwest, it would appear highly unlikely that the sun would have been behind them, as modern research reveals that high tide would have been at 11:23 a.m. on 24 June.

Edward sent his ships against the French fleet in units of three, two ships crammed with archers and one full of men-at-arms. The English ships with the archers would come alongside a French ship and rain arrows down on its decks, the men-at-arms would then board and take the vessel. The English archers, with their long bows, could accurately shoot twenty arrows per minute at a range of up to 300 yards (270 m), whereas the Genoese crossbowmen could only manage two.

By the end of the battle, the French fleet had been broken at the cost of only two English ships captured, and the water was reported to be thick with blood and corpses.
   
  sing     12/30/2015 02:02
The Battle Of Crécy

   
  sing     12/30/2015 02:08

Battle of Crécy. Image from a 15th-century illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles


克雷西会战 Battle of Crécy 是爱德华三世时期英法之间的第二次大战。英军再次以少胜多。爱德华三世精心布局,而自以为胜券在握的腓力六世方面章法混乱。英军除了长弓再显威力,还以轰鸣的大炮惊吓对方的战马。


wiki:

克雷西会战(英语:Battle of Crécy, 法语:Bataille de Crécy),是英法百年战争中的一场战役,发生于1346年8月26日,英军以英格兰长弓大破法军重骑兵与弩兵。

1337年,英法百年战争爆发。第一场会战是斯鲁伊斯海战,发生于1340年6月23日,英格兰获胜,并且获得多佛海峡的控制权。之后,英格兰国王爱德华三世企图藉道法兰德斯入侵法国,但由于财政上的困难,加上同盟间的不稳定,使得爱德华三世无力持续作战。1340年10月30日,爱德华回到了英格兰。1346年7月,为了支援法兰德斯和布列塔尼处境危险的盟军,爱德华三世率部从朴次茅斯出发,渡海抵达法国北岸。在一个月左右的时间内,他穿过法国西北部地区,来到低地国家背后。法王腓力六世率领的军队比英军强大的多,正紧紧的追赶着前面的敌人。

双方的兵力对比相当的悬殊。当时的法军兵力大约30,000至40,000名重骑兵,并且雇用六千名左右的热那亚十字弓手佣兵,而英军只有约7000名长弓兵、五千名骑士。

由于英军明白他们在数量上处于劣势,故爱德华三世精心的布置了战场,希望将自己在兵力上的劣势,能够配合地形而安排的阵形予以补足。他将其部队平均的分成了三个部分。右翼部队部署在靠近克雷西的地方,并且有一条河流作为其屏障;左翼部队则布阵于瓦迪库而特村的前方,有树林和步兵挖掘的防御工事作为掩护;右翼则由黑太子爱德华率领;至于爱德华三世则率军亲自坐阵中央。整个布阵情况呈现出一个指向东面的倒V字型阵式。而在每个部分的中央,则是由大约一千名骑士所组成的方阵。

摆阵完毕后,爱德华骑马缓行视察部队,鼓励人员努力作战。他们奉命吃午餐,当吃饱休息完之后,再列成阵势,大家坐在地上,将头盔和弓弩放在前面,所以,当法军到达前,部队士兵们的体力和精神都很饱满。

8月26日下午6时左右,法军排成冗长的一路行军纵队到达了战场。没有任何的侦察和警戒就乱哄哄的开始进攻。腓力六世当时还想将部队集结一下再发动攻击。于是将十字弩手调到了前面。但是那些妄自尊大、目空一切的法军骑士们,却不听从指挥命令,在弩兵行动后不久就开始进攻。

此时,热那亚十字弩手纪律严明,他们排成了整齐的队伍,在距离150码的地方停了下来,开始向英军进行射击。但是,由于英军位于一个坡地上,同时由于十字弩本身的问题,导致多数的箭都没有射中目标,英军来说可以说是毫发无伤。于是,热那亚的十字弩手们又再次向前移动,打算将距离再拉近些。此时,英军的长弓手开始发射弓箭。

英军的射击射出铺天盖地的箭雨,使得热那亚十字弩手无法承受,纷纷向后溃散。但后方的法军骑兵却已经等的不耐烦。他们冲上前去,并与热那亚弓十字弩手发生自相践踏,形成一片混乱。法军接下来长达几小时的战斗中,不断进行一次又一次的冲锋、突击,但每一次都被英军的骑兵分队化解,皆以失败收场。战役结束前,法王腓力六世虽然还有部队,但是这些七零八落且一身疲惫的散兵,已经不可能挽回败局。

8月27日上午,爱德华准许他的部队解散去搜括法军死者身上的财物。山坡下躺着无数的法军尸体。在山下的尸体中有1524位勋爵和骑士、约15000名左右的骑兵、十字弩兵和步兵的尸体。其中这时候英军才发现被杀的人当中,甚至包含波希米亚国王、洛林公爵、法兰德斯以下的十位伯爵。同时还有成千上万匹的马做了陪葬。而英军则伤亡约数百人左右。不过,英王爱德华却对如此多的贵族骑士阵亡感到十分的后悔。因为这些法军的死亡,让他们损失了一大笔的可以到手的赎金。
   
  sing     12/30/2015 02:09

John the Blind


法国方面战亡者中,最著名的是同盟者波希米亚国王John von Luxemburg。 50岁的约翰当时已双目失明十年。


wiki:

约翰一世 (波希米亚)

卢森堡的约翰(捷克语:Jan Lucembursky;德语:Johann von Luxemburg,1296年8月10日-1346年8月26日)波希米亚国王(1311年~1346年在位)。

卢森堡的约翰是神圣罗马帝国皇帝亨利七世之子,生于卢森堡。1310年,他在父皇的支持下获得对全部捷克地区的统治权,并成为卢森堡伯爵和波希米亚国王。1311年2月7日,他在布拉格加冕。

约翰在奥地利公爵腓特烈三世和上巴伐利亚公爵路易四世(即皇帝路易四世)争夺神圣罗马帝国皇位的斗争中支持后者,并参加了决定性的米尔多夫战役(1322年)。此役之后,路易成为无可争议的皇帝。然而不久,约翰与路易的关系即告破裂。

1333年至1335年,卢森堡的约翰代表圭尔夫派(教皇派)在意大利作战。1340年起,约翰双目失明。1346年路易四世去世后,约翰的儿子当选为神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理四世。

约翰在百年战争中支持法国。1346年,他在援助法国国王腓力六世抵御英格兰国王爱德华三世入侵时阵亡于克雷西战役。
在约翰统治时期,波希米亚从波兰手中夺取了上卢日策和西里西亚。




Memorial to Jean I, Count of Luxembourg in Crécy
   
  sing     12/31/2015 02:19

The badge of the Prince of Wales


盲约翰当时命随从带他冲锋陷阵,以使他能亲手向敌人砍上一剑(“I require you bring me so far forward, that I may strike one stroke with my sword.”)。随从们为让他如愿,遂将几匹战马的缰绳绑在一起纵马前行, 约翰的马被围在当中。

盲约翰的骑士精神勇乎?愚乎?

约翰之死造就一条现今已过时的俚语:"to fight like King John of Bohemia" , meaning "to fight blindly"---- 像波希米亚国王约翰那样打仗,意为盲目而战.

打扫战场时,盲约翰插着鸵鸟毛的头盔为黑太子爱德华所获,黑太子并采纳了约翰的骑士座右铭Ich dien ("I serve") ,自此Ich dien成为威尔士王子徽章的一部分。现在认为这种说法只是传奇而已。

另外,德语的Ich Dien 同威尔士语的Eich Dyn (Your Man) 发音极相似,黑太子爱德华以此为motto, 会令威尔士士兵更爱戴他。这种说法也无历史证据相佐。


wiki:

According to a longstanding but now discredited legend, the Black Prince obtained the badge from the blind King John of Bohemia, against whom he fought at the Battle of Crécyin 1346. After the battle, the prince is said to have gone to the body of the dead king, and taken his helmet with its ostrich feather crest, afterwards incorporating the feathers into his arms, and adopting King John's motto, "Ich dien", as his own. The story first appears in writing in 1376, the year of the Black Prince's death. There is, however, no sound historical basis for it, and no evidence for King John having used either the crest (he actually bore a crest of vultures' wings) or the motto.

Since a key factor in the English army's victory at Crécy was the use of Welsh archers, it is also sometimes said to have been Edward's pride in the men of Wales which led him to adopt a symbol alluding to their assistance. The German motto "Ich dien" ("I serve") is a near-homophone for the Welshphrase "Eich Dyn" meaning "Your Man", which might have helped endear the young Black Prince to the Welsh soldiers in particular. Again, however, there is no historical evidence to support this theory. In 1917, during the First World War, it was rumoured that the motto might be formally changed to "Eich Dyn" to avoid the use of German.

Prince of Wales Feathers Geyser, Te Whakarewarewa Thermal Valley, Rotorua, New Zealand
   
  sing     01/02/2016 01:11




围攻加莱 The Siege of Calais(1346年9月4日--- 1347年8月3日)

克雷西会战Battle of Crécy(1346年8月26日)之后,英军即乘胜北上, 欲攻取法国北部港口加莱。

英军需要一个防御性极好的法国港口做为据点,以使英军得以喘息并获得给养。

与英国多佛港隔海相望的加莱防御性极好,正是爱德华三世的理想港口。加莱城有两道护城河,一百多年前建造的城墙非常坚固。一旦英军占据加莱,英军就可轻易地自海上为加莱提供补给和防卫。但是a sword has two edges,加莱既易守难攻,爱德华三世自然无法唾手得之。

英军运来大炮(那时大炮威力有限)、弹弩、长梯来攻城也无济于事,1347年2月只好放弃进攻,开始围城。这之后,因为英格兰海军的封锁,法军只在开始围城时为城中成功送过给养一次。因周围沼泽遍地,腓力六世的军队对爱德华三世也奈何不得。 因腓力六世下令死守加莱。加莱市民一直坚持,不肯投降。 但到了六月,城中濒临断水断粮。

1347年8月1日,加莱人在城头点火,以示愿意投降。据说,爱德华三世受降的条件是:加莱市民须交出城门钥匙,并牺牲六个市民的生命。6个市民(“burghers”) 站出来,自愿牺牲自己保全他人性命。爱德华的顾问极力劝说, 身怀六甲的王后菲利琶更是跪下求情:六人若死,对爱德华三世尚未出世的孩子将是不详的厄兆(此婴儿后来夭折)。 盛怒的爱德华三世遂豁免了那六个市民,让他们离开加莱。仁慈的菲利琶因此事而留名后世。当然有说法认为爱德华三世夫妻在联手演双簧,一威一仁。

The Siege of Calais(1346年9月4日--- 1347年8月3日),前后持续了11个月,加莱终于落入英军手中,成为英军进攻法国的桥头堡。英国自此控制加莱200余年,直到1558年,于玛丽一世时才被攻陷,回归法国掌控。



zt:

The Siege of Calais began in 1346, early in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453). Edward III of England asserted dominion over France, and defeated the French navy in theBattle of Sluys in 1340. He went on to make raids throughout Normandy, the last of which led to the Battle of Crécy in 1346. By then, Edward's army in France required supplies and reinforcements from Flanders, so they withdrew to the north. English ships had already left Normandy for England. Edward needed a defensible port where his army could regroup and be resupplied.


The English Channel port of Calais suited Edward's purposes. It was highly defensible. It boasted a double moat and substantial city walls built a hundred years earlier. The citadel in the northwest corner of Calais had its own moat and additional fortifications. Once taken, Calais could be resupplied and defended easily by sea. But the defences which made Calais attractive to Edward also made it difficult to seize.

The English laid siege. Philip VI of France failed to deliver relief, and the starving city surrendered after almost a year. The Kingdom of England held Calais until 1558. It was her last possession in mainland France. 

In November the English were supplied with cannon, catapults, and long ladders, but could not breach the city walls. Edward broke off the attack by February and initiated a siege. One more French supply convoy succeeded in reaching the city, but the English navy repelled all further supply attempts. Still, King Philip continued his assault. Both armies received additional reinforcements that spring. Philip's French forces still could not displace the English, who benefited from a position surrounded by marshland.

By June, the city's supplies of food and fresh water were nearly depleted. Another French supply convoy was blocked by the English fleet two months later. Five hundred children and elderly were expelled from the city so that the remaining healthy adult men and women might survive. One version of events holds that the English refused to allow these exiles to approach, so they starved to death just outside the city walls. That version of events was contradicted by the contemporary Flemish chronicler Jean Le Bel, who praised Edward III for his charity in feeding and granting free passage and a small monetary gift to each expelled person.

On August 1, the city lit fires signaling they were ready to surrender. Reportedly, Edward had offered to end the siege if citizens of Calais would surrender the keys to the city gates – and would sacrifice their lives. Six citizens, or “burghers,” volunteered. Edward was persuaded by his advisers to allow the remaining citizens to live. After providing them with some provisions, he allowed them to leave the city. Philip destroyed the encampment from which his army had been planning to attack the English so that it would not fall into their hands.

Although the burghers expected to be executed, their lives were spared by the intervention of England's queen,Philippa of Hainault, who persuaded her husband to exercise mercy by claiming that their deaths would be a bad omen for her unborn child. (Her son, Thomas of Windsor, only lived for one year.)


Calais fell under English control and remained as such until 1558, providing a foothold for English raids in France. Calais was finally lost by the English monarch Mary I following the 1558 siege of Calais.




Siege of Calais
   
  sing     01/02/2016 01:12

The Burghers of Calais by Auguste Rodin, Dimensions 201.6 cm × 205.4 cm × 195.9 cm (79 3⁄8 in × 80 7⁄8 in × 77 1⁄8 in)


THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS ---- The Citizens of Calais, 加莱市民(加莱义民)


THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS 加莱义民群雕,是罗丹最著名的雕塑作品之一。

1884年9月,加莱市长建议竖起一座碑,纪念Eustache de Saint Pierre(当时的加莱市长,第一位自愿献身) 和他的同伴们。雕塑家罗丹被荐。罗丹决定雕塑所有六位市民“slow procession towards death 缓慢走向死亡”的那一刻。被这件义举感动的罗丹愿意只收一件雕塑的报酬(1万5千法郎)而完成六件塑像。

罗丹手下的雕塑表现面临死亡时的绝望,放弃,勇气,茫然,或心神不定(despair, resignation, courage, impassiveness, or uncertainty)等种种情感, 而非所谓的大无畏的英雄主义气概。

罗丹的设计当时比较有争议,似有悖英雄人物的光辉形象,而展示常人走向生命终点时必须面对的痛苦、悲哀与宿命(“pain, anguish and fatalism”)。 而对罗丹,这丝毫不妨碍六位高贵市民的英雄性:自我牺牲的英雄主义。

这组雕像或竖立在较低的底座上,或就在草坪上,你可以看见他们颈上的绳索,看见他们各自不同的触动你的眼神。


zt:

In September 1884, the Mayor of Calais,Omer Dewavrin, suggested erecting a monument as a tribute to the heroism of Eustache de Saint Pierre and his companions, with the aid of a national appeal fund. Alphonse Prosper Isaac, a Calais-born painter who had settled in Paris, was asked to advise the monument committee on the sculptor to be chosen. He put forward Rodin’s name. As soon as he started reading Froissart’s account of the historic episode, Rodin began working on the project, even before the commission was confirmed. He decided not represent just one burgher of Calais but all six in a “slow procession towards death”: Eustache de Saint Pierre, Jean d’Aire, Pierre and Jacques de Wissant,Andrieu d’Andres and Jean de Fiennes.

The notion of collective sacrifice was emphasized even in the first maquette.The six figures, not yet individualized, were presented on the same plane, one next to the other, with no visible order of importance and all clad in the loose garments of men about to be executed. They were placed on a very high rectangular base, adorned with bas-reliefs, which formed a triumphal pedestal. This first maquette was greeted enthusiastically by the committee. Rodin was officially awarded the commission for the monument and the price was set at 15,000 francs.
 
He then pursued his investigations into the identity of each figure and made them express the different feelings experienced by men on the verge of death: despair, resignation, courage, impassiveness or uncertainty.He modeled them directly in their actual size, first unclothed, then clothed in the type of tunics worn by the condemned men. He arranged real shirts dipped in plaster on the nude studies, so that the bodily build could be seen under the garments.
 
Rodin's design was controversial. The public had a lack of appreciation for it because it didn't have "overtly heroic antique references" which were considered integral to public sculpture. It was not a pyramidal arrangement and contained no allegorical figures. It was intended to be placed at ground level, rather than on a pedestal. The burghers were not presented in a positive image of glory; instead, they display "pain, anguish and fatalism". To Rodin, this was nevertheless heroic, the heroism of self-sacrifice.
   
  sing     01/04/2016 00:59
Rodin - The Burghers of Calais

   
  sing     01/06/2016 00:04

Eustache de staint Pierre, Berthélemy.



身怀六甲的菲利琶王后为加莱义民跪下求情一事,在莎翁的《爱德华三世 Edward III》一剧中有描述。
摘抄片断兼附本人粗译:

ACT V. SCENE I. Picardy. The English Camp before Calais.

[Enter six Citizens in their Shirts, bare foot, with halters about their necks.]
身着上衣, 光着双脚,六个市民颈上套着绳索走入

ALL. 六位市民
Mercy, king Edward, mercy, gracious Lord!
求您宽恕,爱德华国王,求您慈悲,仁慈的君主!

KING EDWARD. 爱德华国王
Contemptuous villains, call ye now for truce?
Mine ears are stopped against your bootless cries:—
Sound, drums alarum; draw threatening swords!
傲慢不恭的家伙们,现在要求和了?
我的耳朵懒得听你们无用的哭喊----
击鼓警告,拔剑出鞘!

FIRST CITIZEN. 第一位市民
Ah, noble Prince, take pity on this town,
And hear us, mighty king:
We claim the promise that your highness made;
The two days’ respite is not yet expired,
And we are come with willingness to bear
What torturing death or punishment you please,
So that the trembling multitude be saved.
啊,尊贵的君主,请怜悯这座城市
请聆听我们,强大的国王:
我们来兑现您的保证
两天的延缓还未逾期,
要杀要罚随你,我们六人都情愿承受,
只要城中战栗的百姓们能得救。

KING EDWARD. 爱德华国王
My promise? Well, I do confess as much:
But I do require the chiefest Citizens
And men of most account that should submit;
You, peradventure, are but servile grooms,
Or some felonious robbers on the Sea,
Whom, apprehended, law would execute,
Albeit severity lay dead in us:
No, no, ye cannot overreach us thus.
我的保证? 嗯,我确实做了那样的保证:
但我要求加莱交出最高贵最有声望的市民;
而你们几个可能只是顺从的下人,
或是犯了重罪的海盗,
关在牢里等着被依法处决,
而生杀权由我们掌控:
算了吧,你们骗不了我们。

SECOND CITIZEN. 第二位市民
The Sun, dread Lord, that in the western fall
Beholds us now low brought through misery,
Did in the Orient purple of the morn
Salute our coming forth, when we were known;
Or may our portion be with damned fiends.
令人敬畏的君王,那此刻正俯视着我们的
西沉的太阳,曾引领我们度过苦难,
在今晨东方紫色的曦光里
为我们挺身而出的义举而致意,那时我们的高贵才为人知;
太阳也或许是祝我们与该死的恶魔同命运。


KING EDWARD. 爱德华三世
If it be so, then let our covenant stand:
We take possession of the town in peace,
But, for your selves, look you for no remorse;
But, as imperial justice hath decreed,
Your bodies shall be dragged about these walls,
And after feel the stroke of quartering steel:
This is your doom;—go, soldiers, see it done.
果然如此,那我们的协约仍然有效:
我们将和平占领加莱,
但你们几人不得反悔;
按照皇室法令,
你们的身体将被铡刀肢解,
然后沿城墙拖街示众:
这是你们的厄运;--- 去吧 ,士兵们,执行命令。

QUEEN PHILLIP. 菲利琶王后
Ah, be more mild unto these yielding men!
It is a glorious thing to stablish peace,
And kings approach the nearest unto God
By giving life and safety unto men:
As thou intendest to be king of France,
So let her people live to call thee king;
For what the sword cuts down or fire hath spoiled,
Is held in reputation none of ours.
啊,请对这些投降的人们宽大些吧!
建立和平才是伟大的事业。
除了上帝,只有国王
才能赐人以生命和安全:
您既一心要做法国国王,
那就该让她的子民活着称您为王;
因为刀剑所杀或火焰所毁,
都不会成就我们的声望。

KING EDWARD. 爱德华三世
Although experience teach us this is true,
That peaceful quietness brings most delight,
When most of all abuses are controlled;
Yet, insomuch it shall be known that we
As well can master our affections
As conquer other by the dint of sword,
Phillip, prevail; we yield to thy request:
These men shall live to boast of clemency,
And, tyranny, strike terror to thy self.

当所有其他虐行得到惩罚
和平会带来最大的欢愉,
经验告诫我们,这固然是对的;
然而,也须明白
我们要控制情感
就如用刀剑征服世界。
菲利琶,你赢了;我们听从你的请求:
这些人将活着夸耀我的仁慈,
暴行,自己吓自己吧。
   
  sing     01/06/2016 23:14

Battle of Neville's Cross

爱德华三世能够围攻加莱达十一月之久,原因之一是已无后顾之忧。 苏格兰的大卫二世于1346年10月17日的Battle of Neville's Cross 内维尔十字之战中被英军俘获。

内维尔十字之战,英军又一次以少胜多。

wiki:

内维尔十字之战 (Battle of Neville's Cross)是中世纪时英格兰王国与苏格兰王国之间的一场战役,具体发生在1346年10月17日,地点在英格兰北部达拉谟附近的内维尔十字。战役结果是英格兰王国地方军队以少胜多,战胜了苏格兰王国由国王亲自领兵的大部队。这一骄人战绩在之后数百年内仍为英格兰人引以为豪。

历史背景

1337年,英格兰与法兰西之间的百年战争拉开帷幕。1341年,长期受法国国王腓力六世庇护的苏格兰年青国王大卫二世从法国返回苏格兰,亲自领导在苏格兰地区已经进行了近十年的对英战争(第二次独立战争),从北方威胁英格兰。

1346年,英格兰国王爱德华三世亲率大军跨海进攻法国,9月起对加莱进行围城。腓力六世急请大卫二世出兵入侵英格兰,希望能迫使爱德华三世分兵回救本土。腓力六世教说英格兰北方当时已是“毫无防卫的真空地带”,苏格兰军队可以任意作为。大卫面对着与法国长期的老同盟关系,决定出兵侵略英格兰。


交战经过

1346年10月7日,大卫二世率领约12000名士兵,跨越国境进入英格兰。但是苏格兰军队没有善加利用其突然袭击的优势,一路上行进过慢,在卡莱尔等地收取当地的保护费,用了整整九天时间才于10月16日到达初始目标杜伦附近。

而于此同时,英格兰北方却在积极组织力量迎战苏格兰军队。英格兰方的总指挥是约克大主教威廉·佐奇(William Zouche)。但是由于英格兰主力部队正在欧洲大陆对加莱围攻,本土能召集起来的军队很少。佐奇开赴战场附近时手下只有3000至4000人,而另外3000人正在赶赴战场,最终没有赶上战役。

10月16日,杜伦许诺向苏格兰军队支付巨额保护费一千英镑,但是要到10月18日才能与付。苏格兰军队同意建议后,当晚在周围驻扎。

直到10月17日战役当天的早晨,苏格兰军队才偶然发现附近有英格兰军队的存在。闻讯后的大卫二世下令将军队行进到杜伦以西2公里的小高地内维尔十字,准备迎战。但是两军列队后,却发现战场中间有很多的障碍物,不利于进攻时的整体推进。于是两方面全部采取守势,都不愿意主动出击。英格兰军队深知拖延的时间越久,援军到达的可能性越大,对苏格兰军队也越不利。

英格兰军队用著名的长弓手不停骚扰苏格兰军,最终苏格兰军队决定出击。但是战场地形确实不利于推进,英格兰军队很容易就防守住苏格兰军的进攻,并造成大量伤亡。

苏格兰两位摄政大臣之一的罗伯特·斯图亚特在此期间离开了战场,有临阵脱逃之嫌。

战事到了下午,苏格兰军队伤亡惨重,国王大卫二世的部队也不得不撤退。大卫二世本人的撤退却并不顺利,据说在被英格兰士兵发现后,经过一番顽强抵抗,面部中两箭,最终被俘虏。
   
  sing     01/06/2016 23:15



还记得电影《Braveheart 勇敢的心》中的Robert the Bruce 吧,即带领苏格兰的民族英雄罗伯特一世。罗伯特一世前三个孩子都是女儿。“苏格兰议会通过法令,如果最后布鲁斯无子而终,王位将由他已故长女马乔里的独子罗伯特·斯图亚特继承。” 在罗伯特一世50岁那年,儿子大卫于1324年3月5日出世,即后来的大卫二世, David II of Scotland.

罗伯特一世于 1329年6月7日,54岁时病逝。 当时5岁的大卫二世登基。

大卫二世的第一任王后即为爱德华三世的亲妹妹Joan of England 英格兰的琼公主。 “1328年,根据苏格兰王国与英格兰王国的北安普顿条约,4岁的大卫与英格兰新国王爱德华三世7岁的亲妹妹英格兰的琼公主成婚,以示两国友好。 “

大卫二世继续与法国的Auld Alliance 老同盟, 1346年10月欲在"内维尔十字"一战中击败英军,为加莱解围,不料想自己却被俘,被英军扣押11年。大卫被俘后,王后琼返回伦敦,经常到Castle Rising 探望她母亲Isabella。 1357年10月大卫二世被重金赎回,归返苏格兰,王后琼并未跟随,而一直留在伦敦。

大卫二世与琼无子嗣,后再婚亦无子女。House of Bruce 布鲁斯王朝遂终结。


wiki:

大卫二世 (David II of Scotland)(1324年3月5日-1371年2月22日),是14世纪中叶苏格兰国王,也是布鲁斯王朝的第二代和末代君王。他幼年登基,一生波折,最后却由于没有子女,而让王权传到了外甥的斯图亚特家族。

大卫的父亲罗伯特·布鲁斯领导苏格兰赢得了第一次独立战争的胜利,最终登王位称罗伯特一世。但是布鲁斯始终无子,于是苏格兰议会通过法令,如果最后布鲁斯无子而终,王位将由他已故长女的独子罗伯特·斯图亚特继承。

1324年,50岁的罗伯特·布鲁斯终于有了儿子大卫,大卫也成了王位的第一继承人。1328年,根据苏格兰王国与英格兰王国的北安普顿条约,4岁的大卫与英格兰新国王爱德华三世7岁的亲妹妹英格兰的琼公主(Joan of England)成婚,以示两国友好。

1329年6月7日,罗伯特·布鲁斯去世,5岁的大卫成为苏格兰国王,称“大卫二世”。1331年11月,大卫二世在斯昆行加冕礼。
但是与此同时,曾称苏格兰国王的约翰·巴里奥之子爱德华·巴里奥获得了英格兰国王爱德华三世的暗中支持,带兵进入苏格兰,自称自己家族才是苏格兰真正的国王,第二次独立战争爆发。爱德华·巴里奥在1332年后称苏格兰国王,但是基本不获苏格兰人支持,是英格兰的傀儡政权。苏格兰支持布鲁斯家族的贵族与民众与之展开战斗,但是在英格兰军队的协助下,巴里奥方取得绝对军事优势。

1334年5月,年幼的大卫与王后逃到法国避难,得到法兰西国王腓力六世的保护。

1337年,英法百年战争爆发,英格兰军队不得不转移对于苏格兰战事的注意力。1341年,独立战争的天平已经倒向苏格兰方,17岁的大卫返回苏格兰执政,直接领导对英战争,希望能不负他父亲的威名。他坚守与自己同盟腓力六世的约定,连续率军进攻英格兰北方的目标,迫使爱德华三世分兵救援。

1346年,为了解救英军对法国加莱的围城,大卫亲率12000人[来源请求]跨越国境远征英格兰。两军在英格兰境内杜汉(Durham)附近的内维尔十字发生激战,结果苏格兰军队几乎全军覆没。大卫本人面部中两箭,被英格兰军队俘虏。

大卫二世在英格兰温莎城堡等地被关押了十一年,直到1357年两国达成协议,第二次独立战争结束。大卫二世被放回苏格兰,但是苏格兰王国必须缴纳高额赎金。

大卫二世回国后,发现贫穷的王国根本担负不起这笔债务。由于他本人无子女,他曾试图与爱德华三世协商,用指定英格兰的某王子为苏格兰王位继承人为交换,试图免去支付赎金。但是这项计划遭到苏格兰政府内外的一致反对,最终没能实行,而大卫二世与各方的矛盾也日益加剧。

1369年,大卫与第二任妻子离婚,并准备迎娶第三任妻子。但是1371年,大卫二世便在南艾尔郡登多纳德城堡去世,最终没有留下任何子女。
   
  和谈     01/07/2016 22:27
每次到博物馆面对林林总总的展品,基本上两眼一抹黑。平时没有了解、积累,出去旅游也只能是到此一游式的————跟线偶得。
   
  sing     01/07/2016 22:35
"积累", 积累, 积累。 所言极是! 我对艺术历史也“基本上两眼一抹黑”。且读且学。
   
  sing     01/09/2016 00:12

Robert II, king of Scots


在与英军的内维尔十字之战 Battle of Neville's Cross 中,苏格兰的摄政大臣罗伯特·斯图亚特Robert Stewart 临阵脱逃。Robert Stewart 是老国王罗伯特一世Robert the Bruce 的外孙( Bruce长女马乔里公主的独子),在大卫二世出生前是苏格兰王位的指定继承人。 尽管大卫二世在内维尔十字战之后对外甥Robert Stew一直耿耿于怀, 大卫死后,王位仍被罗伯特·斯图亚特Robert Stewart --- 罗伯特二世继承。

罗伯特二世为斯图亚特王朝(House of Stewart, 自Mary I of Scots之后又称Stuart)的首位君王。

斯图亚特王朝自1371年罗伯特二世起,到1714年的Anne, Queen of Great Britain, 绵延343多年。 1603年时, 信奉新教的James VI of Scots, 被独身的英格兰女王Elizabeth I 指定为接班人,于是James VI of Scots 同时成为 James I of England and Ireland, 英格兰与苏格兰终于统一。 到底谁统一了谁? 英格兰、苏格兰,及至整个欧洲王室的血脉都混得厉害。

“苏格兰国王詹姆斯五世临终前曾感叹自己家族的王权是“由一个女人而来”,指的就是大卫二世的同父异母姐姐马乔里公主(罗伯特二世的母亲)。(wiki)”


zt:

罗伯特二世(1316年3月2日-1390年4月19日),是14世纪后期苏格兰王国的君主,也是统治苏格兰(和之后英格兰)长达三百多年的斯图亚特王朝的第一代君王。

罗伯特是第六代苏格兰王室总务官(High Steward of Scotland)沃尔特·斯图亚特(Walter Stewart)和苏格兰国王罗伯特·布鲁斯长女马乔里公主所生的独子,继承了总务官的头衔。马乔里公主怀孕后期坠落马下,不治身亡,但是她腹中的罗伯特却存活了下来。

早在1318年罗伯特还是婴儿时,苏格兰议会通过议案,宣布如果罗伯特·布鲁斯无嫡子以继承王位的话,苏格兰王位应该传给他的外孙罗伯特。但是在1324年,罗伯特·布鲁斯的儿子大卫诞生,并在1329年布鲁斯去世后继位苏格兰国王,即大卫二世。
1332年,苏格兰第二次独立战争开始,年幼的大卫二世远避法国。罗伯特·斯图亚特与第三代莫瑞伯爵约翰·蓝道夫(John Randolph)一起摄政国事,与英格兰军队及他们扶持的苏格兰国王爱德华·巴里奥作战。

1341年,大卫二世返回苏格兰领导战争。但是,1346年,苏格兰军队在英格兰北部内维尔十字大败,大卫二世被俘监禁,莫瑞伯爵战死。罗伯特在战斗开始前因故撤离,躲过一劫,回到苏格兰后,成为唯一的摄政大臣。

1357年,英格兰王国和苏格兰王国议和,大卫二世被释放。罗伯特因为在内维尔十字之战涉嫌临阵脱逃,受到怀疑。当时仍然无嗣的大卫二世示意宁可将王位传给英格兰国王也不会留给自己的外甥罗伯特。

1363年,罗伯特曾试图起兵造反,但是很快投降,之后与他的四个儿子一起被监禁。直到1371年,大卫二世病重却仍然无嗣,罗伯特才被释放。

1371年2月大卫二世去世。3月,罗伯特在斯昆修道院加冕,继其外公而称罗伯特二世。

继位后的罗伯特二世因为年事已高,虽在位近20年,却没有什么突出成绩,其统治期间与英格兰的几次战斗也没有参加。
   
  sing     01/09/2016 00:15
House of Stuart

   
  sing     01/09/2016 14:42
回到百年战争。

百年战争有五大决定性战役,1346年的克雷西会战Battle of Crécy 为第一大战,爱德华三世大败法军。

法国重镇加莱沦陷后,爱德华三世更“准备进军巴黎加冕。1348年,他拒绝了竞选神圣罗马帝国皇帝的邀请。 ” 但这时黑死病正肆虐整个欧洲,英法两国因此休战数年。直到1356年,英军再度开战。

黑死病的可怕恐怖,在薄伽丘的《Decameron 十日谈》开篇中有一长段描写。 相之于但丁的《神曲》,《十日谈》被称之为《人曲》。在这一集将提到的乔叟的《坎特伯雷故事集》,即深受《十日谈》的影响。



zt:

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicates that thepathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, probably causing several forms of plague.

黑死病是人类历史上最严重的瘟疫之一。起源于亚洲西南部,一说起源于黑海城市卡法,约在1340年代散布到整个欧洲,而“黑死病”之名是当时欧洲的称呼。这场瘟疫在全世界造成了大约7500万人死亡,根据估计,瘟疫爆发期间的中世纪欧洲约有占人口总数30%-60%的人死于黑死病。

中世纪的人们称14世纪的灾难为“大瘟疫”。丹麦的年鉴第一次用“黑色的”来描述这一事件,不只是因为患者晚期的皮肤会因皮下出血变黑,更确切的是指此事件给人带来灰暗可怕的黑色阴霾。
   
  sing     01/09/2016 14:43
《Decameron 十日谈》中关于黑死病的描写:

在我主降生后第一千三百四十八年,意大利的城市中最美丽的城市——就是那繁华的佛罗伦萨,发生了一场可怖的瘟疫。这场瘟疫不知道是受了天体的影响,还是威严的天主降于作恶多端的人类的惩罚;它最初发生在东方,不到几年工夫,死去的人已不计其数;而且眼看这场瘟疫不断地一处处蔓延开去,后来竟不幸传播到了西方。大家都束手无策,一点防止的办法也拿不出来。城里各处污秽的地方都派人扫除过了,禁止病人进城的命令已经发布了,保护健康的种种措施也执行了;此外,虔诚的人们有时成群结队、有时零零落落地向天主一再作过祈祷了;可是到了那一年的初春,奇特而可怖的病症终于出现了,灾难的情况立刻严重起来。

    这里的瘟疫,不象东方的瘟疫那样,病人鼻孔里一出鲜血,就必死无疑,却另有一种征兆。染病的男女,最初在鼠蹊间或是在胳肢窝下隆然肿起一个瘤来,到后来愈长愈大,就有一个小小的苹果,或是一个鸡蛋那样大小。一般人管这瘤叫“疫瘤”,不消多少时候,这死兆般的“疫瘤”就由那两个部分蔓延到人体各部分。这以后,病征又变了,病人的臂部、腿部,以至身体的其他各部分都出现了黑斑或是紫斑,有时候是稀稀疏疏的几大块,有时候又细又密;不过反正这都跟初期的毒瘤一样,是死亡的预兆。

    任你怎样请医服药,这病总是没救的。也许这根本是一种不治之症,也许是由于医师学识浅薄,找不出真正的病源,因而也就拿不出适当的治疗方法来——当时许许多多对于医道一无所知的男女,也居然象受过训练的医师一样,行起医来了。总而言之,凡是得了这种病、侥幸治愈的人,真是极少极少,大多数病人都在出现“疫瘤”的三天以内就送了命;而且多半都没有什么发烧或是其他的症状。

    这瘟病太可怕了,健康的人只要一跟病人接触,就染上了病,那情形仿佛干柴靠近烈火那样容易燃烧起来。不,情况还要严重呢,不要说走近病人,跟病人谈话,会招来致死的病症,甚至只要接触到病人穿过的衣服,摸过的东西,也立即会染上了病。

    骇人听闻的事还有呢。要不是我,还有许多人眼见目睹,那么,种种事情即使是我从最可靠的人那儿听来的,我也不敢信以为真,别说是把它记录下来了。这一场瘟疫的传染可怕到这么一个程度,不仅是人与人之间会传染,就连人类以外的牲畜,只要一接触到病人、或是死者的什么东西,就染上了病,过不了多少时候,就死了,这种情形也是屡见不鲜。有一天,我亲眼看到有这么一回事:大路上扔着一堆破烂的衣服,分明是一个染病而死的穷人的遗物,这时候来了两头猪,大家知道,猪总是喜欢用鼻子去拱东西的,也是合该它们倒楣,用鼻子把那衣服翻了过来,咬在嘴里,乱嚼乱挥一阵,隔不了一会,这两头猪就不住地打起滚来,再过了一会儿,就象吃了毒药似的,倒在那堆衣服上死了。

活着的人们,每天看到这一类或大或小的惨事,心里就充满着恐怖和种种怪念头;到后来,几乎无论哪一个人都采取了冷酷无情的手段:凡是病人和病人用过的东西,一概避不接触,他们以为这样一来,自己的安全就可以保住了。

    有些人以为唯有清心寡欲,过着有节制的生活,才能逃过这一场瘟疫。于是他们各自结了几个伴儿,拣些没有病人的洁净的宅子住下,完全和外界隔绝起来。他们吃着最精致的食品,喝着最美的酒,但总是尽力节制,绝不肯有一点儿过量。对外界的疾病和死亡的情形他们完全不闻不问,只是借音乐和其他的玩意儿来消磨时光。

    也有些人的想法恰巧相反,以为唯有纵情欢乐、纵饮狂歌,尽量满足自己的一切欲望,什么都一笑置之,才是对付瘟疫的有效办法。他们当真照着他们所说的话实行起来,往往日以继夜地,尽情纵饮,从这家酒店逛到那家酒店,甚至一时兴来,任意闯进人家住宅,为所欲为。也没有人来阻拦他们,因为大家都是活了今天保不住明天,哪儿还顾得到什么财产不财产呢。所以大多数的住宅竟成了公共财产,哪一个过路人都可以大模大样地闯进去,只当是自己的家一般占用着。可是,尽管他们这样横冲直撞,对于病人还是避之唯恐不及。

    浩劫当前,这城里的法纪和圣规几乎全都荡然无存了;因为神父和执法的官员,也不能例外,都死的死了,病的病了,要不就是连一个手底下人也没有,无从执行他们的职务了;因此,简直每个人都可以为所欲为。

    还有好多人又采取了一种折衷的态度。他们既不象第一种人那样严格节制着自己的饮食,也不象第二种人那样大吃大喝、放荡不羁。他们虽然也满足自己的欲望,但是适可而止,他们并没有闭户不出,也到外面去走走,只不过手里总要拿些什么鲜花香草,或是香料之类,不时放到鼻子前去嗅一下,清一清神,认为要这样才能消除那充满在空气里的病人、药物、和尸体的气味。

    有些人为了自身的安全,竟抱着一种更残忍的见解。说,要对抗瘟疫,只有一个办法——唯一的好办法,那就是躲开瘟疫。有了这种想法的男男女女,就只关心他们自己,其余的一概不管。他们背离自己的城市,丢下了自己的老家,自己的亲人和财产,逃到别的地方去——至少也逃到佛罗伦萨的郊外去,仿佛是天主鉴于人类为非作歹,一怒之下降下惩罚,这惩罚却只落在那些留居城里的人的头上,只要一走出城,就逃出了这场灾难似的。或者说,他们以为留住在城里的人们末日已到,不久就要全数灭亡了。

    这些人的见解各有不同,却并没个个都死,也并没全都逃出了这场浩劫。各地都有好些各色各样的人在自身健康时,首先立下榜样,教人别去理会那得病的人,后来自己病倒了,也遭受人们的遗弃,没人看顾,就这样断了气。

    真的,到后来大家你回避我,我回避你;街坊邻舍,谁都不管谁的事了,亲戚朋友几乎断绝了往来,即使难得说句话,也离得远远的。这还不算,这场瘟疫使得人心惶惶,竟至于哥哥舍弃弟弟,叔伯舍弃侄儿,姊妹舍弃兄弟,甚至妻子舍弃丈夫都是常有的事。最伤心、叫人最难以置信的,是连父母都不肯看顾自己的子女,好象这子女并非他们自己生下来似的。

    因此许许多多病倒的男女都没人看顾,偶然也有几个朋友,出于慈悲心,来给他们一些安慰。不过这是极少数的;偶然也有些仆人贪图高额的工资,肯来服侍病人,但也很少很少,而且多半是些粗鲁无知的男女,并不懂得看护,只会替病人传递茶水等物,此外就只会眼看着病人死亡了。这些侍候病人的仆人,多半因此丧失了生命,枉自赚了那么些钱!

    就因为一旦染了病,再也得不到邻舍亲友的看顾,仆人又这样难雇,就发生了一种闻所未闻的风气。那些奶奶小姐,不管本来怎么如花似玉,怎么尊贵,一旦病倒了,她就再也不计较雇用一个男子做贴身的仆人,也再不问他年老年少,都毫不在乎地解开衣裙,把什么地方都在他面前裸露出来,只当他是一个女仆。她们这样做也是迫于病情,无可奈何,后来有些女人保全了性命的,品性就变得不那么端庄,这也许是一个原因吧。

    有许多病人,假如能得到好好的调理,本来可以得救,现在却都死去了。瘟疫的来势既然这么凶猛,病人又缺乏护理,叫呼不应,所以城里日日夜夜都要死去大批大批的人,那情景听着都叫人目瞪口呆,别说是当场看到了。至于那些幸而活着的人,迫于这样的情势,把许多古老的习俗都给改变过来了。

    照向来的风俗说来(现在也还可以看到),人死了,亲友邻居家的女眷都得聚集在丧事人家,向死者的家属吊唁;那家的男子们就和邻居以及别处来的市民齐集在门口。随后神父来到,人数或多或少,要看那家的排场而定。棺材由死者的朋友抬着,大家点了一支蜡烛,拿在手里,还唱着挽歌,一路非常热闹,直抬到死者生前指定的教堂。但是由于瘟疫越来越猖獗,这习俗就算没有完全废除,也差不多近于废除了;代之而起的是一种新的风气。病人死了,不但没有女人们围绕着啜泣,往往就连断气的一刹那都没有一个人在场。真是难得有几个死者能得到亲属的哀伤和热泪,亲友们才不来哀悼呢——他们正在及时行乐,在欢宴,在互相戏谑呢。女人本是富于同情心的,可是现在为了要保全自己的生命,竟不惜违背了她们的本性,跟着这种风气走。

    再说,人死了很少会有十个邻居来送葬;而来送葬的决不是什么有名望有地位的市民,却是些低三下四的人——他们自称是掘墓者;其实他们干这行当,完全是为了金钱,所以总是一抬起了尸架,匆匆忙忙就走,并不是送到死者生前指定的教堂,而往往送到最近的教堂就算完事。在他们前面走着五六个僧侣,手里有时还拿着几支蜡烛,有时一支都不拿。只要看到是空的墓穴,他们就叫掘墓人把死尸扔进去,再也不自找麻烦,郑重其事地替死者举行什么落葬的仪式了。

    下层阶级,以至大部分的中层阶级,情形就更惨了。他们因为没有钱,也许因为存着侥幸的心理,多半留在家里,结果病倒的每天数以千计。又因为他们缺乏适当的医治,无人看护,几乎全都死了。白天也好,黑夜也好,总是有许多人倒毙在路上。许多人死在家里,直到尸体腐烂,发出了臭味,邻居们才知道他已经死了。

    城市里就这样到处尸体纵横,附近活着的人要是找得到脚夫,就叫脚夫帮着把尸体抬出去,放在大门口;找不到脚夫,就自己动手,他们这样做并非出于恻隐之心,而是唯恐腐烂的尸体威胁他们的生存。每天一到天亮,只见家家户户的门口都堆满了尸体。这些尸体又被放上尸架,抬了出去,要是弄不到尸架,就用木板来抬。

    一个尸架上常常载着两三具尸体。夫妻俩,或者父子俩,或者两三个兄弟合放在一个尸架上,成了一件很普通的事。人们也不知道有多少回看到两个神父,拿着一个十字架走在头里,脚夫们抬着三四个尸架,在后面跟着。常常会有这样的事情发生:神父只道要替一个人举行葬礼,却忽然来了六七具尸体,同时下葬,有时候甚至还不止这么些呢。再也没有人为死者掉泪,点起蜡烛给他送丧了;那时候死了一个人,就象现在死了一只山羊,不算一回事。本来呢,一个有智慧的人,在人生的道路上偶尔遭遇到几件不如意的事,也很难学到忍耐的功夫;而现在,经过了这场空前的浩劫,显然连最没有教养的人,对一切事情也都处之泰然了。

    每天,甚至每小时,都有一大批一大批的尸体运到全市的教堂去,教堂的坟地再也容纳不下了,尤其是有些人家,按照习俗,要求葬在祖坟里面,情形更加严重。等坟地全葬满了,只好在周围掘一些又长又阔的深坑,把后来的尸体几百个几百个葬下去。就象堆积船舱里的货物一样,这些尸体,给层层叠叠地放在坑里。只盖着一层薄薄的泥土,直到整个坑都装满了,方才用土封起来。

    当时整个城里的种种凄惨景象也不必一一细谈了,我只要再补说一句,当城内瘟疫横行的时候,郊外的市镇和乡村也并没逃过这一场浩劫,不过灾情不象城里那样声势浩大罢了。可怜的农民(以及他们的家人),在冷落的村子里,荒僻的田野中,一旦病倒了,既没有医生、也没有谁来看顾,随时倒毙在路上,在田里,或者死在家门口。他们死了,不象是死了一个人,倒象是死了一头牲畜。

    城里的人们大难当前,丢下一切,只顾寻欢作乐;乡下的农民,自知死期已到,也再不愿意从事劳动,拿到什么就吃什么,从前他们在田园上、在牛羊上注下了多少心血,寄托过多少期望,现在再也顾不到了。这样,牛、驴子、绵羊、山羊、猪、家禽、还有人类的忠诚的伴侣——狗,被迫离开圈栏,在田里到处乱跑——田里的麦早该收割了,该打好收藏起来了,却没有一个人来过问一下。这些牲口,有许多好象赋有理性似的,白天在田野里吃饱了草料,一到天晚,虽然没有家人来赶,也会自动走回农庄来。

    让我们再从乡村说回到城里吧。其实除了说天主对人类真是残酷到极点,还能怎么说呢(当然有些地方也得怪人类太狠心)?由于这场猛烈的瘟疫,由于人们对病人抱着恐怖心理,不肯出力照顾,或者根本不管,从三月到六月,佛罗伦萨城里,死了十万人以上。在瘟疫发生之前,谁也没想到过城里竟住着这么多人。

    唉,宏伟的宫室,华丽的大厦,高大的宅第,从前达官贵妇出入如云,现在却十室九空,连一个最低微的仆从都找不到了!有多少显赫的姓氏、巨大的家产、富裕的产业遗下来没有人继承!有多少英俊的男子、美丽的姑娘、活泼的小伙子(就连盖伦、希波克拉底、伊斯克拉庇斯1都得承认他们的身子顶结实),在早晨还同亲友们一起吃点心,十分高兴,到了夜里,已到另一个世界去陪他们的祖先吃晚饭了。
   
  sing     01/09/2016 14:43
Decameron Nights 1953

   
  sing     01/09/2016 14:49
The Black Death BBC Documentary

   
  sing     01/10/2016 17:57
Statute of Labourers 1351


黑死病爆发后,人口锐减。三分之一欧洲人丧生,不列颠人口减少3到5成。劳力供给因而大幅下降,劳力费用随之飙升,引起通货膨胀。不愿支付高价劳动力的贵族们遂怨声不断。

1349年,爱德华三世签署了Ordinance of Laboruers 劳工条例,企图控制劳力费用和物价。

1351年,为应对劳力短缺带来的问题, 爱德华三世控制的国会通过Statute of Labourers 劳工法,以遏制劳动者的工资上涨,并防止为改善生活条件而发起的劳工运动。但此举奏效甚微。

对于追求生活改善的农民们,劳工法非常不得人心,并引起了后来的农民暴动,包括理查二世年间有名的English peasants' revolt of 1381.

从1350 到1450年,农民的平均工资增长了一倍。


zt:

The Black Death or Bubonic Plague, which killed more than one-third of the population of Europe, killed 30%−50% of the population in Britain, caused a dramatic decrease in the supply of labour. Lords suddenly faced a sharp increase in competition for workers to work for them. Labourers had increased bargaining power and commanded higher wages. The increase in labour cost also led to inflation throughout the economy. The elite class lamented the sudden shift in economic power. In an attempt to control labour costs and price levels, Edward III issued theOrdinance of Labourers in 1349. Parliament attempted to reinforce the Ordinance with the Statute of Labourers.

The Statute of Labourers was a law created by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage, designed to suppress the labor force by prohibiting increases in wages and prohibiting the movement of workers from their home areas in search of improved conditions. It was poorly enforced and did not stop the rise in wages.

The Statute of Labourers (and its counterpart, the Ordinance of Labourers) were, of course, very unpopular with the peasants, who wanted higher wages and better living standards, and was a contributing factor to subsequent peasant revolts, most notably the English peasants' revolt of 1381. Similar processes happened throughout Europe – wage caps following a labour shortage after the Black Death resulting in popular revolts.

The Statute was poorly enforced in most areas, and farm wages in England on average doubled between 1350 and 1450.
   
  sing     01/11/2016 00:04

Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour (after the Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and of the United Kingdom, and is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George as England's patron saint. -- wiki


嘉德勋章 the Order of the Garter

爱德华三世同法国打仗,就要依靠贵族们的支持。与他被国会废黜的父亲爱德华二世不同,爱德华三世同贵族们的关系很融洽。 在与法国交战之前,他一天之内就封了6个新earls-- 伯爵。他还引进了“duke-- 公爵”这一头衔,专门赐与国王的近亲,扩充了贵族阶层。

大约于1348年,为了进一步增强贵族们的荣誉感,爱德华三世缔造了“the Order of the Garter –嘉德勋章”,其圆形图案, 承载了亚瑟王圆桌骑士的传奇。

“garter”, 即吊袜带。 “the Order of the Garter”, 直译为”吊袜带勋章”。

关于“嘉德勋章”的来源,中文维基如是说:
最普遍的传说是有一次爱德华三世在埃尔特姆宫殿与一位“索尔兹伯里女伯爵”跳舞时女伯爵的吊袜带突然落下,引起许多宫廷贵人笑。而爱德华三世则将这根吊袜带拾起系在自己腿上,并当众宣布“Honi soit qui mal y pense”(“Shame on him who thinks evil of it.”“心怀邪念者蒙羞”)。由此这句话就成了这枚勋章的格言,并当场宣布,将设立以蓝色吊袜带为标志的嘉德勋章,作为英格兰最高荣誉的象征。。另一个传说是12世纪理查一世参加十字军东征时以圣乔治为榜样给他的骑士系吊袜带而获胜,后来14世纪的爱德华三世在设立这枚勋章时想起了这个典故。

Zt:

Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects. Both Edward I and Edward II had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign. The young king reversed this trend when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day. At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king. Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter. Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury – allegedly the king's favourite at the time – accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ensuing ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense – shame on him who thinks ill of it.

最高贵的嘉德勋章(The Most Noble Order of the Garter,KG或LG)是授予英国骑士的一种勋章,它起源于中世纪,是今天世界上历史最悠久的骑士勋章和[来源请求]英国荣誉制度第二高的一级。只有极少数人能够获得这枚勋章,其中包括英国国君和最多25名活着的佩戴者。英国君主还可以授予少数超额佩戴者(包括王室成员和外国君主)。与其他勋章不同,只有国君可以授予嘉德勋章,首相无权建议或者提名受勋者。

嘉德勋章最主要的标志是一根印有“Honi soit qui mal y pense”(“Shame on him who thinks evil of it.”“心怀邪念者蒙羞”)的金字的吊袜带。在正式场合下勋章佩戴者要佩戴这个吊袜带,在一些其他标志中印有它的图案。
   
  sing     01/11/2016 00:09
Catherine Montagu, Countess of Salisbury

传说之一,“嘉德勋章”之名源于爱德华三世钟情的Salisbury 女伯爵Catherine。这个故事在莎翁的《爱德华三世》中有精彩描述。 1341年左右,苏格兰包围Catherine 所在的Wark Castle, 爱德华三世率兵前去解救,大卫二世望风而逃。

另一种传说是,“嘉德勋章”源自女伯爵Catherine 的儿媳---Joan of Kent。 Joan of Kent 的婚姻比较复杂,第二任丈夫是女伯爵Catherine 的儿子(婚姻后判无效),第三任丈夫是黑太子爱德华。


《Edward III》剧中,爱德华三世为女伯爵Catherine的美貌才华所折服。
摘抄片断,兼附本人拙译:

KING EDWARD. 爱德华三世
When she would talk of peace, me thinks, her tongue
Commanded war to prison; when of war,
It wakened Caesar from his Roman grave,
To hear war beautified by her discourse.
Wisdom is foolishness but in her tongue,
Beauty a slander but in her fair face,
There is no summer but in her cheerful looks,
Nor frosty winter but in her disdain.
I cannot blame the Scots that did besiege her,
For she is all the Treasure of our land;
But call them cowards, that they ran away,
Having so rich and fair a cause to stay.—


依我之见,她谈论和平时,唇枪舌剑
足以发号施令,将战争囚禁投入牢监;
而当她谈论战争时,她的巧舌能唤醒
罗马墓中的恺撒大帝,听她美化战争。
智慧只发自她的唇舌,除此皆为愚妄。
美丽仅聚于她的娇容,其余全是诽谤。
除却她那欢愉的模样,夏日无处可寻,
若非她那蔑视的神情,霜冬何以现身。
我怎么能怪罪那些围困她的苏格兰人,
因为她集我们英格兰所有珍宝于一身;
面对这般财富和佳丽, 原该坚守不退--
但他们却望风而逃,实在是帮胆小鬼。


Zt:

Catherine Montacute (or Montagu), Countess of Salisbury (c. 1304 – 23 November 1349) was an English noblewoman, remembered for her relationship with King Edward III of England and possibly the woman in whose honour the Order of the Garter was originated. She was born Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison, and Sibylla de Tregoz. Her mother was one of two daughters of John de Tregoz, Baron Tregoz (whose arms were blazoned Gules two bars gemels in chief a lion passant guardant or),maternal granddaughter of Fulk IV, Baron FitzWarin). Catherine married William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury in about 1320.

According to rumour, King Edward III was so enamoured of the countess that he forced his attentions on her in around 1341, after having relieved a Scottish siege on Wark Castle, where she lived, while her husband was out of the country.

An Elizabethan play, Edward III, deals with this incident. In the play, the Earl of Warwick is the unnamed Countess's father, though he was not her father in real life.

In around 1348, the Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III and it is recorded that he did so after an incident at a ball when the "Countess of Salisbury" dropped a garter and the king picked it up. It is assumed that Froissart is referring either to Catherine or to her daughter-in-law, Joan of Kent.
   
  和谈     01/12/2016 08:47
i received this forwarded message in mail this morning and feel it's relevant to the topic.




A MESSAGE FROM THE QUEEN



To the citizens of the United States of America from Her Sovereign Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
In light of your failure in recent years...to nominate competent candidates for President of the USA and thus to govern yourselves, we hereby give notice of the revocation of your independence, effective immediately. (You should look up 'revocation' in the Oxford English Dictionary.)
Her Sovereign Majesty Queen Elizabeth II will resume monarchical duties over all states, commonwealths, and territories (except North Dakota, which she does not fancy).
Your new Prime Minister, David Cameron, will appoint a Governor for America without the need for further elections.
Congress and the Senate will be disbanded. A questionnaire may be circulated next year to determine whether any of you noticed.
To aid in the transition to a British Crown dependency, the following rules are introduced with immediate effect:
-----------------------
1. The letter 'U' will be reinstated in words such as 'colour,' 'favour,' 'labour' and 'neighbour.' Likewise, you will learn to spell 'doughnut' without skipping half the letters, and the suffix '-ize' will be replaced by the suffix '-ise.' Generally, you will be expected to raise your vocabulary to acceptable levels. (look up 'vocabulary').
------------------------
2. Using the same twenty-seven words interspersed with filler noises such as ''like' and 'you know' is an unacceptable and inefficient form of communication. There is no such thing as U.S. English. We will let Microsoft know on your behalf. The Microsoft spell-checker will be adjusted to take into account the reinstated letter 'u'' and the elimination of '-ize.'
-------------------
3. July 4th will no longer be celebrated as a holiday.
-----------------
4. You will learn to resolve personal issues without using guns, lawyers, or therapists. The fact that you need so many lawyers and therapists shows that you're not quite ready to be independent. Guns should only be used for shooting grouse. If you can't sort things out without suing someone or speaking to a therapist, then you're not ready to shoot grouse.
----------------------
5. Therefore, you will no longer be allowed to own or carry anything more dangerous than a vegetable peeler. Although a permit will be required if you wish to carry a vegetable peeler in public.
----------------------
6. All intersections will be replaced with roundabouts, and you will start driving on the left side with immediate effect. At the same time, you will go metric with immediate effect and without the benefit of conversion tables. Both roundabouts and metrication will help you understand the British sense of humour.
--------------------
7. The former USA will adopt UK prices on petrol (which you have been calling gasoline) of roughly $10/US gallon. Get used to it.


8. You will learn to make real chips. Those things you call French fries are not real chips, and those things you insist on calling potato chips are properly called crisps. Real chips are thick cut, fried in animal fat, and dressed not with catsup but with vinegar.
-------------------
9. The cold, tasteless stuff you insist on calling beer is not actually beer at all. Henceforth, only proper British Bitter will be referred to as beer, and European brews of known and accepted provenance will be referred to as Lager. South African beer is also acceptable, as they are pound for pound the greatest sporting nation on earth and it can only be due to the beer. They are also part of the British Commonwealth - see what it did for them. American brands will be referred to as Near-Frozen Gnat's Urine, so that all can be sold without risk of further confusion.
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10. Hollywood will be required occasionally to cast English actors as good guys. Hollywood will also be required to cast English actors to play English characters. Watching Andie Macdowell attempt English dialect in Four Weddings and a Funeral was an experience akin to having one's ears removed with a cheese grater.
---------------------
11. You will cease playing American football. There is only one kind of proper football; you call it soccer. Those of you brave enough will, in time, be allowed to play rugby (which has some similarities to American football, but does not involve stopping for a rest every twenty seconds or wearing full kevlar body armour like a bunch of nancies).
---------------------
12. Further, you will stop playing baseball. It is not reasonable to host an event called the World Series for a game which is not played outside of America. Since only 2.1% of you are aware there is a world beyond your borders, your error is understandable. You will learn cricket, and we will let you face the South Africans first to take the sting out of their deliveries.

--------------------
13.. You must tell us who killed JFK. It's been driving us mad.
-----------------
14. An internal revenue agent (i.e. tax collector) from Her Majesty's Government will be with you shortly to ensure the acquisition of all monies due (backdated to 1776).
---------------
15. Daily Tea Time begins promptly at 4 p.m. with proper cups, with saucers, and never mugs, with high quality biscuits (cookies) and cakes; plus strawberries (with cream) when in season.
God Save the Queen!

PS: Only share this with friends who have a good sense of humour (NOT humor)!
   
  sing     01/13/2016 01:47
I didn't know Queen Elizabeth II has such a good sense of HUMOUR. Long live the Queen!

Bob Dylan was just killed by internet death hoax. Guess nowadays the internet has everything, fake or true. I had a good laugh. Thanks for sharing!
   
  sing     01/14/2016 01:13

Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the order of the Garter, 1453, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book


黑太子爱德华, 即为爱德华三世于1348年授予的第一代嘉德骑士团成员。


wiki:

Edward of Woodstock KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362–72).

爱德华(黑王子)(英语:Edward the Black Prince,1330年6月15日-1376年6月8日),英格兰统帅。英格兰君主爱德华三世的长子,母亲为埃诺的菲利帕(Philippa of Hainault)。

爱德华的妻子是他的堂姑母肯特的琼安,他们的次子理查二世继承了爱德华三世的王位。(长子夭折)

爱德华是英法百年战争第一阶段中英军最著名的指挥官。“黑王子”的绰号,大概是由于他穿戴黑色盔甲(最早见于16世纪文献中;爱德华生前从未被这么称呼过)。1346年,爱德华指挥了英军获胜的克雷西战役。1355年他的军队洗劫了阿基坦。

1356年,爱德华指挥了他最出名的战役:普瓦捷战役,他与父王配合大胜法军,俘虏了法王约翰二世。同年,他被封为阿基坦公爵。他亦积极干预西班牙事务,支持(残忍的)佩德罗一世争夺卡斯蒂利亚王位。

1362年—1372年,爱德华是阿基坦的统治者。然而,他的军队在阿基坦横行不法,令他的声名受损。1371年1月爱德华返回英格兰,并于1372年末正式放弃公爵称号。此后他过着打猎、比武的骑士生活。1376年爱德华在威斯敏斯特去世,葬于坎特伯雷。
   
  sing     01/14/2016 01:41

法兰西海豚盾徽

瓦卢瓦王朝的第一位国王腓力六世在百年战争中指挥不利, 1346年克雷西之战更被爱德华三世打得落花流水。

但他在1349年,成功地将多菲内Dauphiny并入法兰西版图,Dauphiny的条件是法国王位继承人必须冠以"le Dauphin" 头衔。 法国第一位法兰西海豚为约翰二世之子查理五世Charles V le Sage (Charles V the Wise)。

腓力六世1350年过世,将王位传给儿子约翰二世John II.


zt:

多菲内(发音:[dofine])是法国东南部的一个行省。英语拼写为英语:Dauphiny。大致包括现在的伊泽尔省、德龙省、上阿尔卑斯省。

从1040年到1349年,多菲内是一个独立国家,在阿尔邦伯爵(Counts of Albon)统治下,直至加入法兰西王国。作为法国的一个行省,直至1457年保持自治。历史首府是格勒诺布尔。它的居民成为多菲内人(Dauphinois)。

多菲内的名字来源于阿尔邦伯爵的家族徽章上有一只海豚,法文的海豚为Dauphin,成了该地的绰号。

1349年多菲内归入法国的一个条件是:法兰西王国的皇太子必须使用多菲内称号。这保持到了法兰西革命。

法兰西海豚(法语:Dauphin),严格地应称为维埃诺瓦海豚(Dauphin de Viennois),是从1350年到1791年和从1824年到1830年被授于法国王储的头衔,中文里有时也直接称为法国王太子。

维埃纳伯爵家族之祖居伊一世绰号海豚 (法语:le Dauphin),其后人则以黄地蓝海豚盾章作为家族纹章。他的家族保有维埃诺瓦的海豚的头衔直到1349年,当温伯特二世将俗称“海豚领地”的家族世袭领地出售给菲利普六世后,从此法兰西王国的继承人承担了海豚(le Dauphin)的称号。海豚的妻子称母海豚(la Dauphine),又译为王太子妃。

第一位称“海豚”的王子是后来成为国王的夏尔五世。这个头衔相当于中国的太子、英国的威尔士亲王。法兰西海豚的官方全称在1461年之前是“托上帝鸿福,维埃诺瓦海豚、瓦伦蒂诺瓦和迪瓦伯爵”(法语:par la grace de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois)。“海豚”会穿上一件织上代表海豚的多菲内在大衣手臂的衣服,它同时印上了法兰西的百合花.
   
  sing     01/14/2016 01:45

普瓦捷战役 (弗鲁瓦萨尔细密画)

“By the end of 1350, the Black Death subsided, but it never really died out in England. Over the next few hundred years, further outbreaks occurred in 1361–62, 1369, 1379–83, 1389–93, and throughout the first half of the 15th century. ”--- wiki

1356年,黑死病的阴霾似乎已消散,而战争硝烟再起。8月,英格兰的黑太子爱德华率兵从加斯科涅登陆,再度进攻法国。

1356年9月19日,英法在法国中部的普瓦捷附近交战,是为普瓦捷战役Battle of Poitiers, 百年战争中的第二次主要战役。 英军的长弓箭雨再展威力,令老祖宗征服者威廉在Battle of Hastings获胜的诈败战术,在普瓦捷也同样凑效。结果英军以少胜多,不仅击败法军,还俘获了法王约翰二世。


wiki:

普瓦捷战役(Battle of Poitiers)是英法百年战争期间的一场主要战役,1356年9月19日发生于法国普瓦捷(Poitiers)附近。上承1346年的克雷西战役,下接1415年的阿金库尔战役,是百年战争中英国三大捷战的第二捷,也是一场以少胜多的著名战役。

背景

1356年8月8日,英王爱德华三世长子威尔士亲王爱德华(后称黑太子)成为英军骑兵大统帅(Chevauchée)。他从阿基坦登陆向北袭击法国,对法国农村多次实施焦土政策,以确保他的军队在法国中部立足。他的部队几乎没有遇到抵抗,大量城镇和农田被烧毁,直到他们到达图尔的卢瓦尔河。由于倾盆大雨,英军的烧杀掳掠被迫停止。闻讯追击的法王约翰二世,为报诺曼底布雷特伊被围之仇,为求增加他的军队的速度,以追上英军,他将约15,000–20,000名老弱步兵解散,终于在沙特尔将英军赶上。

战斗经过

战前1万多法军骑兵排成四列,第一列中间为重骑兵,左右两翼为弓箭手。

6千英军排成两列,第一列中间为长枪步兵,左右两翼为长弓手。

战役开始时,英军将他们的辎重队转移,导致法军认为他们要撤退,法军骑士匆忙变阵,对英军弓箭手发起攻击。由于1346年的克雷西战役中,法军战马被英国弓箭手大量杀伤而造成骑兵失去冲击力,但骑士由于盔甲的保护则伤亡较低。根据弗鲁瓦萨尔记载,“英军攻击敌人,尤其是马匹,箭如雨下。”英国编年史学者杰弗里·贝克写道,法国盔甲是无懈可击的,英军箭头不是滑出就是破碎。马的盔甲在两侧和背部防护较弱,因此弓箭手通常是设在骑兵和马的侧翼,以此阻止骑兵的冲锋。法国人总结了克雷西的教训,在法国皇太子攻击萨利斯贝利时,让大部分骑兵下马,顶着英国弓箭手的箭雨前进,先锋克莱蒙特骑兵队不支撤退,后撤的骑兵队与推进的带甲步兵混杂,图中绿色表明法国皇太子与他成千上万的军队在这个阶段的攻击。法军向英军阵前推进,但最终失败,这个阶段的攻击持续了约两个小时。

骑兵攻击后,紧随其后的是步兵攻击。法国皇太子的步兵在激烈战斗后,退出重新集结。下一波攻击的奥尔良公爵步兵见皇太子的步兵退出,引发恐慌并开始转身逃跑。这导致法王约翰二世率领的步兵陷入困境,英国长弓手进行低射,辅助步兵的战斗,一些步兵上马组成了一个临时骑兵队。

此时,约翰二世把两个儿子从战场中送走,小儿子菲利普一直陪伴着他,在他身边直至最后阶段的战斗。皇太子和其他儿子退出时,奥尔良公爵也撤退了。两军激烈交战,英国黑王子爱德华让藏在树林里的后备队出击,由让·德·格莱利(Jean de Grailly)率领的骑兵队绕过法军前阵,攻击法军的侧翼和后方。法国人害怕被包围,开始溃逃。约翰二世最终不支与他的随从们一起被俘。


Jean II, the Good, being captured.
   
  sing     01/14/2016 23:38
在《爱德华三世》一剧中,黑太子爱德华三世被法军包围时,面对死神, 和Lord Audley有段对话。读了不由想起Emily Dickinson 的“Because I could not stop for Death ” ,死亡乃生命之终点。

“whether ripe or rotten, drop we shall,
As we do draw the lottery of our doom.” --- 《Edward III》

摘录片段并粗译大意:

AUDLEY.
To die is all as common as to live:
The one ince-wise, the other holds in chase;
For, from the instant we begin to live,
We do pursue and hunt the time to die:
First bud we, then we blow, and after seed,
Then, presently, we fall; and, as a shade
Follows the body, so we follow death.
If, then, we hunt for death, why do we fear it?
If we fear it, why do we follow it?
If we do fear, how can we shun it?
If we do fear, with fear we do but aide
The thing we fear to seize on us the sooner:
If we fear not, then no resolved proffer
Can overthrow the limit of our fate;
For, whether ripe or rotten, drop we shall,
As we do draw the lottery of our doom.

死就同生一样寻常:
一为选择,一为追逐;
自我们出生那一刻,
就时时在追逐死亡:
我们发芽、开花、结实,
如今凋零,追随死亡
如同影子追随身体。
既追寻死,为何怕死?
既畏惧死,为何追随?
若惧怕死,如何躲避?
既惧怕死,却又助它
加速步伐扑向我们;
若不畏惧,也没法子
挣脱这既定的宿命。
成熟腐烂,终为一死,
厄运彩票人人必中。
   
  sing     01/14/2016 23:42

John the Good. Portrait of John painted on wood panel around 1350, Louvre Museum




1194年,英国向神圣罗马帝国皇帝亨利六世缴纳了15万马克的巨额赎金,狮心王理查才被释放。 162年后,英国竟俘获了法王约翰二世,当然不会放过敲竹杠的好机会。

约翰二世被带到伦敦塔。 身为俘虏, 仍被奉为上宾,是toast of high society, 享有皇室待遇。

1360年英法之间签署了Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约,约翰二世的赎金定为300万金克朗。约翰二世把儿子安茹公爵路易一世留下做人质,自己回国筹款。不想,路易竟逃跑了。约翰二世不听谋士们苦劝,坚持回英国做人质,只为遵守“good faith and honour”的骑士规章。返英后不久于1364年4月病殁于Savoy Palace。

因信守承诺,约翰二世遂得美名“好人约翰”(Jean le Bon, John the Good)。 在克雷西战役中阵亡的盲约翰John of Bohemia,就是约翰二世的第一位老丈人。约翰二世和盲约翰在百年战争中都因骑士精神而闻名。

约翰二世被俘期间,长子Charles (第一位法国海豚)摄政。 约翰死后, Charles 继位,成为查理五世。


zt:

As a prisoner of the English, John was granted royal privileges that permitted him to travel about and enjoy a regal lifestyle. At a time when law and order was breaking down in France and the government was having a hard time raising money for the defence of the realm, his account books during his captivity show that he was purchasing horses, pets, and clothes while maintaining an astrologer and a court band.

The Treaty of Brétigny (1360) set his ransom at 3 million crowns. Leaving his son Louis of Anjou in English-held Calais as a replacement hostage, John was allowed to return to France to raise the funds.

But all did not go according to plan. In July 1363, King John was informed that Louis had escaped. Troubled by the dishonour of this action, and the arrears in his ransom, John did something that shocked and dismayed his people: he announced that he would voluntarily return to captivity in England. His council tried to dissuade him, but he persisted, citing reasons of "good faith and honour." He sailed for England that winter and left the impoverished citizens of France again without a king.

John was greeted in London 1364 with parades and feasts. A few months after his arrival, however, he fell ill with an unknown malady. He died at the Savoy Palace in April 1364. His body was returned to France, where he was interred in the royal chambers at Saint Denis Basilica.

约翰二世(1319年4月16日-1364年4月8日,1350-1364在位),瓦卢瓦王朝第2位国王。

约翰二世是法兰西国王腓力六世的儿子,母亲为勃艮第的琼。1332年,约翰在其父安排下迎娶波希米亚国王卢森堡的约翰的女儿。其后约翰被封为诺曼底公爵。1350年,约翰在其父腓力六世死后继承王位。1356年约翰在普瓦捷战役失败后被黑太子爱德华俘虏押回英格兰,他把儿子安茹公爵路易一世留下做人质后,约翰二世回国去筹赎金,不料路易其后逃跑了,约翰二世严格遵守了骑士制度的信条,他自愿返回英国做人质,更在数月后死去,因为这个缘故他被称做“好人约翰”(Jean le Bon)。
   
  sing     01/16/2016 21:56

France after the Treaty


The Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约

1356年的普瓦捷战役Battle of Poitiers 后,法国上下一片混乱,中世纪的法国史学家和卡默利特派修士让·德·韦内特 如此描述,“从那时起整个王国都乱了,国家败坏,小偷和强盗无处不在。贵族鄙视和憎恨所有其他人,没有去思考相互有益的事以及上帝和人民的利益。他们统治并洗劫了农民和农村的男人。不要指望他们保卫国家,抵抗敌人。农民被他们踩在脚下,抢劫和掠夺他们的东西。 ”

1359年,年近47岁的爱德华三世第三次也是最后一次入侵法国,企图借机加冕。 但摄政的法兰西海豚查理王子比较冷静明智,不像他父亲约翰二世那样仓促应战,而是采取不交战(non-engegement)策略。

爱德华三世直逼加冕之都兰斯Reims,但兰斯人坚决抵抗,英军围攻5周无效。爱德华三世率兵转围巴黎。王太子查理明智地决定暂时割地求和,于1360年5月8日在Brétigny 草拟了The Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约 。同年10月和约在加莱签字正式生效。

和约主要内容是:法国将加莱让给英国。 爱德华三世放弃诺曼底、都兰、安茹,以及曼恩领地,以换取扩大的阿基坦领地,法国将卢瓦尔河以南至比利牛斯山脉的全部领土割让给英格兰。并且,英国不必向法国进贡。(爱德华三世封儿子黑太子爱德华为 Lord of Aquitaine 阿基坦领主。”The title Duke of Aquitaine was abandoned in favor of Lord of Aquitaine”)。 爱德华三世同时保证放弃法兰西王位。法王约翰二世的赎金由400万金克朗降为300万,且付了首款100万之后即可获释。

The Treaty of Brétigny 布勒丁尼和约标志着百年战争第一阶段的结束。和约虽未带来永久和平,但令百年战争出现了第一次为期9年的和平期First peace: 1360–69。


zt:

Edward invaded France, for the third and last time, hoping to capitalize on the discontent and seize the throne. The Dauphin's strategy was that of non-engagement with the English army in the field. However, Edward wanted the crown and chose the cathedral city of Reims for his coronation (Reims was the traditional coronation city).However, the citizens of Reims built and reinforced the city's defences before Edward and his army arrived. Edward besieged the city for five weeks, but the defences held and there was no coronation. Edward moved on to Paris, but retreated after a few skirmishes in the suburbs. The French made contact with him and forced him to negotiate. A conference was held at Brétigny that resulted in the Treaty of Brétigny (8 May 1360). The treaty was ratified at Calais in October. In return for increased lands in Aquitaine, Edward renounced Normandy, Touraine, Anjou and Maine and consented to reducing King John's ransom by a million crowns. Edward also abandoned his claim to the crown of France.

By virtue of this treaty Edward III obtained, besides Guyenne andGascony, Poitou, Saintonge and Aunis, Agenais, Périgord, Limousin,Quercy, Bigorre, the countship of Gauré, Angoumois, Rouergue,Montreuil-sur-Mer, Ponthieu, Calais, Sangatte, Ham and the countship ofGuînes.[2] The king of England was to hold these free and clear, without doing homage for them. Furthermore the treaty established that title to all the islands that the King of England now holds would no longer be under the Suzerainty of the King of France. The title Duke of Aquitaine was abandoned in favor of Lord of Aquitaine.

On his side, the King of England gave up the duchy of Touraine, the countships of Anjou and Maine, and the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders. He also renounced all claims to the French throne. The terms of Brétigny were meant to disentangle the feudal responsibilities that had caused so much conflict, and as far as the English were concerned, would concentrate English territories in an expanded version of Aquitaine. England also restored the rights of the Bishop of Coutances to Alderney, which had been stripped from them by the King of England in 1228.

John II had to pay three million gold crowns for his ransom, and would be released after he paid one million. The occasion was the first minting of the franc, equivalent to one livre tournois (20 sous). As a guarantee for the payment of his ransom, John gave as hostages two of his sons, several princes and nobles, four inhabitants of Paris, and two citizens from each of the nineteen principal towns of France. This treaty was ratified and sworn to by the two kings and by their eldest sons on 24 October 1360 at Calais. At the same time the special conditions relating to each important article of the treaty and the renunciatory clauses in which the kings abandoned their rights over the territory they had yielded to one another were signed. Edward III retired finally to England, for the last time.
   
  sing     01/18/2016 00:17
百年战争第一阶段,英格兰占绝对优势。1360年布勒丁尼和约之后,爱德华三世退回英国,进入执政后期。较之军事行动,他对处理国家日常事务不感兴趣。

爱德华三世所倚重的财政大臣 William Wykeham, 并无经验,被国会强辞。更糟糕的是,那些一直追随他的干将相继离世,包括最得力的Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster (爱德华三世的2nd cousin, 两人的曾祖父是Henry III。爱德华三世的儿子John of Gaunt 迎娶了亨利之女Blanche,Duchess of Lancaster)。 剩下的年轻将帅们则同他的儿子们更契合。爱德华三世后来愈加依靠几个儿子。

“1364年查理五世正式即位后,拒绝承认加来条约(布勒丁尼和约),爱德华就又开始使用法兰西国王的称号。但查理五世是一个难以对付的对手,他采取了不少有力度的改革措施。同时,在法兰西出现了迪·盖克兰这样的优秀将领。总之,爱德华三世的战争计划从此就开始失利。他的扩张活动到此为止了。 ”---wiki


wiki:

While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham. A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1363 and Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371. Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, died as early as 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls created in 1337, William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague. Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.

Increasingly, Edward began to rely on his sons for the leadership of military operations. The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366. 

In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brétigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home. He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.
   
  sing     01/18/2016 01:03
The emerging sense of national identity

自征服者威廉在英格兰加冕后,法语就成了上流社会及正规场合使用的“官方语言”。

爱德华一世时期,坊间传说法国人欲灭绝英语。爱德华三世效仿其祖父,对民众的恐慌大加利用,从而使英格兰文字得到了极大复兴。

1362年,国会颁布Statute of Pleading 诉讼条例,规定在法庭要使用英文,并且规定国会于1363年第一次以英文开会。

与此同时,英格兰俗语方言在杰弗里·乔叟Geoffrey Chaucer 等文学家的作品中东山再起。

但英语花的进程不可夸大。1362年的诉讼条例本身就是用法文写的,而且国会拖延到1377年才以英文开会。爱德华三世创建的英国嘉德骑士团却吸收法国贵族。另外,宣称同为英法两国国王的爱德华三世使用英法两种语言,对英语并没有显示任何偏爱。


wiki:

Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and as his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare. As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a Statute of Pleading ordered the English language to be used in law courts, and the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English. At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gowerand especially The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377. The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as John IV, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur. Edward III – himself bilingual – viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another.
   
  sing     01/18/2016 01:05
Geoffrey Chaucer: The Founder of Our Language

   
  sing     01/18/2016 01:07

Geoffrey Chaucer


wiki:

杰弗里·乔叟(英语:Geoffrey Chaucer,1343年-1400年),英国中世纪作家,被誉为英国中世纪最杰出的诗人,也是第一位葬在西敏寺诗人角的诗人。

杰弗里·乔叟为有名的作家、哲学家、炼金术士及天文学家,曾和十岁的儿子路易斯合著有关星盘的科学论文。杰弗里·乔叟也担任过官僚,朝臣和外交官。

杰弗里·乔叟的代表作《坎特伯雷故事集》摆脱了旧时代诗作的脱离现实,矫揉造作的风格,通过塑造三十多个个性鲜明的人物,揭露了僧侣阶层的腐朽,严肃的考虑妇女问题,反映了当时各色各样的人的生活和社会的全貌,因此杰弗里·乔叟被认为是英国中世纪文学和文艺复兴文学之间承上启下的人物。

早年

乔叟的姓“chaucer”来自于法语“chausseur”意为“鞋匠”,其祖上在伊普斯维奇经商:Vol. I p. ix。乔叟的祖父和父亲约翰·乔叟都是伦敦的酒商,并为宫廷供应食品。1324年,约翰·乔叟曾被自己的一位姨妈绑架,目的是让他和自己的女儿结婚,以保全自己在伊普斯维奇的产业。这位姨妈被捕后被罚款250英镑,这说明乔叟家族家境殷实:xi–xii。大约在1340年左右,约翰·乔叟和阿格尼丝·考普顿结婚。考普顿的嫁妆包括她叔叔哈默的二十四座店铺。哈默据说是一位铸币商人。

杰弗里·乔叟的确切出生时间和地点都不清楚。但乔叟从少年时就参与王室事务,使有关他的文献记录是当时诗人中最完整的,不像写《把犁人皮尔斯的幻象》的威廉·兰格伦那样于史无征。在英王爱德华三世的儿媳,第四代阿尔斯特女伯爵伊丽莎白·德·巴勒1357年的家庭纪事册上,第一次出现了乔叟的名字,当时他通过父亲的关系,担任了女伯爵的侍童:xvii.。1359年,乔叟随爱德华三世的部队远征法国,在兰斯附近被法军俘虏。家人筹钱将其赎回,其中还包括爱德华三世的十六英镑十三先令四便士。1360年5月乔叟回到英国。


执行外交使命

1360下半年英法议和,乔叟奉命携带文件赴法国。之后的六年没有乔叟的记载,研究者认为他这一段是在律师学院深造,为自己的行政生涯做准备。大约在1366年,乔叟到过西班牙,此行或与黑王子试图参与西班牙王位的战争有关,可能曾去圣地亚哥-德孔波斯特拉朝圣。同年,乔叟和爱德华三世的皇后艾诺的菲力帕的女侍臣菲利帕·德·洛埃特结婚,菲利帕·洛埃特是和凯瑟琳·斯温福德是姐妹关系,而斯温福德后来成了乔叟的护主冈特的约翰的第三任妻子.

1367年6月20日乔叟被授予“仪仗卫士”的头衔,1368年被擢升为“候补骑士”。“候补骑士”没有明确的任务,主要是到内廷说古道今或弹琴唱歌,乔叟或许在此时已经展现出他的文学才能,才获得这一头衔。之后一段时间乔叟常携带信件到外国去。1368年,他有可能参加了在米兰举行的安特卫普的莱昂内尔和维奥莱特·维斯孔蒂的婚礼,史学家让·傅华萨和大诗人彼特拉克当时也参加了婚礼。研究者认为乔叟此时已经写完了《公爵夫人之书》,这是一篇挽歌,献给刚去世的兰开斯特的布兰奇。

1369年,乔叟参加军事行动,到达皮卡第。1372-1373年他首次赴意大利,到过热那亚和佛罗伦萨,协商通商事宜。很多研究者认为,乔叟在意大利时应该见到了彼特拉克和薄伽丘,两人向乔叟介绍了人文主义的观点和意大利的文学创作情况,乔叟的一些作品明显受到他们的影响[3]。1374年爱德华三世在圣乔治日赐予乔叟“余生每天一加仑酒”的待遇,这可能是对乔叟诗歌创作的奖赏;爱德华三世还让他免费居住在阿尔德门。6月乔叟被任命为港务监督,又获得冈特的约翰赐给的年金,生活富裕起来。1376和1377两年内,他曾三次被派去法国,目的不明。后来的文献称他是去协商理查二世和法国公主结亲的事,以期结束百年战争。

1378年乔叟再次前往意大利,和米兰的统治者巴纳波·维斯康蒂以及英籍雇佣兵首领约翰·霍克伍德谈判,有人认为《坎特伯雷故事集》中骑士的形象就源自约翰·霍克伍德。之后的六七年关于乔叟的记载不多,研究者认为他此时可能在专心写自己的代表作《坎特伯雷故事集》。1385年10月乔叟,被指派为肯特郡的治安法官,主要任务是在法国有可能入侵的形势下保持肯特郡的和平。1386年8月他被选为下议院议员。1387年乔叟的妻子去世,乔叟陷入痛苦之中;不久伍德斯托克的托马斯,第一代格洛斯特公爵掌握大权,打击国王信任的人,乔叟的年金经过审议后被转给了别人,他又陷入经济拮据中.


冈特的约翰,乔叟的恩主,后成为他的连襟


晚年

1389年理查二世重新掌握了权力。7月12日,乔叟被任命为国王产业管理员,照看国王的城堡和庄园。在乔叟的任期内,他没有组织大的工程,但的确组织了对威斯敏斯特宫,圣乔治教堂和伦敦塔等地的修缮。这是一份收入颇丰的工作,每天薪水两先令,大概是他之前工作的三倍。同时乔叟还兼任费肯汉姆森林中的国王木屋的照看人,这主要是个荣誉职位。

1390年9月中的四天内,乔叟三次遭到抢劫,也许因此受伤,这可能是他在次年的6月17日辞去职务的原因。但辞职后不久的6月22日,他就被任命为位于萨默塞特的北伯泽顿的王室森林的林务次官。这一职位并不轻松,需要做很多工作来维护森林,但也有机会获得利益。1394年理查二世赐给乔叟二十英镑的年金。1399年10月亨利四世登基,将乔叟的年金加了一倍,但这笔钱可能没有发到乔叟手中。十二月他租用了威斯敏斯特教堂附近的一座住宅。1400年9月,王室赐给乔叟一大桶葡萄酒,之后就没有记载了。

乔叟据说是于1400年10月25日在伦敦逝世,但这个时间是镌刻在乔叟死后一百年才立起的墓碑上的,所以真实性值得怀疑。乔叟的死因不明,英国的中世纪研究专家特里·琼斯曾出了一本书《谁谋杀了乔叟?一个中世纪的神秘事件》,认为他是被理查二世的敌人甚至是亨利四世所谋杀的,但也只有一些旁证说明此事。乔叟死后以教区成员的身份葬于伦敦西敏寺。1556年他的灵柩被移葬到一个更好的墓穴,随着多位诗人的葬入,这里成了著名的“诗人之角”。
   
  sing     01/20/2016 01:56



坎特伯雷故事集 Five Canterbury Tales

https://materialinglesfe.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/the-five-canterbury-tales.pdf 英文文字版

http://www.ximalaya.com/11175476/sound/11581233 听书版
   
  sing     01/20/2016 01:59
乔叟是 Heroic couplet 英雄双行体的鼻祖。

wiki:

A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used in epic and narrative poetry, and consisting of a rhyming pair of lines in iambic pentameter. Use of the heroic couplet was pioneered by Geoffrey Chaucer in the Legend of Good Women and the Canterbury Tales., and was perfected by John Dryden in the Restoration Age.

The term "heroic couplet" is sometimes reserved for couplets that are largely closed and self-contained, as opposed to the enjambed couplets of poets like John Donne. The heroic couplet is often identified with the English Baroque works of John Dryden and Alexander Pope, who used the form for their translations of the epics of Virgil and Homer, respectively. Major poems in the closed couplet, apart from the works of Dryden and Pope, are Samuel Johnson's The Vanity of Human Wishes, Oliver Goldsmith's The Deserted Village, and John Keats's Lamia. The form was immensely popular in the 18th century. The looser type of couplet, with occasional enjambment, was one of the standard verse forms in medieval narrative poetry, largely because of the influence of the Canterbury Tales.

英雄双韵体(英文:Heroic couplet,又称英雄双行体)是英语中的一种古典诗体,通常用于史诗和叙事诗中。英雄双韵体由抑扬格五音步的诗行构成,其押韵方式为阳韵(韵落在诗行末尾的重读音节上)。英雄双行体最早被英国诗人杰弗里·乔叟运用在他的诗歌《贤妇传说》与《坎特伯雷故事集》中。

英雄双行体有时特指完整自足的双行对句,与之相反的是如约翰·邓恩的诗歌中跨行连续的对句。英雄双行体常常与约翰·德莱顿和亚历山大·蒲柏联系在一起。其它的主要作品包括塞缪尔·约翰逊的《人类欲望之虚幻》,奥利弗·戈德史密斯的《荒芜的村庄》以及约翰·济慈的《拉米亚》。英雄双行体在18世纪十分流行。而广泛意义上的包括跨行连续的英雄双行体,受《坎特伯雷故事集》的影响,则是自中世纪以来的常用诗体。


在谈到英雄双行体的应用时,一个常用的例子是约翰·德纳姆的诗作《库珀山》(Cooper's Hill)中描述泰晤士河的诗句:
O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream
My great example, as it is my theme!
Though deep yet clear, though gentle yet not dull;
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full.
   
  sing     01/20/2016 02:03
英雄双行体曾引发过一起沸沸扬扬的事件:

zt:

海归女电视应聘引互掐争议 神马是“英雄双韵体”?
http://d1.d.hjfile.cn/files/201202/2012021041813262_640.pdf?sign=f4fd9bf7517e6a519412feea08d2817a
   
  sing     01/20/2016 02:09
乱世出文豪。 百年战争振兴了英文,杰弗里·乔叟 Geoffrey Chaucer 横空出世。

Huntington Library 收藏有古色古香的《The Canterbury Tales》原版:





Tales of Canterbury Full Movie

   
  sing     01/20/2016 02:13
爱德华三世时期的国会


到了爱德华三世时期, 议会已经相当完善,但议会权限仍为发展核心。议会已逐渐发展成两院制:上议院 --- House of Lords(贵族议会), 下议院-- House of Commons(平民议会),西方的两院制应当是起源于罗马共和国时期。上议院成员包括主教、修道院长和有爵位的贵族( bishops and abbots and the peers)。下议院成员包括各郡和村镇代表(the shire and borough representatives ) 。这一时期出现了有改革精神的善良议会Good Parliament, 虽然善良议会很快被冈特的约翰解体,但它在英国政治史上是一座分水岭。


wiki (Edward III of England):

Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of Edward III, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development. During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament. This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution, composed of a House of Lords and a House of Commons. Yet it was not in the upper, but in the lower house that the greatest changes took place, with the expanding political role of the Commons. Informative is the Good Parliament, where the Commons for the first time – albeit with noble support – were responsible for precipitating a political crisis. In the process, both the procedure of impeachment and the office of the Speaker were created. Even though the political gains were of only temporary duration, this parliament represented a watershed in English political history.
   
  sing     01/21/2016 23:15
The Good Parliament 善良议会


1376年4月28日到7月10日这一届议会被称作善良议会The Good Parliament, 为期不足3月。

当时法庭腐败,王室混乱,议会实施了一些改革措施,但之后受到了冈特的约翰的阻挠。约翰是爱德华三世的四子,因其父昏昏已老,其兄黑太子又卧病,约翰便大权在握。

1373年11月召开议会之后,已休会2年半。 爱德华三世和谋士们自知连年战争,劳民伤财,国库亏空,英格兰上下怨声载道,当然不敢召集议会。 但1376年,因急需用钱,只好找议会商量。 不管战争的胜利看起来多么荣耀,都是金钱和人命筑成。爱德华三世1344年曾宣布破产,他借贷的两家佛罗伦萨大银行因而倒闭。 若不是要钱要加税,国王哪里肯召集议会。 英法历史上后来一些议会也是因为财政危机而召开,也因此实现了政治改革。 而我们中国历史上皇帝总是一言堂,大臣上奏若不合皇帝心意,脑袋都难保。

议员们(下院)决定整顿腐败的王室委员会。当时代表Herefordshire 郡的骑士 Peter de la Mare被选为下议院议长(Speaker), 他曾是伯爵 Edmund Mortimer 手下的管家。Edmund Mortimer 所在的贵族阵营支持黑太子反对皇室党和冈特的伯爵,强力支持下议院的政改。这时百年战争第二阶段已开始,英军接连失利(见下帖)。 Peter de la Mare第一天开会,即痛批英军近来在军事上的失败,谴责皇室的腐败,要求调查王室开销。

下议院在对Richard Lyons (Warden of the Mint 造币局局长) and Lord Latimer 展开听证后将二人收监。对Latimer 男爵的弹劾是英格兰议会史上有记录的第一桩弹劾案。

爱德华三世的情妇Alice Perrers 以贪污罪被审,随后被驱逐出英格兰,其土地被没收。在这之前,没谁敢惹她。

约翰的冈特想效法法兰西的萨利克继承法Salic Law, 但未获议会支持。

已从阿基坦回到伦敦的黑太子爱德华当时奄奄一息,临终前把爱德华三世和冈特的约翰叫来,让二人发誓,将原该他继承的王位传给他的儿子理查(后来的理查二世)。爱德华三世和冈特的约翰应允了。因为黑太子战功卓著,议会宣布理查为王位继承人。

议会任命Edmund Mortimer, the earl of March; William Courtenay, bishop of London; and William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester 等组成新的国王咨询委员会。

好景不长,善良议会7月即被解散。接下来的秋天,冈特的约翰就把新任命的国王咨询团挡在王宫之外,将下议院议长Peter de la Mare 扔进Nottingham监狱,还把遭弹劾的Latimer 又召回来。国王的情妇也被召回伦敦陪爱德华三世。约翰并攻击新国王顾问William of Wykeham ,将其定罪。

冈特的约翰宣布善良议会the Good Parliament违法,并将其通过的条例从律书中删除。 1377年约翰组成了the Bad Parliament 邪恶议会。尽管如此,人们缅怀改革议会,并赋其以美名,善良议会遂流芳青史。



wiki( Good Parliament):

The Good Parliament is the name traditionally given to the English Parliament of 1376. Sitting in London from April 28 to July 10, it was the longest Parliament up until that time.

It took place during a time when the English court was perceived by much of the English population to be corrupt, and its traditional name was due to the sincere efforts by its members to reform the government. It had a formidable enemy, however, in John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III and the effective ruler of England at the time.

Parliament had not met since November 1373, 2½ years previously, because Edward III and his councilors recognised the danger of calling parliament during a period of dissatisfaction. However, the need for funds was so pressing in 1376 that another Parliament was necessary.

Once the members were assembled, they were determined to clean up the corrupt Royal Council. Peter de la Mare, a knight of the shire representing Herefordshire, had been elected as Speaker by the House of Commons, and on the first day he delivered an address criticising England's recent military failures, condemning the corruption at court, and calling for close scrutiny of the royal accounts. Richard Lyons (Warden of the Mint) and Lord Latimer, who were believed to be robbing the treasury, were called before parliament and then imprisoned. Latimer's impeachment is the earliest recorded in Parliament. The king's mistress, Alice Perrers, was called and condemned to seclusion.

John of Gaunt raised the question of the Salic law, which was the basis for the French case against Edward III's claim to the Crown of France, suggesting that the English follow the French custom, but was unable to sway the assembly to his point of view.

Meanwhile, the eldest prince of the realm, Edward the Black Prince, was dying. Having taken a house in London, he summoned both Edward III and John of Gaunt and made them swear to recognise his son, the future Richard II, as successor to Edward. Both John and the King swore to recognise Richard, and soon after Parliament summoned Richard and acknowledged him as heir to the throne. The members were swayed by the immense prestige of Prince Edward, the country's greatest military hero at the time.

Parliament then imposed a new set of councillors on the King: Edmund Mortimer, the earl of March; William Courtenay, bishop of London; and William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester.

Parliament was dissolved in July, and the following autumn, John of Gaunt attempted to undo its work. He barred the admission of the new councillors assigned to the king. He threw Peter de la Mare into prison at Nottingham. He dismissed the new council and recalled Latimer. Alice of Perrers was restored to the company of the king. John also attacked William of Wykeham.

In 1377, John had another Parliament convene, the Bad Parliament. John had the Good Parliament declared unconstitutional and its acts removed from the books. Despite this, the public treasured the memory of the reforming Parliament and bestowed upon it the name of the Good Parliament.
   
  sing     01/23/2016 01:36
wiki:

百年战争第二阶段

1360年-1400年之间,法王查理五世展开报仇,欲夺回被侵占的领土。他重组军队,以雇佣步兵取代大部分的骑兵、建立野战炮兵、重建海军。他改革内政,整顿税制,以安抚民心。时机成熟后,他任命贝特朗·杜·盖克兰统领军队,以突袭和游击战术攻击英军,在多场战役大败英军。1380年,英军已退守沿海区域。英王担心丢失全部领地,乃与法国签署停战协定,仅保留波尔多、巴约讷、布雷斯特、瑟堡、加莱五个海港,和波尔多与巴约讷间的部分地区。
   
  sing     01/23/2016 01:38

查理五世 Charles V le Sage


wiki:

(英明的)查理五世(Charles V le Sage,1337年1月21日-1380年9月16日)瓦卢瓦王朝第3位国王(1364年-1381年在位)。他逆转了百年战争第一阶段的战局,使法国得以复兴。

查理五世是好人约翰之子。1356年英格兰人在普瓦捷战役中俘虏了他的父亲约翰二世,查理五世遂成为国家的摄政者。事实证明他比父亲称职得多。

为筹集使约翰二世获释而必须支付的赎金,查理重新召开已中止了多年的三级会议;但在其索款的要求被拒绝后,他又将三级会议解散。1357年3月在各方强烈要求下,查理再次召开三级会议,并颁布“三月大敕令”,扩大会议的权力。但这个敕令最终并未实施。1358年,查理在商人艾蒂安·马赛领导的市民起义中被赶出巴黎。

查理五世任摄政时的另一次巨大起义浪潮是扎克雷运动。他依靠其父约翰二世的宿敌、纳瓦拉国王恶人查理的力量将这次暴动镇压下去。

1360年英格兰国王爱德华三世逼近巴黎附近,查理明智地与英国人签订了《布雷蒂尼和约》。和约对法国不利,但它却使查理五世有时间来进行改革。他主要依靠小贵族和市民作为同盟,强化税收制度,加强王权,并使用一部分雇佣军来代替作战不力的民军。在充分加强了法兰西的国家机器之后,查理五世于1369年向英格兰开战。他的战争进行得很顺利:1372年收复普瓦图和布列塔尼,1373年又击溃南下波尔多的英军。到1374年,英格兰人手中只剩下五个港口:加来、布雷斯特、瑟堡、波尔多和巴巴约讷。查理五世于这年与英格兰缔结3年停战和约,将大部分收复的失地划归王室直辖。但在1377年,他又向英格兰人发动进攻。

不宜过高估计查理五世的改革,它主要是通过集中使用有限的资源和使人民生活恶化实现的。在查理五世死后,各种矛盾便一齐爆发出来,以致亨利五世在1420年又攻占了大半个法兰西。

查理五世曾是巴黎大学的监护者。
   
  sing     01/23/2016 01:50

A painting depicting the three classes


法国的三级会议必须提一下。 路易十六就是因为财政危机不得已召开了三级会议,结果引发了把他推向断头台的法国大革命。


查理摄政时于1357年召开三级会议,是为父亲约翰二世的赎金而筹款:

"为筹集使约翰二世获释而必须支付的赎金,查理重新召开已中止了多年的三级会议;但在其索款的要求被拒绝后,他又将三级会议解散。1357年3月在各方强烈要求下,查理再次召开三级会议,并颁布“三月大敕令”,扩大会议的权力。但这个敕令最终并未实施。"--wiki


wiki[三级会议 (法兰西)] 摘抄:


Estates General (France) 三级会议 (法兰西)

在法国旧制度中,三级会议(法语:états généraux)指的是法国全国人民的代表应国王的召集而举行的会议。参加者共分成三级:第一级为神职人员、第二级为贵族、平民则是除前两个级别以外的其他所有人。会议通常是在国家遇到困难时,国王为寻求援助而召开,因此是不定期的。1302年,腓力四世因向教会增税而与教皇博尼法斯八世(Boniface VIII)冲突。为了与教廷对抗,腓力四世于1302年5月10日召开了第一次三级会议,除了教会和贵族的代表之外,还第一次召集每个城市的两名市民代表参加会议[1]。后来各省也模仿全国的三级会议,召开自己的三级会议。在此后的487年中,三级会议还召开过21次,每次都是在国家遇到财政或政治上的困难时召开的特殊会议,目的是在重大问题上询问民众的看法,或通过某些重大决议。三级会议的代表自首次召开时就分为三个等级,分别是教士、贵族以及平民。百年战争时期,为了抵抗外敌,三级会议有权监督政府。16至17世纪初,专制王权加强,三级会议的权力被削弱。从1614年到路易十六统治时期,三级会议中断了175年。1789年,路易十六召开了最后一次三级会议,这次会议导致了法国大革命。大革命后,三级会议随着旧制度一道被废除,不复存在。

三级会议由法国国王召开,也由法国国王决定解散。参与会议的代表由每个等级自行选出,分外省和巴黎地区的代表(1484年真正实行)。在会议期间,三个等级各自讨论议案,只有在拟定对国王的回答时才举行联席会议。三个等级,不分代表多少,各有一票表决权。各等级各自递交陈情书(Cahiers de Doléances),表达意愿。

英法百年战争时期,岌岌可危的王权和民族意识的觉醒使得三级会议的权力得到加强。这个时期的三级会议召开频繁,1355年至1359年间更是每年召开一次。由于战争中的王室急需国民支持,三级议会乘机扩大其影响力。最典型的是1357年,国王约翰二世被英军俘虏,需付巨额赎金。三月,王太子查理(后来的查理五世)召开三级会议。三级会议借机申张自己的权利,提出了一系列条件:允许三级会议代表参加国王的御前会议,改组行政管理, 罢免不得人心的官吏,三级会议有权不经国王批准而每三个月自行开会一次,会议代表不受侵犯等。查理五世颁布“三月大敕令”,答应扩大会议的权力。但这个敕令最终并未实施。
   
  sing     01/28/2016 22:41
百年战争第一阶段由爱德华三世发起,英军获胜,所以又称爱德华战争The Edwardian War  。 第二阶段又查理五世发起,法军获胜,称加洛林战争the Caroline War  。

查理五世1364年于兰斯加冕继位。他的首要任务自然是雪布勒丁尼和约割地之耻。文明人开战总要找个借口。1369年5月, 查理五世传阿基坦领主黑太子爱德华到巴黎,遭拒。查理五世遂向英国宣战。

查理五世同其父约翰二世不可同日而语。 哲学家伏尔泰在赞美法王亨利四世时说,“贤王查理五世的治理才能、人民王路易十二的善良、以及骑士王弗朗索瓦一世的勇敢率直,他(亨利四世)兼而有之。” 查理五世Charles le Sage – the Wise, 以贤明留名法国史。用中文说,查理五世是一代明君。

圣贤君主必知人善用。查理五世1364继位后,身边围着出谋划策的智囊团,称为马穆赛 (the Marmousets , 原意为狨猴,这里特指查理五世时期的智谋团)。 另外,查理五世手下还有一位叱咤风云的统帅盖克兰Bertrand du Guesclin,战功显赫。及至查理五世1380年去世时,法军收复了几乎所有布勒丁尼和约割让给英国的失地。



wiki(Charles V of France):

Charles became king in 1364. With the help of talented advisers known as the Marmousets, his skillful management of the kingdom allowed him to replenish the royal treasury and to restore the prestige of the House of Valois. He established the first permanent army paid with regular wages, which liberated the French populace from the companies of routiers who regularly plundered the country when not employed. Led by Bertrand du Guesclin, the French Army was able to turn the tide of the Hundred Years' War to Charles' advantage, and by the end of Charles' reign, they had reconquered almost all the territories ceded to the English in 1360. Furthermore, the French Navy, led by Jean de Vienne, managed to attack the English coast for the first time since the beginning of the Hundred Years' War.
   
  sing     01/28/2016 23:39

杜·盖克兰位于迪南 (Dinan)的纪念雕像

百年战争第一阶段有著名的克雷西会战、普瓦捷大战等,而第二阶段除拉罗歇尔海战外好像没有什么著名的大战,因为法军改变了战略。统帅盖克兰灵活运用“费边战略Fabian strategy”(以古罗马独裁官费边命名),打突袭战、游击战等, 拖垮英军。 结果是,从1369年到1380年,英军丧失了法国西南阿基坦的大片领土,不得不退守沿海区域,最终签署停战协议。

盖克兰两次被俘,查理五世两次重金赎回。盖克兰1380年过世,安葬在法国皇家陵园---圣但尼大教堂(Basilique de Saint-Denis)。


费边战略--- 请读《罗马人的故事 》by 盐野七生
http://lz.book.sohu.com/book-23137.html




wiki(贝特朗·杜·盖克兰):

贝特朗·杜·盖克兰(法语:Bertrand du Guesclin,约1320年 – 1380年7月13日),法国于百年战争初期杰出的军事领袖及民族英雄,其一生战功赫赫,被誉为“布列塔尼之鹰”(the Eagle of Brittany)。由1370年直到其逝世一直任法国骑士统帅 (Constable of France)。其对费边战略 (Fabian strategy)的灵活运用令法国没有足够力量打败英国之前避免重大战役并成功拖垮英军,同时让法国人重新夺回在战争初期失去的多数领地。

贝特朗·杜·盖克兰出生于布列塔尼迪南市的布龙 (Broons),其家族为一个统治当地的小诸侯。他最初跟随由法王支持的布列塔尼公爵布卢瓦的查理 (Charles de Blois),协助其于1341年至64年间的布列塔尼继承战争中击败英王支持的约翰·迪·蒙德福 (Jean de Montfort),并因此于1354年受封骑士。其后转至阿尔诺·奥德雷海姆元帅麾下,并于1357年以游击战术,击退英军由格罗斯蒙的亨利带领的雷恩之围,虽然法国最后以赔偿10万克朗解除围城,但杜·盖克兰出众的军事才能已开始受到查理太子的赏识。

1364年查理五世即位后,纳瓦尔的查理二世希望兼并勃艮第公国,而查理五世希望给他的弟弟腓力。5月16日在科歇雷尔(Cocherel)杜·盖克兰遇到让三世·德盖义·布赫(Jean de Grailly, Captal de Buch)指挥的纳瓦尔军队,取得胜利,迫使那瓦尔国王查理二世签定和平条约,勃艮第归于腓力。

1364年9月29日,在欧赖战役(Auray)中,杜·盖克兰和布卢瓦的查理(Charles of Blois)受到严重惨败,布卢瓦的查理战死,杜·盖克兰被布列塔尼公爵约翰五世和英格兰约翰·钱多斯(John Chandos)爵士的军队俘虏,后查理五世以4万金法郎赎回。

1366年查理五世派杜·盖克兰去处理那些骚扰法北各地的失业军人──他们自称“Free Companies”,杜·盖克兰将他们招安后派到卡斯蒂利亚(Castile)协助卡斯蒂利亚的亨利争夺王位,在纳胡拉战役(Battle of Nájera)杜·盖克兰再次被黑太子爱德华俘虏,查理五世再次赎回,因为认为他是宝贵的。1369年特拉斯塔马拉(Trastamara)的亨利赢得蒙蒂尔战役(battle of Montiel),登上了卡斯蒂利亚的王位。

1369年与英格兰的战争重新开始,从1370年至1374年杜·盖克兰重获普瓦图(Poitou)和圣东日(Saintonge),追赶英军进入布列塔尼。1378年他不赞成查理五世没收布列塔尼,他建议设立公国,但国王并无兴趣。

1380年在朗格多克,在一次军事远征他死于痢疾,被安葬在法国国王的圣但尼大教堂(Basilique de Saint-Denis),他的心是存放在迪南的(Saint-Sauveur)教堂。

由于杜盖克兰的效忠法国,20世纪布列塔尼民族主义者认为他是一个"布列塔尼叛逆者traitor"。在第二次世界大战中,亲纳粹的布莱顿社会-国家工人运动(Breton Social-National Workers' Movement)炸毁了他在雷恩的一座雕像。
   
  sing     01/28/2016 23:53

圣但尼圣殿 Basilique de Saint-Denis


wiki:

The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: known as Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of unique importance historically and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, is considered to be the first Gothic church.

圣但尼圣殿主教座堂(法语:Basilique cathédrale de Saint-Denis),简称圣但尼圣殿(Basilique de Saint-Denis),前身为圣但尼修道院(Abbaye de Saint-Denis),位于法国巴黎近郊的圣但尼,自克洛维一世以来的几乎所有法国君主均葬于此。

圣但尼圣殿源自法国主保圣德尼。法国王后的加冕仪式通常在该教堂举行,而国王的加冕仪式则通常在兰斯主教座堂进行。
尽管它并非真正的天主教宗座圣殿,但却被称作圣殿(Basilique)。1966年升格为大教堂,成为圣但尼主教驻地。


Basilique Saint-Denis
   
  sing     01/29/2016 23:52

Battle of La Rochelle


第二阶段,即加洛林战争中,最主要的战役是Battle of La Rochelle,虽然不是英法五大战役之一。

Battle of La Rochelle 拉罗歇尔海战是百年战争中英格兰海军第一次主要失利。自1340年Battle of Sluys斯鲁伊斯海战后,英格兰一直控制着制海权。但1372年的Battle of La Rochelle 使情形有所逆转。

1372年6月22日,卡斯蒂利亚舰队赶来援助围困La Rochelle 的法军。法-卡联军在Battle of La Rochelle拉罗歇尔海战中击败了英格兰海军。9月7日,原为英军控制的拉罗歇尔终于失守。法国控制了Bay of Biscay附近的制海权,削弱了英国的海上贸易,并威胁到英军对加斯科涅的占领。

La Rochelle拉罗歇尔是法国西部比斯开湾Bay of Biscay的东岸港口。 “在胡格诺战争中,拉罗歇尔曾经于1572年和1627年两度被围 ”。大仲马的《三个火枪手》中提到了1625年的拉罗歇尔之围。



wiki(Hundred Years' War):

In 1372, English dominance at sea, which had been upheld since the Battle of Sluys, was reversed, at least in theBay of Biscay, by the disastrous defeat by a joint Franco-Castilian fleet at the Battle of La Rochelle. This defeat undermined English seaborne trade and supplies and threatened their Gascon possessions.


For more info, please go to wiki(Battle of La Rochelle).
   
  sing     01/29/2016 23:56

French recovery of lost territories

1375年,在教皇格利高里十一世提议下,英法两国在布鲁日Bruges (今比利时境内)签定了布鲁日协约the Treaty of Bruges。协约休战期由起初设定的一年增为两年,延至1377年。

1376年,英格兰的黑太子病殁。 1377年,爱德华三世派他的大臣Adam Houghton 与查理五世谈判,但6月21日爱德华三世病逝,Houghton 被召回英格兰。黑太子10岁的儿子理查Richard of Bordeaux 继位,为理查二世,后被冈特的约翰之子Henry Bolingbroke篡位,此为后话。

爱德华三世驾崩三年之后,法王查理五世也于1380年9月病逝,由他不满12岁的儿子查理六世继位。法王查理六世比英王理查二世小将近两岁。两位幼王都由各自的皇叔摄政管理国家。

查理五世去世前,以为战争已尽尾声胜利在望,便废除了因战争需要而增设的王室税收。谁知他死后,战争仍在拖延,幼王查理六世的摄政们不得已,试图重新征收战争税,但遭到强烈抵制,巴黎等许多城市发生了暴动,摄政们只好取消战争税以平息事态。

在查理五世死后第九年---1389年,英法两国终于签定布鲁日停战协议 Truce of Bruges (基于Treaty of Bruges), 英国仅得以保留波尔多、巴约讷、布雷斯特、瑟堡、加莱五个海港,和波尔多与巴约讷间的部分地区。 持续了20年的加洛林战争(1369-1389)--- 百年战争第二阶段终告结束,进入第二次和平期Second peace: 1389–1415。


wiki(The Caroline War ):

The Treaty of Bruges was a treaty signed in 1375 between France and England in Bruges and rockingham castle, present-day Belgium. It led to the Truce of Bruges. The conference leading to the treaty was called at the instigation of Pope Gregory XI. France was represented in the negotiations by Philip II, Duke of Burgundy and England by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The truce agreed was initially for one year but was later extended until 1377.

In 1376, the Black Prince died, and in April 1377, Edward III of England sent his Chancellor, Adam Houghton, to negotiate for peace with Charles, but when in June Edward himself died, Houghton was called home. The underaged Richard of Bordeaux succeeded to the throne of England. It was not until Richard had been deposed by his cousin Henry Bolingbroke that the English, under the House of Lancaster, could forcefully revive their claim to the French throne. The war nonetheless continued until the first of a series of truces was signed in 1389.

Charles V died in September 1380 and was succeeded by his underage son, Charles VI, who was placed under the joint regency of his three uncles. With his successes, Charles may have believed that the end of the war was at hand. On his deathbed Charles V repealed the royal taxation necessary to fund the war effort. As the regents attempted to reimpose the taxation a popular revolt known as the Harelle broke out in Rouen. As tax collectors arrived at other French cities the revolt spread and violence broke out in Paris and most of France's other northern cities. The regency was forced to repeal the taxes to calm the situation.
   
  sing     01/31/2016 00:15

Richard II, Portrait at Westminster Abbey, mid-1390s



wiki[理查二世 (英格兰)]:

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399.

理查二世(Richard II,1367年1月6日-1400年2月14日),1377年登基成为英格兰国王,1399年被废。

理查二世出生于波尔多(法国阿基坦),是黑太子爱德华最小的儿子。其父及兄长昂古莱姆的爱德华先后早于祖父爱德华三世逝世,所以于1377年,爱德华三世逝世后,由年仅10岁的理查继承英格兰国王王位。

统治期间

理查二世即位初年,他的智囊团于1377年至1381年间三次开征人头税,使低下阶层非常反感。1381年,瓦特·泰勒农民起义爆发,他们烧毁理查二世叔父冈特的约翰的萨伏依宫,杀死坎特伯雷大主教及国王的首席理财大臣,理查二世被困于伦敦塔上。因此14岁的理查勇敢地骑马到伦敦的史密斯菲尔德与几周前在乡野起义的叛军领袖瓦特·泰勒会面,但是因双方不能达成协议,国王的一方遂刺杀叛军领袖。农民起义最终被镇压,而不久后理查亦被国会强迫撤销他许诺的赦免。

理查对权力的争夺触犯了既得利益集团,他对宠臣的依赖引起了不满,1388年,被一群怀有敌意的贵族(他们敌视国王的叔叔格洛斯特公爵伍德斯托克的托马斯,第一代格洛斯特公爵)领导的残酷国会宣判了国王许多宠臣死刑并强迫理查重复加冕誓词。1394年,他的第一个王后——波西米亚的安妮的去世使理查变得孤立,随后,他专断随意的行为也使他更加不得人心。理查在1397年开始了他的报复行动,放逐了许多和他敌对的有名望的贵族,他的堂兄亨利四世随后也被放逐,在亨利的父亲冈特的约翰(爱德华三世第三子)死后,理查没收了兰开斯特公爵所有的土地(也就是本应亨利继承的)并分给他的支持者。

理查继续坚持和平的对待法国政策(他第二任妻子为瓦卢瓦的伊莎贝拉),理查继续自称法国国王并且不放弃加来,但是他当政期间百年战争休战了28年,他对爱尔兰的远行未能调节盖尔人和英裔爱尔兰人的关系。

废黜及死亡

1399年,当理查在爱尔兰时,博林布鲁克的亨利在一些男爵的支持下(包括理查任命的坎特伯雷大主教)回到英格兰争取他父亲留下的遗产。留守伦敦的约克公爵兰利的埃德蒙在无可选择的情况下,与亨利四世合作。回程中的理查二世只好于威尔士的弗林特城堡投降,亨利囚禁并废除了理查,并于同年10月13日在伦敦加冕成为亨利四世。

1400年2月14日理查在Pontefract城堡被谋杀(也可能是饿死的),死后原本被葬于赫特福德郡的Kings Langley。最终,亨利四世之子亨利五世把他的遗体安葬在威斯敏斯特大教堂。

理查是一位伟大的皇家艺术赞助人,他是乔叟的赞助人,他下令把诺曼时代威斯敏斯特厅改建成现在的样子(这个大厅在1097到1099年被威廉二世建造,是王国的礼仪和行政中心,在1882年以前也是法院所在)传说理查二世是手帕的发明者,英国王室札记这样写到:“国王用一小片衣物擦鼻子。”
   
  sing     01/31/2016 00:16
King Richard II (1367-1400)

   
  sing     01/31/2016 00:19
The Tragedy of Richard II by William Shakespeare

   
  sing     01/31/2016 00:21
The Hollow Crown: Shakespeare's Richard II

   
  sing     02/01/2016 01:04

Richard II meets the rebels on 13 June 1381 in a miniature from a 1470s copy of Jean Froissart's Chronicles.

1381年的瓦特·泰勒农民起义


1381年的poll tax-- 人头税是农民暴动的导火索,但暴动的根源是黑死病之后底层农民与领地主之间日益加剧的矛盾,另外因与法国交战而征收的高税收令农民不堪重负。( 前面提到,黑死病的爆发令劳力供给大幅下降,劳力费用随之飙升,但贵族们不愿支付高价劳动力。 爱德华三世于1349年签署了Ordinance of Laboruers 劳工条例,企图控制劳力费用和物价。追求生活改善的农民们对劳工法非常抵制。)

14岁的理查二世在这次事件中勇敢镇定,但他不守诺言(虽然为国会所迫),令他失信于民众,使得他后来在堂兄博林布鲁克的亨利篡位时孤立无援四面楚歌。


wiki(Richard II of England):

Whereas the poll tax of 1381 was the spark of the Peasants' Revolt, the root of the conflict lay in tensions between peasants and landowners precipitated by the economic and demographic consequences of the Black Death and subsequent outbreaks of the plague. The rebellion started inKent and Essex in late May, and on 12 June, bands of peasants gathered at Blackheath near London under the leaders Wat Tyler, John Ball andJack Straw. John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace was burnt down. TheArchbishop of Canterbury Simon Sudbury, who was also Lord Chancellor, and the king's Lord High Treasurer, Robert Hales, were both killed by the rebels, who were demanding the complete abolition of serfdom. The king, sheltered within the Tower of London with his councillors, agreed that the Crown did not have the forces to disperse the rebels and that the only feasible option was to negotiate.



sing wrote: (1/30/2016 21:15)


wiki[理查二世 (英格兰)]:

理查二世即位初年,他的智囊团于1377年至1381年间三次开征人头税,使低下阶层非常反感。1381年,瓦特·泰勒农民起义爆发,他们烧毁理查二世叔父冈特的约翰的萨伏依宫,杀死坎特伯雷大主教及国王的首席理财大臣,理查二世被困于伦敦塔上。因此14岁的理查勇敢地骑马到伦敦的史密斯菲尔德与几周前在乡野起义的叛军领袖瓦特·泰勒会面,但是因双方不能达成协议,国王的一方遂刺杀叛军领袖。农民起义最终被镇压,而不久后理查亦被国会强迫撤销他许诺的赦免。

   
  sing     02/02/2016 01:29
The Lords Appellant  勋爵上诉团

勋爵上诉团由理查二世时期的五位贵族组成。起先有三位成员,包括理查二世的叔叔 Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester。后来又加入两位,其一是理查的堂兄、后来成为亨利四世的 Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby ;另一位则是Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham. ,莎翁《理查二世Richard II》开场即是Henry Bolingbroke与 Thomas de Mowbray 互相指控对方并准备决斗。

上诉团的意图是通过法律程序,以叛国罪起诉并弹劾国王的五位宠臣,以此抑制他们认为专横的暴政。

上诉团达到了目的。理查二世的宠臣们或被处死,或被缺席(在逃)判决死刑。1387年,上诉团甚至发动了武装叛乱,使理查二世成了几乎没有实权的傀儡。

1389年,支持理查二世的冈特的约翰从西班牙返回。至1397年,羽翼已丰的理查二世认为时机到了,遂对上诉团成员实施报复。

理查的叔叔 Gloucester 被关进加莱监狱,还未审判就被谋杀。 当时驻守加莱的英军首领正是上诉团另一成员 Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk。他很可能是奉理查二世之旨杀了Gloucester。 莎翁《理查二世》一剧开始, Bolingbroke 就因此事指控 Thomas de Mowbray。

在理查二世1397年的复仇中,上诉团的原始三成员两人被杀,一人被关。

1398年,另二位也遭报复。起因是Thomas de Mowbray 指控Henry of Bolingbroke有叛君之嫌,Henry 则反控。“Take honour from me, and my life is done ”, 为名誉,二人决定进行决斗。就在决斗前,理查二世宣布将Thomas de Mowbray 终生放逐(Thomas1399年客死威尼斯);而亨利呢,先被放逐10年,随即减为6年。

莎翁剧中这么写(附本人粗译):

KING RICHARD II 理查二世
Uncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes 叔父,透过你的眼眸
I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect 我窥见悲哀的心:你的愁容
Hath from the number of his banish'd years 已将他的流放期
Pluck'd four away. 缩短了四年。
(To HENRY BOLINGBROKE 朝向亨利。博林波柔克 )
Six frozen winter spent, 度过六个寒冬,
Return with welcome home from banishment. 即可结束流放,回到欢迎你的故土。

HENRY BOLINGBROKE 亨利。博林波柔克
How long a time lies in one little word! 漫长岁月仅蕴于一字!
Four lagging winters and four wanton springs 四度冬寒四度春狂
End in a word: such is the breath of kings 皆止于一言: 是谓君王之鼻息。

国王吐口气,漫长的4个冬春瞬间终结,“ such is the breath of kings”。

1399年冈特的约翰过世,HENRY BOLINGBROKE卷土重来。


wiki(The Lords Appellant):

The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II who sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule. The word appellant simply means '[one who is] appealing [in a legal sense]'. It is the older (Norman) French form of the present participle of the verb appeler, the equivalent of the English 'to appeal'. The group was called the Lords Appellant because its members invoked a procedure under law to start prosecution of the king's unpopular favourites known as 'an appeal': the favourites were charged in a document called an appeal of treason, a device borrowed from civil law which led to some procedural complications.

There were originally three Lords Appellant: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, son of Edward III and thus the king's uncle; Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel and of Surrey; and Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. These were later joined by Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby (the future king Henry IV) and Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham.

They achieved their goals, first establishing a Commission to govern England for one year from 19 November 1386. In 1387, the Lords Appellant launched an armed rebellion against King Richard and defeated an army under Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford at the skirmish of Radcot Bridge, outside Oxford.They maintained Richard as a figurehead with little real power.

They had their revenge on the king's favourites in the "Merciless Parliament" (1388). The nominal governor of Ireland, de Vere and Richard's Lord Chancellor, Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, who had fled abroad, were sentenced to death in their absence.[4] Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, had all his worldly goods confiscated.[4] The Lord Chief Justice, Sir Robert Tresilian, was executed, as were Sir Nicholas Brembre, Lord Mayor of London, John Beauchamp of Holt, Sir James Berners, and Sir John Salisbury. Sir Simon Burley was found guilty of exercising undue influence over the king and was sentenced to death. Derby and Nottingham, together with the duke of York, tried to win a reprieve for him, but he was executed on 5 May

In 1389, Richard's uncle and supporter, John of Gaunt, returned from Spain and Richard was able to rebuild his power gradually until 1397, when he reasserted his authority and destroyed the principal three among the Lords Appellant. However in 1399 Richard was deposed by Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, partly as a result of the royal confiscation of Gaunt's estate on his death. Bolingbroke succeeded him as Henry IV.

Richard never forgave the Lords Appellant. His uncle Gloucester was murdered in captivity in Calais; it was (and remains) widely believed that he was killed on Richard's orders. The Earl of Arundel was beheaded. Warwick lost his title and his lands and was imprisoned on the Isle of Man until Richard was overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke. The behaviour of the two junior Lords Appellant, Bolingbroke and Mowbray, probably influenced Richard's decision in 1399 (这里应当是1398年) to exile them both, and to revoke the permission he had given them to sue for any inheritance which fell due, as it did in relation to Mowbray's grandmother and, more significantly, of Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt.
   
  sing     02/02/2016 23:58

Richard being taken into custody by the Earl of Northumberland (Froissart)


1399年2月3日, 冈特的约翰辞世。理查二世没收约翰的地产,剥夺约翰儿子Bolingbroke 的继承权,并且将Bolingbroke 终身流放。理查二世以为当时身在巴黎的Bolingbroke 对他并不构成任何威胁。理查二世对法国一直采取和平政策,所以他认为法国没有理由挑战他的王位。 于是理查二世在1399年5月再次出征爱尔兰(1395年,理查二世曾成功入侵爱尔兰)。理查一方面同法国讲和,另一方面却攻打爱尔兰,恃强凌弱?

理查二世这次远征爱尔兰,不只是大意失英格兰,失王冠,最终还失了性命。

话说法王查理五世1380年病殁后, 其子查理六世Charles VI le Insense – the Mad继位。查理六世患有精神病,王室一片混乱。13996月, 奥尔良公爵路易掌控了王室。路易并不赞成同英王发展友好睦邻关系,他发现这是放Henry Bolingbroke 回英格兰的天赐良机。

1399年6月底, Henry Bolingbroke 在英格兰东北部约克郡的Ravenspur(今已被海水侵蚀)登陆,消息传出,反国王势力很快在他身边集聚。开始时,亨利声称回英格兰只是要回属于他的领地和财产。

当时王室骑士和对国王忠心的贵族们都跟随理查二世去爱尔兰了,所以亨利一路南下,几乎未受到任何抵抗。受理查二世之托,留守英格兰的约克公爵Edmund of Langley(理查二世的叔父)也只好同亨利合作。

同时,从爱尔兰返回的理查二世归程受阻,7月24日才在威尔士登陆。

他到了Conwy 康威后,8月12日与 Earl of Northumberland 谈判。8月19日, 理查二世在Flint Castle 弗林特城堡向亨利投降,并保证在人身安全受保障的前提下放弃王位。9月1日返回伦敦后,理查被关进伦敦塔。


wiki(Richard II of England):


On 3 February 1399, John of Gaunt died. Rather than allowing Bolingbroke to succeed, Richard extended his exile to life and had him disinherited. The king felt safe from Bolingbroke, who was residing in Paris, since the French had little interest in any challenge to Richard and his peace policy. Richard left the country in May for another expedition in Ireland.

In June 1399, Louis, Duke of Orléans, gained control of the court of the insane Charles VI of France. The policy of rapprochement with the English crown did not suit Louis's political ambitions, and for this reason he found it opportune to allow Henry to leave for England. With a small group of followers, Bolingbroke landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire towards the end of June 1399. Men from all over the country soon rallied around the duke. Meeting with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, who had his own misgivings about the king, Bolingbroke insisted that his only object was to regain his own patrimony. Percy took him at his word and declined to interfere. The king had taken most of his household knights and the loyal members of his nobility with him to Ireland, so Henry experienced little resistance as he moved south. Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, who was acting as Keeper of the Realm, had little choice but to side with Bolingbroke. Meanwhile, Richard was delayed in his return from Ireland and did not land in Wales until 24 July. He made his way to Conwy, where on 12 August he met with the Earl of Northumberland for negotiations. On 19 August, Richard II surrendered to Henry at Flint Castle, promising to abdicate if his life were spared. Both men then returned to London, the indignant king riding all the way behind Henry. On arrival, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 1 September.
   
  sing     02/03/2016 23:43
理查二世放弃王位(或说被废黜)后,亨利与御座之间还横着一道障碍,因为有人继承权优先于亨利。

亨利的父亲--冈特的约翰在世时曾提议英格兰国会跟风法国,采纳《萨利克继承法》,即不允许女性及其后裔继承王位,但国会并未听从他的建议。 所以英格兰王位的继承权并不排除女性及其后裔。

按英格兰律法, 继承权属于爱德华三世的次子Lionel of Antwerp 的后代Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March 。这里是指Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 第五代马奇伯爵埃德蒙·莫蒂默--- Lionel of Antwerp 的女儿Philippa的孙子, 他是 the heir presumptive to King Richard II 。

而冈特的约翰是爱德华三世的第三子(among surviving sons), 所以亨利的继承权应当排在莫蒂默之后。

但亨利一再强调他是英王室一脉相承的男性直系后裔, 而莫蒂默的王室血缘来自他的祖母Philippa。官方文件并且记载,理查二世自愿让位于亨利。 最终结果:国会于1399年9月30日接受理查放弃王位,亨利于10月13日加冕为亨利四世。

兰开斯特家族的亨利戴上了英格兰至高无上的王冠, 但因理查二世被黜引发的王位之争, 却最终导致了后来的玫瑰战争。


wiki(Richard II of England):

Henry was by now fully determined to take the throne, but presenting a rationale for this action proved a dilemma. It was argued that Richard, through his tyranny and misgovernment, had rendered himself unworthy of being king. However, Henry was not next in the line to the throne; the heir presumptive was Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, who descended from Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp. Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt, was Edward's third son.The problem was solved by emphasizing Henry's descent in a direct male line, whereas March's descent was through his grandmother. The official account of events claims that Richard voluntarily agreed to abdicate in favour of Henry on 29 September. Although this was probably not the case, the parliament that met on 30 September accepted Richard's abdication. Henry was crowned as King Henry IV on 13 October.
   
  sing     02/03/2016 23:47
爱德华三世的儿子们


爱德华三世与王后菲利琶共有5个儿子长大成人。 像金雀花王朝创始人亨利二世的儿子们一样,爱德华三世的儿子们也影响了英格兰历史的走向。


爱德华三世的长子:黑太子爱德华Edward, the Black Prince, (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376)

战功卓著的黑太子比其父早逝一年。黑太子有两个合法儿子,长子7岁夭折。次子理查二世继位。

理查先后迎娶Anne of Bohemia (m. 1382–1394), 和Isabella of Valois (m. 1396–1400) 。 身后无嗣。



Signet ring of the Black Prince in the Louvre
   
  sing     02/03/2016 23:47

Lionel of Antwerp


爱德华三世的次子:安特卫普的莱昂内尔Lionel of Antwerp(1338年-1368年)


Lionel也在爱德华三世之前过世。Lionel 名下只有独女菲利琶Philippa of Clarence (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1382)  。

Philippa 嫁给了Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March。Edmund 的曾祖父(great grandfather)就是Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, 曾伙同法兰西母狼伊莎贝拉联手,于1327年1月废黜爱德华二世。

菲利琶与莫提摩有二子二女。 长子为Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, 次子为Sir Edmund Mortimer。 稍后还会提到。

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 与Eleanor Holland 的长女长子, 即菲利琶的孙女孙子,影响了王位之争。

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 的长子就是本应在理查二世被黜之后继承王位的Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March.

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 的长女是 Anne Mortimer。 他与 Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge 成婚。 而这位Richard 的父亲正是爱德华三世的第四个儿子、约克家族鼻祖Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 。

Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 死后无嗣,他的财产连同他对英格兰王位的继承权因此就传给了他姐姐Anne Mortimer 和Richard的儿子Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York。后面再续。

一言以概之,玫瑰战争时约克家族继承王位的依据上溯到爱德华三世次子安特卫普的莱昂内尔Lionel of Antwerp的女儿菲利琶。约克家族与后来的约克郡的标志是白玫瑰。
   
  sing     02/04/2016 00:28

John of Gaunt


爱德华三世的第三个儿子: 冈特的约翰John of Gaunt,1340年-1399年

冈特的约翰是兰开斯特王朝的创始人。兰开斯特王朝及后来兰开斯特郡的标志是红玫瑰。

约翰先后有三任妻子。

第一任妻子是兰开斯特的布兰奇 Blanche of Lancaster (25 March 1345 – 12 September 1368) 。布兰奇也是金雀花家族成员,其父当时是英格兰巨富的当权派Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster(亨利三世的曾孙)。 布兰奇的父亲1361年过世,她的姐姐1362年4月去世,无嗣。布兰奇父亲的全部领地都传给了布兰奇夫妇。1362年11月,爱德华三世封儿子约翰为Duke of Lancaster。 布兰奇23岁时可能因感染黑死病而去世。亨利四世是他们的儿子。

“他的第二任妻子康斯坦萨是卡斯蒂利亚暴君佩德罗的女儿,他因此要求卡斯蒂利亚的王位,但未能战胜竞争对手恩里克二世 ”--wiki

约翰的第三任妻子是Katherine Swynford,约翰是凯瑟琳的第二任丈夫。凯瑟琳的妹妹Philippa Roet 是乔叟的妻子。 约翰是乔叟的恩主。约翰与凯瑟琳的儿子John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset的孙女Lady Margaret Beaufort 是都铎王朝的创始人亨利七世的母亲。



   
  sing     02/04/2016 00:42

Edmund of Langley before King Ferdinand I of Portugal, from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre

爱德华的第四个儿子;Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402)

兰利的埃德蒙 Edmund of Langley 是约克王朝的创始人。前面已提到,他的儿子Richard 与他兄长Lionel of Antwerp 的女儿菲利琶的孙女Anne Mortimer 成婚, 由此约克家族在玫瑰战争中claim 对英格兰王位的继承权。


wiki(Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York):

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, to Anne de Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Edmund's elder brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, that the House of York made its claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward III's third son.
   
  sing     02/04/2016 00:49

Thomas of Woodstock

爱德华三世的第5个儿子:格洛斯特公爵伍德斯托克的托马斯(Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester,1355年1月7日—1397年9月8日或9日)


前面已提到,Thomas 是the Lords Appellant 勋爵上诉团的首领, 1397年,被理查二世投入加莱监狱, 未及受审就死在狱中。

wiki(Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester):

Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388 that significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.
   
  sing     02/05/2016 01:28
回到理查二世。

像Arthur I 和Edward II一样,后世也只能猜测理查二世的死因,饿死?还是被杀?It remains a mystery。莎翁《Richard II》中的理查之死自然是艺术虚构。理查二世大约卒于1400年2月14日,时年33岁。

wiki(Richard II):

The exact course of Richard's life after the deposition is unclear; he remained in the Tower until he was taken to Pontefract Castle shortly before the end of the year.  Although King Henry might have been amenable to letting him live, this all changed when it was revealed that the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury and Lord Despenser, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland – all now demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard – were planning to murder the new king and restore Richard in the Epiphany Rising. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live. He is thought to have starved to death in captivity on or around 14 February 1400, although there is some question over the date and manner of his death. His body was taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral on 17 February before burial in Kings Langley Church on 6 March.



sing wrote: (1/30/2016 21:15)


wiki[理查二世 (英格兰)]:

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399.

理查二世(Richard II,1367年1月6日-1400年2月14日),1377年登基成为英格兰国王,1399年被废。

。。。。。。

1400年2月14日理查在Pontefract城堡被谋杀(也可能是饿死的),死后原本被葬于赫特福德郡的Kings Langley。最终,亨利四世之子亨利五世把他的遗体安葬在威斯敏斯特大教堂。

理查是一位伟大的皇家艺术赞助人,他是乔叟的赞助人,他下令把诺曼时代威斯敏斯特厅改建成现在的样子(这个大厅在1097到1099年被威廉二世建造,是王国的礼仪和行政中心,在1882年以前也是法院所在)传说理查二世是手帕的发明者,英国王室札记这样写到:“国王用一小片衣物擦鼻子。”

   
  sing     02/05/2016 01:36
莎翁的《Richard II 理查二世》很精彩,撇开人物刻画发展,单是俯拾皆是的经典段落和句子,就足以令人倾倒再三品味。不读莎士比亚,不知道英文可以如何迷人,he wrote, he conquered。 当然历史剧并非教科书,而是基于历史事件的艺术构建。

《理查二世》话剧本身已近两个半小时,改编成电影的《The Hollow Crown 空王冠》第一集《Richard II》长148分。《空王冠第一集---理查二世》拍得相当好看! 整部电影采用莎翁原剧台词,有删减,但衔接自然,编剧功夫了得。演员阵势很强大,饰演理查二世的Ben Whishaw 本身是同志,把理查二世文艺青年神经质的一面诠释得很出彩。(Contemporary writers, even those less sympathetic to the king, agreed that Richard was a "most beautiful king", though with a "face which was white, rounded and feminine", implying he lacked manliness. -- wiki)

《空王冠》是四部曲,《理查二世》是第一部,另三部后面将提到。

《The Hollow Crown》, 电影名称取自莎翁《理查二世》剧中理查的一段台词。开头即由理查的画外音引入这段话(附本人中文粗译):

Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs; 让我们来谈谈坟墓、蛆虫和墓志铭;
Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth, 让我们在大地的胸膛上书写忧伤,
let us sit upon the ground 让我们席地而坐
And tell sad stories of the death of kings; 讲讲有关国王死亡的悲惨故事;
How some have been deposed; 说说他们怎样被废黜;
some slain in war, 怎样在战场上被杀戮,
Some haunted by the ghosts they have deposed; 怎样被他们废黜的鬼魂所纠缠;
Some poison'd by their wives: 怎样被王后们毒死;
some sleeping kill'd; 怎样在酣眠中被弑;
All murder'd 他们全都难逃厄运。


莎翁剧中原话:

KING RICHARD II
No matter where; of comfort no man speak:
Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs;
Make dust our paper and with rainy eyes
Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth,
Let's choose executors and talk of wills:
And yet not so, for what can we bequeath
Save our deposed bodies to the ground?
Our lands, our lives and all are Bolingbroke's,
And nothing can we call our own but death
And that small model of the barren earth
Which serves as paste and cover to our bones.
For God's sake, let us sit upon the ground
And tell sad stories of the death of kings;
How some have been deposed; some slain in war,
Some haunted by the ghosts they have deposed;
Some poison'd by their wives: some sleeping kill'd;
All murder'd: for within the hollow crown
That rounds the mortal temples of a king
Keeps Death his court and there the antic sits,
Scoffing his state and grinning at his pomp,
Allowing him a breath, a little scene,
To monarchize, be fear'd and kill with looks,
Infusing him with self and vain conceit,
As if this flesh which walls about our life,
Were brass impregnable, and humour'd thus
Comes at the last and with a little pin
Bores through his castle wall, and farewell king!
Cover your heads and mock not flesh and blood
With solemn reverence: throw away respect,
Tradition, form and ceremonious duty,
For you have but mistook me all this while:
I live with bread like you, feel want,
Taste grief, need friends: subjected thus,
How can you say to me, I am a king?
   
  sing     02/06/2016 00:58
Richard II: "This Sceptered Isle" speech



《Richard II》中,冈特的约翰临终前的一段飞扬文字道出了英格兰得天独厚的地理优势。

在征服者威廉之后,英格兰再没有被外族入侵过。而隔海相望的法国,就没有那么幸运。但每枚硬币都有两面,在很大程度上也因为地理原因,英格兰无法保住在法兰西的领地。


以下中文译文摘自网上,可能是朱生豪或梁实秋译本。

John of Gaunt:
This royal throne of kings, this scepter'd isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise,
This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands,
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings,
Fear'd by their breed and famous by their birth,
Renowned for their deeds as far from home,
For Christian service and true chivalry,
As is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry,
Of the world's ransom, blessed Mary's Son,
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,
Dear for her reputation through the world,
Is now leased out, I die pronouncing it,
Like to a tenement or pelting farm:
England, bound in with the triumphant sea
Whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege
Of watery Neptune, is now bound in with shame,
With inky blots and rotten parchment bonds:
That England, that was wont to conquer others,
Hath made a shameful conquest of itself.
Ah, would the scandal vanish with my life,
How happy then were my ensuing death!

这一个君王们的御座,这一个统於一尊的岛屿,
这一片庄严的大地,这一个战神的別邸,
这一个新的伊甸——地上的天堂,
这一个造化女神为了防御毒害和战祸的侵入而为她自己造下的堡垒,
这一个英雄豪杰的诞生之地,这一个小小的世界,
这一个镶嵌在银色的海水之中的宝石(那海水就像是一堵围墙,或是一道沿屋的壕沟,杜绝了宵小的觊觎),
这一个幸福的国土,这一个英格兰,
这一个保姆,这一个繁育著明君贤主的母体(他们的诞生为世人所侧目,他们仗义卫道的功业远震寰宇),
这一个像救世主的圣墓一样驰名、孕育著这许多伟大的灵魂的国土,
这一个声誉传遍世界、亲爱又亲爱的国土,
现在却像一幢房屋、一块田地一般出租了——
我要在垂死之际,宣布这样的事实。
英格兰,它的周遭是为汹湧的怒涛所包围着的,
它的岩石的崖岸击退海神的进攻,
现在却笼罩在耻辱、墨黑的污点和卑劣的契约之中,
那一向征服別人的英格兰,现在已经可耻地征服了它自己。
啊!要是这耻辱能够随着我的生命同时消失,
我的死该是多么幸福!
   
  sing     02/06/2016 01:07
Richard II - Ben Whishaw from The Hollow Crown




“I wasted time, and now doth time waste me. ”--- Richard II

看过《Richard II》或《The Hollow Crown》, 谁又能忘记这句话.

失了王冠的曾经的国王在狱中发出的喟叹,我们凡夫俗子又何尝没有。自问,是我虚度了光阴,还是光阴消磨了我?

去年此时随手post 了《A History Of Britain 》第一集,原以为年底会搬完全部15集。谁知转贴兼翻译维基,三天打鱼十天晒网,到现在才第五集。


春节将至,顺祝网上诸君新春愉快安康吉祥!
   
  和谈     02/13/2016 07:01
yeah, what makes you so slow simply doing c&P here?

look, last night, i read a news about Queen Elizabeth is set to retire but bypass Charles and pass crown to William and Kate Middleton. this morning, the new news coming from the other side of ocean says: oh no, that was rumor. she is not going to give up her crown that soon. so i'd ask both of you: how long we have to wait?





sing wrote: (2/6/2016 1:7)

“I wasted time, and now doth time waste me. ”--- Richard II

看过《Richard II》或《The Hollow Crown》, 谁又能忘记这句话.

失了王冠的曾经的国王在狱中发出的喟叹,我们凡夫俗子又何尝没有。自问,是我虚度了光阴,还是光阴消磨了我?

去年此时随手post 了《A History Of Britain 》第一集,原以为年底会搬完全部15集。谁知转贴兼翻译维基,三天打鱼十天晒网,到现在才第五集。


春节将至,顺祝网上诸君新春愉快安康吉祥!

   
  sing     02/13/2016 21:45
I wonder too why i've been proceeding at a snail's pace. too many interests, too little time.

"i'd ask both of you: how long we have to wait?"
--- The answer is: you may take over this thread.
   
  sing     02/14/2016 00:35

Henry IV of England 亨利四世画像



此亨利四世是英格兰兰开斯特王朝的第一位国王,而非法兰西历史上颇负盛名的亨利大帝---伟大贤明的法兰西亨利四世。


“(亨利四世)由于受议会拥戴而即位,开创了国王尊重议会意见的先河。”

英格兰历史上第一个被国会废黜的国王是Edward II,但1327年时国会由Isabella of France 及其情夫 Roger Mortimer 掌控,所以这被认为是一出闹剧。

爱德华二世的曾孙理查二世1399年被废黜,则被认为是“开创了国王尊重议会意见的先河”。其实,很大程度上,国会也是被强势的亨利四世所迫。



wiki(亨利四世--英格兰):


亨利四世(英语:Henry IV,1367年4月3日[2]-1413年3月20日[3]),英格兰国王和爱尔兰领主,由1399年到1413年在位。他是金雀花王朝的第十代英格兰国王,同时也宣称拥有对法国国王王位的所有。因为出生在博林布鲁克城堡,因此也称为博林布鲁克的亨利(Henry (of) Bolingbroke 英语发音:/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/)。

他是爱德华三世的第三子兰开斯特公爵约翰·冈特的长子。支持堂兄理查二世镇压格洛斯特公爵叛乱。但是不久由于诺福克公爵的挑拨,在1398年被理查二世驱逐并没收领地。遂起兵征讨理查。由于受议会拥戴而即位,开创了国王尊重议会意见的先河。

1380年,在父亲的安排下,当时只有十三岁的亨利迎娶已故赫里福德伯爵汉弗莱·德·博亨的十二岁女儿玛丽·德·博亨为妻,亨利的母亲与玛丽的母亲是表姐妹。两人婚后育有六个孩子。
长子亨利五世,英格兰国王(1386年—1422年)
次子托马斯,拉伦斯公爵(1387年—1421年)
三子约翰,贝德福德公爵(1389年—1435年)
四子汉弗莱,格洛斯特公爵(1390年—1447年)
长女布兰奇(1392年—1409年),1402年嫁给德国王子普法尔茨选帝侯路易三世
次女菲利帕(1394年—1430年),1406年嫁给丹麦、挪威及瑞典国王埃里克七世
1394年,妻子玛丽生下最小的女儿后去世,得年26岁,当时亨利还未即位,所以玛丽不曾加冕为王后。


1403年2月7日,亨利迎娶纳瓦拉国王查理二世之女琼为继室,她当时是布列塔尼公爵约翰五世的遗孀,已经育有多名子女。琼后来成为英格兰王后,不过,两人并未再生育子女。
   
  sing     02/14/2016 00:57
King Henry IV "Henry Bolingbroke" (1367-1413)

   
  sing     02/17/2016 01:36

English Royalty House of Lancaster


亨利四世于1399年10月13日加冕。他很可能是自诺曼人征服英格兰以来,第一个以英文宣誓演讲的国王。

亨利的母亲布兰奇是兰开斯特领地的继承人,亨利四世因此成为金雀花王朝的支系兰开斯特王朝的第一位国王。
亨利四世宣称自己是法国国王,故徽章中有Fleur-de-lis。

亨利在位时经常咨询国会,但有时同议员仍有争执,尤其在教会事务方面。1401年,亨利通过国会颁布了De heretico comburendo , 即the Burning of Heretics, 对异教徒实施火刑惩罚。其主要目的是压制罗拉德教派运动。1410年,国会建议没收教会地产,但遭到亨利四世的反对,因为他在教会支持下才得以掌权,下议院遂请求将此项提案从记录中删除。


wiki(Henry IV of England):

Henry quickly gained enough power and support to have himself declared King Henry IV, imprison King Richard (who died in prison under mysterious circumstances) and bypass Richard's 7-year-old heir-presumptive, Edmund de Mortimer. Henry's coronation, on 13 October 1399, may have marked the first time following the Norman Conquest when the monarch made an address in English.

Henry's mother was Blanche, heiress to the considerable Lancaster estates, and thus he became the first King of England from the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets.

Henry consulted with Parliament frequently, but was sometimes at odds with the members, especially over ecclesiastical matters. On Arundel's advice, Henry obtained from Parliament the enactment of De heretico comburendo in 1401, which prescribed the burning of heretics; this was done mainly to suppress the Lollard movement. In 1410, parliament suggested confiscating church land. Henry refused to attack the Church that had helped him to power, and the House of Commons had to beg for the bill to be struck off the record.
   
  sing     02/17/2016 01:46
The De heretico comburendo, 即Regarding the Burning of Heretics, 焚烧异教徒,1401年由英格兰亨利四世的国会通过,将异教徒绑在柱子上烧死,以示惩罚。火刑是英格兰历史上最严厉残忍的宗教律法之一。

这条法律是为了消灭追随约翰·威克里夫的罗拉德教派。罗拉德教派被当作蛊惑人心颠覆天主教信仰的邪教。任何人不上缴邪教书籍,将被处以火刑,以达到杀鸡儆猴的目的。

这像是西方版的焚书坑儒。 这也令我想起科幻小说 《Fahrenheit 451 华氏451度》。思想的传播总是令统治者恐惧。约翰·威克里夫是宗教改革的先驱,他的小册子当时广为传抄。他翻译的圣经英文本在当时竟被当作禁书。


Wiki (The De heretico comburendo):

The De heretico comburendo (2 Hen.4 c.15) was a law passed by Parliament under King Henry IV of England in 1401, punishing heretics with burning at the stake. This law was one of the strictest religious censorship statutes ever enacted in England.

The statute declared there were "...divers false and perverse people of a certain new sect...they make and write books, they do wickedly instruct and inform people...and commit subversion of the said catholic faith". The sect alluded to is the Lollards, followers of John Wycliffe.


De heretico comburendo urged "...that this wicked sect, preachings, doctrines, and opinions, should from henceforth cease and be utterly destroyed...", and declared "...that all and singular having such books or any writings of such wicked doctrine and opinions, shall really with effect deliver or cause to be delivered all such books and writings to the diocesan of the same place within forty days from the time of the proclamation of this ordinance and statute."

"And if any person...such books in the form aforesaid do not deliver, then the diocesan of the same place in his diocese such person or persons in this behalf defamed or evidently suspected and every of them may by the authority of the said ordinance and statute cause to be arrested...". If they failed to abjure their heretical beliefs, or relapsed after an initial abjuration, they would "...be burnt, that such punishment may strike fear into the minds of others...".
   
  sing     02/17/2016 01:48

John Wyclif 约翰·威克里夫


wiki(约翰·威克里夫):

约翰·威克里夫(John Wyclif,约1320年—1384年),欧洲宗教改革的先驱。

威克里夫生于英国约克郡,其父亲是威克里夫农庄的主人。他于1345年到牛津大学墨顿学院就读,并于1362年在牛津大学贝利奥尔学院完成硕士学位。其后,他花了9 年时间供读博士学位,并于1372年正式取得该学位。曾任牛津大学哲学、神学博士,1369年起任英王的侍从神父,1374年受英王委派与教宗代表就英国教会的神职任免权问题进行谈判,未达成协议,从此抨击教宗权力至上。

威克里夫(John Wycliffe)为中世纪末期的改教先驱,于公开场合批评罗马大公教会所定的各项规条及不合上帝心意的教宗。威氏生于1320年,曾在英国牛津大学皇后学院读书,于1372年得到了神学博士的学位。之后就在该校任教,学识渊博,但为人不茍言笑。于1376年开始批评圣职人员,原因即是教会过于和执政掌权者亲近、政教不分,且生活优渥不愁吃穿,教会腐化的程度超乎想像。对于教宗所立的多项规条也不符合圣经的教导,一切应回归到圣经,以圣经为信仰生活的准则。另外由于当时圣经所采取的是武加大译本翻译出来的拉丁文圣经,人民阅读不易,故为了大家都能懂得圣经中的意思,威氏于1380到1382年间,与数位朋友将此圣经合译成英文圣经,同时也将教义等等资料汇总,均以英文来呈现,并带到英国各地方。但此举引发教宗及圣职人员的不满,威氏开始遭受到逼迫,幸赖许多王公贵族及平民百姓支持他,直到过世都未落入逼迫者的手中。威氏曾有一段时间任职于王室,当时英王爱德华三世和教宗贵革利十一世发生冲突,国王仗着国会对他的支持,拒绝效忠教宗,由于威氏早就敌视教宗,于是以写文章的方式来护卫国王,前后写了〈教皇分裂(Schisma Place)〉一书,说明了教宗根本不是清心寡欲的使徒;〈圣经真理与实意(On the Truth and Meaning of Scripture)〉一书,提及应将圣经翻译成英文,真正明白圣经的真理及上帝的旨意,不需要教宗及教会插手其中。当时印刷术尚未发明,整个翻译的工作是以手抄的方式一段段完成,每抄完一段即流传出去,最后再做总整理,使完整的英文译本可以问世。威氏在1384年12月31日中风过世于卢多倭(Lutterworth)。

威克里夫主张各国教会应隶属于本国国王,教宗无权向国王征收赋税,并建议国王没收教会土地,建立摆脱教廷控制的民族教会。他否认教士有赦罪权,要求简化教会礼仪。因此,他遭到时任教宗额我略十一世(Gregory XI)的五次谴责及坎特布里大主教的通缉,但获牛津大学的师生及伦敦市民支持,并得英王的保护。1381年英王与教会共同镇压瓦特·泰勒农民起义,威克里夫被迫幽居写作,把圣经译成英文,并完成神学著作《三人对话录》。他主张圣经的权威高于教会,信徒应服从基督而非教会,1384年死于莱斯特郡。三十年后其作品被教会销毁。在他死后教皇对他的理念或是教训深恶痛绝,因此在他死后三十年举行了康士坦会议,颁发了底下的谕令:“……,本神圣会议表明立场,并宣告威克里夫乃声名狼籍之异端者,至死顽梗不化,不但被逐出教会,而且他所有对他的追思都是有罪的,当将他的骸骨挖出,丢在教会墓园之外,将其他忠诚之死者以示区别。”十二年后,有一位主教发现此令尚未执行,乃于一四二八年将他的骸骨挖出并焚烧,且经他的骨灰丢至史威福(Swift)溪中。虽然威克里夫死后仍遭到这样焚骨扬灰的对待,但是老汤姆福勒(Tom Fuller)在他的教会历史里写道:“他的骨灰流至亚芬河(Avon),又流至塞芬河(Severn),然后流入海峡,最后流入汪洋大海。就这样象征威克里夫之教义的骨灰,如今已散布至各地。”
   
  sing     02/17/2016 01:52
约翰•威克里夫——英格兰宗教改革的先驱
(译自《照亮历史航程的灯塔》)
作者 [美]约翰•洛德
译者 蒙钧

生卒年:1324-1384

改革的曙光

威克里夫这个名字代表了新教改革的曙光,而新教改革又暴露了逼使其出现的邪恶。我并不把早期的新教改革视作单纯的神学运动。事实上,无论是天主教还是新教的神学,经过那些至圣权威的系统阐述,都与早期教会神父们的理论没有实质性的差异。奥古斯丁的教义也能被托马斯•阿奎那及约翰•加尔文平等地接受。我们在神学课堂上所学习的所谓系统化的神学理论都是根据保罗及其他使徒的著作推演出来的系列论述,后来又经过圣亚塔那修、耶柔米、圣奥古斯丁及其他早期教会贤哲的润饰及条理化。到了中世纪,又有学院中的学者运用令人叹为观止的辩论技巧及精巧细致的辩证技巧,借助于古代最伟大的逻辑学家亚里士多德的方法,维护这神学,流衍而为哲学。路德也好,加尔文也好,基本上都没有背离这些针对诸如上帝的存在与属性、三位一体、罪与罚、救赎、天恩、宿命论等重大问题的阐述。现代新教教义与早期教会神父及经院学者阐述基督教基本义理的著作相一致。当然,有关礼拜、圣餐、教会政府、助益宗教生活等为经院学者所捍卫的观念确实不为新教徒所接受。这方面,早期基督教神父的著述中也没有很多权威之论。新教与天主教的主要分歧表现在如何看待教会机构上。随着基督教在与异教的斗争中逐渐占上风,教会机构也壮大起来,在中世纪又获得充分发展。然而大规模的、骇人听闻的腐败也侵蚀了这些机构,结果导致改革呼声的出现。这就是威克里夫的呼声。他谴责这种滥用威权的行为,因此而蜚声于世,成为改革先锋。神职人员及非神职人员——甚至包括诗人——也普遍承认腐败问题的存在,偶尔也加以抨击。这种现象太严重了,想否认也否认不了。

.........

To read the complete article, please visit http://www.jianshu.com/p/f747741e1e1b
   
  sing     02/17/2016 02:01
John Wycliffe

   
  sing     02/19/2016 23:42
亨利四世篡位称王,名不正言不顺,叛乱、暗杀等种种阴谋令他的统治危机四伏。

亨利四世在位13年(30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413 ),前10年一直叛乱不断。

主要的两场叛乱分别由威尔士的欧文·格兰道尔(Owain Glyndŵr)和Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 发起。借助长子 Henry of Monmouth(后来的亨利五世)的军事能力,亨利四世得以平息叛乱。

亨利四世在位的最后一年,更有苏格兰使者到英格兰穿乡走镇,传言理查二世还活着,住在苏格兰王宫,只等伦敦的朋友发出信号,他就会立即返回伦敦夺回王位。


wiki(Henry IV of England):

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts.

Rebellions continued throughout the first 10 years of Henry's reign, including the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, who declared himself Prince of Wales in 1400, and the rebellion of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth, who later became king (though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in 1410).

In the last year of Henry's reign, the rebellions picked up speed. "The old fable of a living Richard was revived", notes one account, "and emissaries from Scotland traversed the villages of England, in the last year of Henry's reign, declaring that Richard was residing at the Scottish Court, awaiting only a signal from his friends to repair to London and recover his throne."
   
  sing     02/20/2016 02:13

阿尔弗雷德·特纳(Alfred Turner)制作的欧文·格兰道尔雕像,位于加的夫市政厅

wiki:

欧文·格兰道尔(威尔士语:Owain Glyndŵr、Owain Glyn Dŵr,[ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr],威廉·莎士比亚将其英语化为英语:Owen Glendower,1349年或1359年-1416年),又译为欧文·格兰道尔,生于威尔士,威尔士统治者,为最后一位持有威尔士亲王头衔的威尔士人。

格兰道尔由他父亲身上,继承了波伊斯亲王(Princes of Powys)与Glyndyfrdwy之主(Lord of Glyndyfrdwy)的头衔。1400年9月16日,他发动叛乱,对抗英王亨利四世,以阻止英格兰人统治威尔士。1412年,欧文·格兰道尔战败并下落不明,威尔士此后成为英格兰王国的领土之一。
   
  sing     02/20/2016 02:17
欧文反叛,实在是被逼上梁山。 1390s末年,他的邻居(当然不是我们一般人家的左邻右舍),Baron Grey de Ruthyn 格雷男爵(一个极有势力的marcher lord),霸占了欧文的一部分领地。欧文向英格兰国会投诉,国会不仅置之不理,还要求欧文做更多让步。 1400年,格雷在最后一个月才通知欧文缴纳苏格兰边境军队税。但这时已太迟了,欧文连申辩都来不及。格雷于是在伦敦法庭指控欧文为叛国贼。如果欧文无法证实自己对英格兰的忠诚,他的领地就会遭到没收。格雷与亨利四世有私交,欧文自然输了这场官司,并且自身安全也受到威胁。

1400年1月,被废黜的理查二世的一个下属被公开处决。这引起了英格兰/威尔士边境城市Chester 的严重骚乱。理查二世在威尔士很受拥戴。

以上事件促使欧文揭竿而起。 1400年9月16日,欧文继承祖先的称号Prince of Powys,率领一小批追随者,对格雷男爵的领地发起进攻。

1401年,叛乱开始扩展,欧文控制了威尔士北部和中部的大部分地区。亨利四世派Henry Percy,大名鼎鼎的”Hotspur”-- 热刺,前去控制局势。Hotspur 是Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 的长子。 父子俩曾鼎力相助,让亨利四世登上王位。

1401年3月,Hotspur 颁布大赦令,赦免所有叛乱参与者,但不包括领头的欧文及他的两个Tudur 堂兄弟。 这两个Tudurs 的父亲是 Tudur ap Gronwy。 Tudur ap Gronwy的孙子 Owen Tudor  是都铎王朝的创始人。两个Tudurs 兄弟后来在攻下爱德华一世的大城堡Conwy 后被赦免.

1402年,英格兰国会颁布了对付威尔士的刑事法Penal Laws against Wales,加强英格兰在威尔士的统治,但这反而把更多威尔士人推入了叛乱阵营。同年,欧文捉获了他的冤家对头--- 格雷男爵,把他关了快一年。最后亨利四世付了一大笔赎金,格雷才获释.



wiki( Owain Glyndŵr):

In the late 1390s, a series of events began to push Owain towards rebellion, in what was later to be called the Welsh Revolt, the Glyndŵr Rising or (within Wales) the Last War of Independence. His neighbour, Baron Grey de Ruthyn, had seized control of some land, for which Glyndŵr appealed to the English Parliament. Owain's petition for redress was ignored. Later, in 1400, Lord Grey informed Glyndŵr too late of a royal command to levy feudal troops for Scottish border service, thus enabling him to call the Welshman a traitor in London court circles. Lord Grey was a personal friend of King Henry IV. Glyndŵr lost the legal case, and was under personal threat. The deposed king, Richard II, had support in Wales, and in January 1400 serious civil disorder broke out in the English border city of Chester, after the public execution of an officer of Richard II.

These events led to Owain formally assuming his ancestral title of Prince of Powys on 16 September 1400. With a small band of followers which included his eldest son, his brothers-in-law, and the Bishop of St Asaph in the town of Corwen, possibly in the church of SS Mael & Sulien, he launched an assault on Lord Grey's territories.

After a number of initial confrontations between King Henry IV and Owain's followers in September and October 1400, the revolt began to spread in 1401. Much of northern and central Wales went over to Owain. Henry IV appointed Henry Percy – the famous "Hotspur" – to bring the country to order. Hotspur issued an amnesty in March which applied to all rebels with the exception of Owain and his cousins, Rhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur, sons of Tudur ap Gronw (forefather of King Henry VII of England). Both the Tudurs were pardoned after their capture of Edward I’s great castle at Conwy.

In 1402, the English Parliament issued the Penal Laws against Wales, designed to establish English dominance in Wales, but actually pushing many Welshmen into the rebellion. In the same year, Owain captured his arch enemy, Baron Grey de Ruthyn. He was to hold him for almost a year until he received a substantial ransom from Henry.
   
  sing     02/21/2016 17:57
Sir Edmund Mortimer 被俘,同欧文结盟


Sir Edmund Mortimer 反叛也是被逼上梁山。

1402年6月,欧文在 Battle of Bryn Glas战役中击败了Sir Edmund Mortimer率领的英军并俘虏Mortimer。Mortimer战败的原因据说是因为他手下威尔士人投诚。欧文释放Mortimer 的条件同样是收取一大笔赎金。但将格雷男爵赎回的亨利四世却拒绝为莫蒂默支付赎金。

这位莫蒂默就是原应继承王位的Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 的叔叔,亨利四世因此并不急于赎回莫蒂默。
莫蒂默的姐姐Lady Elizabeth 嫁给了热刺Henry Hotspur Percy。尽管热刺同他父亲Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland一再请亨利四世赎回Mortimer,但也无济于事。

心灰意冷的莫蒂默气愤之至,遂与欧文缔盟,并娶了欧文的女儿Catrin ferch Owain Glyndŵr。后来并声称支持他的侄子Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 做英格兰国王。


wiki(Owain Glyndŵr):

In June 1402, Owain defeated an English force led by Sir Edmund Mortimer at the Battle of Bryn Glas, and Mortimer was captured. Glyndŵr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom but, in sharp contrast to his attitude to de Grey, Henry IV refused to pay. Mortimer's nephew could be said to have had a greater claim to the English throne than Henry himself, so his speedy release was not an option. In response, Mortimer negotiated an alliance with Owain and married one of Owain's daughters. It is also in 1402 that mention of the French and Bretons helping Owain was first heard. The French were certainly hoping to use Wales as they had used Scotland: as a base to fight the English.
   
  sing     02/21/2016 18:17

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland; 18th-century engraving


The pennon of Sir Henry Percy captured by James Douglas, Earl of Douglas


另一起暴乱由Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 发起。Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 和他的儿子Sir Henry (Hotspur) Percy 曾为Henry Bolingbroke 篡位立下大功。亨利四世登基后,对他们父子二人加官封地。 但他们后来由于以下一些原因对亨利四世不满:

1. 亨利四世命他们父子驻守英格兰/苏格兰边境,却不支付他们应得的薪金。
2. 亨利四世要求他们交出苏格兰俘虏。
3. 亨利四世play favorites, 更器重另一个贵族Dunbar,和他自己的儿子Prince Henry
4. 亨利四世拒付Sir Edmund Mortimer (Hotspur 的小舅子) 的赎金


1403年, Percy父子反叛,转而支持第五代马奇伯爵埃德蒙·莫蒂默,并与欧文合谋,同亨利四世对抗。

1403年7月,Hotspur 于 Battle of Shrewsbury 中战死。

1405年2月,欧文,莫蒂默,和 老Percy(Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland) 共同签订了The Tripartite Indenture三方契约, 欲将英格兰一分为三:欧文得威尔士及西英格兰,Percy得北英格兰及另外几郡,Mortimers 叔侄得南英格兰。

1408年老Percy 入侵英格兰时也身亡。


英国托特纳姆热刺足球俱乐部Tottenham Hotspur F.C.),简称热刺(Spurs或The Spurs),就是Percy后人以Hotspur命名的。


wiki[Henry Percy (Hotspur)]:

In spite of the favour that Henry IV showed the Percys in many respects, they became increasingly discontented with him. Among their grievances was the king's failure to pay the wages due to them for defending the Scottish border; his favour towards Dunbar; his demand that the Percys hand over their Scottish prisoners; his failure to put an end to Owain Glyn Dŵr's rebellion through a negotiated settlement; his increasing promotion of his son Prince Henry's military authority in Wales; and his failure to ransom Henry Percy's brother-in-law Sir Edmund Mortimer, whom the Welsh had captured in June 1402。

In 1403 the Percys turned against Henry IV in favour of Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and then conspired with Owain Glyndŵr against King Henry. The Tripartite Indenture was signed by all three parties, which divided England up between them. Glyndŵr was to be given Wales, and a substantial part of the west of England, Northumberland was to have received the north of England, as well as Northamptonshire, Norfolk, Warwickshire, and Leicestershire. The Mortimers were to have received the rest of southern England, below the river Trent.

The Percy rebellion failed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, where Hotspur was killed. Since the earl did not directly participate in the rebellion, he was not convicted of treason. However, he lost his office as Constable. In 1405 Percy supported Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, in another rebellion, after which Percy fled to Scotland, and his estates were confiscated by the king.

In 1408 Percy invaded England in rebellion once more and was killed at the Battle of Bramham Moor. Percy's severed head was subsequently put on display at London Bridge.
   
  和谈     02/23/2016 21:09
Happy 331th birthday, George Frideric Handel!

http://bookhaven.stanford.edu/2016/02/happy-331st-birthday-george-frideric-handel/

   
  sing     02/24/2016 02:11
谢和谈美乐!

距离亨德尔时期还有300年左右。I wish i had more time on my hands.
   
  sing     02/24/2016 02:15
The Battle of Shrewsbury 战役后,欧文对亨利四世军队的进攻大都不成功,莫蒂摩也陷入困境。

1409年,亨利四世之子威尔士王子亨利率军围攻欧文据点Harlech Castle长达8月之久,这是最后一场大战。莫蒂摩死去,欧文的妻子玛格丽特和他的两个女儿(包括莫蒂摩的妻子Catrin), 同莫蒂摩的三个孙女都被英军抓走,他们于1415年之前死于伦敦塔。

得以逃生的欧文,失了祖屋,成为在逃王子。他继续跟英军对抗,尤其想报掳妻之仇。

1412年,欧文率领他手下最忠心耿耿的士兵们冲入英军阵营砍杀,这是抵抗英军最后阶段的成功袭击之一;在Brecon的埋伏战中,欧文捉拿了Dafydd Gam--- 一个支持亨利四世的威尔士头领。在那之后,欧文下落不明,重赏之下,既未被俘也未遭出卖。

1414年,谣传罗拉德教派领袖同欧文有来往,于是从北到南的要塞城堡都严加防卫。

那时事态起了变化。亨利四世于1413年驾崩,他的儿子亨利五世开始对威尔士人采取安抚政策,豁免他父亲统治时的主要反叛领袖。

对王室赦免,欧文也不屑问焉。传说他死后可能葬于他宅子附近的教堂,或其他几处。

欧文。格林道尔是威尔士王室后代,最后一个拥有威尔士王子头衔的威尔士本土人。19世纪末的年轻威尔士运动(Cymru Fydd movement)将他打造为威尔士民族主义之父。


wiki(Owain Glyndŵr):

In 1409, it was the turn of Harlech Castle. Edmund Mortimer died in the final battle, and Owain's wife Margaret along with two of his daughters (including Catrin) and three of Mortimer's granddaughters were imprisoned in the Tower of London. They were all to die in the Tower before 1415.

Owain remained free, but he had lost his ancestral home and was a hunted prince. He continued the rebellion, particularly wanting to avenge his wife. In 1410, after a suicide raid into rebel-controlled Shropshire, which took many English lives, some of the leading rebels are thought to have been captured.

In 1412, Owain led one of the final successful raiding parties with his most faithful soldiers and cut through the King's men; and in an ambush in Brecon he captured, and later ransomed, a leading Welsh supporter of King Henry's, Dafydd Gam ("Crooked David"). This was the last time that Owain was seen alive by his enemies. As late as 1414, there were rumours that the Herefordshire-based Lollard leader Sir John Oldcastle was communicating with Owain, and reinforcements were sent to the major castles in the north and south.

But by then things were changing. Henry IV died in 1413 and his son King Henry V began to adopt a more conciliatory attitude to the Welsh. Royal pardons were offered to the major leaders of the revolt and other opponents of his father's regime.

Nothing certain is known of Owain after 1412. Despite enormous rewards being offered, he was neither captured nor betrayed. He ignored royal pardons. Tradition has it that he died and was buried possibly in the church of Saints Mael and Sulien at Corwen close to his home, or possibly on his estate in Sycharth or on the estates of his daughters' husbands — Kentchurch in south Herefordshire or Monnington in west Herefordshire.

In the late 19th century the Cymru Fydd movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism.
   
  sing     02/26/2016 00:45
亨利四世在位期间,劫持了苏格兰国王詹姆斯一世。
   
  sing     02/26/2016 01:08

苏格兰国王 詹姆斯一世

“Henry IV treated the young James well, providing him with a good education. James was ideally placed to observe Henry's methods of kingship and political control having probably been admitted into the royal household on reaching adulthood. James used personal visits from his nobles coupled with letters to individuals to maintain his visibility in his kingdom.

By 1420, James's standing at Henry V's court improved greatly; he ceased to be regarded as a hostage and more of a guest.[24]James's value to Henry became apparent in 1420 when he accompanied the English king to France where his presence was used against the Scots fighting on the Dauphinist side.

Henry appointed the Duke of Bedford and James as the joint commanders of the siege of Dreux on 18 July 1421 and on 20 August they received the surrender of the garrison  ” --- wiki (James I of Scotland) 摘抄

詹姆斯一世12岁时被英格兰抓获后,起初被监禁,后来受到的是王室宾客的厚遇。亨利四世为他提供了良好教育。亨利五世不仅带他出访法国,还委他以重任,在战场上兼任过指挥官。詹姆斯一世所言所行,极受英格兰国王赏识。 终于在被俘18年后,他被放回苏格兰。 英王却没料到是放虎归山。詹姆斯一世后来同法国再续老同盟协约(Auld Alliance ),共同对抗英格兰。


wiki(詹姆斯一世 (苏格兰)):

詹姆斯一世(James I of Scotland,1394年12月10日-1437年2月21日),是15世纪苏格兰王国的君主、诗人,罗伯特三世之子。詹姆斯是斯图亚特王朝第一任真正试图掌握政权的君主,少年时被长期拘禁在英格兰。

詹姆斯的父亲罗伯特三世继位后体弱多病,后来索性将军权交给了詹姆斯的兄长罗西塞公爵(Duke of Rothesay)大卫。1402年,大卫在与叔叔阿尔巴尼公爵(Duke of Albany)罗伯特发生争执后,突然神秘死亡,据说是在某监狱中活活饿死。罗伯特三世开始担心年幼的继承人詹姆斯的安危,计划送他到盟友国法国暂避。

1406年初,他被秘密安排出行。但是阿尔巴尼公爵获悉了行踪,派出军队追击王太子。11岁的詹姆斯和他的几个随从被迫在福斯湾的一块大礁石上困居了一个月,才有船来将他接走。但是这艘船的动向也被透露给了英格兰,结果坐船在驶往法国的途中被英格兰战舰抓获,并向苏格兰索要赎金。罗伯特三世闻讯后悲痛而死,弟弟阿尔巴尼公爵摄政,但是拒绝支付赎金救回詹姆斯。于是詹姆斯被亨利四世关押于温莎城堡内,达18年之久。但是他从1406年起就是苏格兰名义上的君主。

1420年,阿尔巴尼公爵去世,苏格兰王国同意支付赎金。英格兰国王亨利五世逝世后,英苏两国和谈。作为协议的一部分,詹姆斯被释放,带着自己的新婚英格兰妻子(国王亨利六世的远房表妹),返回苏格兰掌权。

1424年5月2日,挂名国王18年多的詹姆斯在斯昆正式加冕,称“詹姆斯一世”。1425年,他在史特灵处决了第二代阿尔巴尼公爵和他的两个儿子。

在接下来的几年中,詹姆斯致力于限制苏格兰贵族的权力,同时扩大王权,希望能把苏格兰建立成一个中央集权的国家。由于他长期在英格兰的见闻,他试图效仿英格兰议会改造苏格兰政治。同时在外交上,他重新确立了与法兰西的“老同盟”(Auld Alliance),试图对抗英格兰。

他的改革措施遭到了很多贵族的激烈反对。反对者以詹姆斯祖父罗伯特二世与祖母的婚姻的合法性为由,开始重新质疑詹姆斯的父亲罗伯特三世的继承权。

1437年,詹姆斯一世被一群反叛的贵族刺杀于珀斯的黑衣修士修道院(Church of the Friars Preachers of Blessed Virgin and Saint Dominic at Perth或Blackfriars)。他曾试图从下水道的秘道逃走,不过他忘了,三天前他自己下令,封死了下水道的另一端,以避免网球落入其中。

詹姆斯一世死后,参与叛乱的贵族被大批处决。他6岁的儿子詹姆斯继位,称詹姆斯二世。

据信,詹姆斯是著名苏格兰诗歌《国王书》(The Kingis Quair)的作者,一般认为是他在被囚禁期间所著,是苏格兰文学最早期的重要作品。
   
  sing     02/26/2016 01:15

The south face of Linlithgow Palace

詹姆斯一世在苏格兰修建了林利思哥宫Linlithgow Palace。"无论从地理位置还是建筑规模来说,它都是苏格兰文艺复兴时期建筑中最宏伟的一个。”

wiki:

林利思哥宫(英语:Linlithgow Palace),也通译为林利斯戈宫。位于苏格兰东部西洛锡安(West Lothian)地区的林利思哥(Linlithgow),距离首府爱丁堡约15英里(24千米),于15至16世纪曾一度是苏格兰国王们的王宫。1542年12月8日,苏格兰女王玛丽一世(Mary I of Scotland)就出生在这里。

无论从地理位置还是建筑规模来说,它都是苏格兰文艺复兴时期建筑中最宏伟的一个。20世纪之后曾是大英帝国的印度总督林利思戈侯爵的私人住宅。

原址早于12世纪已经是皇室的庄园。由于地理位置得宜,它后来成为了往来爱丁堡城堡及斯特灵城堡之间不可或缺的重要军事基地,以确保这补给路线不受强盗所滋扰。受命于爱德华一世(注:当时英格兰军队占领苏格兰),堡垒于1302年4月开始动工,由建筑大师圣乔治詹姆斯(Master James of Saint George)设计,两名神职人员负责监工,聘请了60名男工和140名女工,以男工每日两便士、女工每日一便士的薪酬,马不停蹄连日赶工,另外亦调配了百多名士兵协助建筑于1303年夏季完成。

1424年,林利思哥市镇遇到大火,部分的建筑物被焚毁,当时的苏格兰王国詹姆斯一世下令扩建堡垒,使之成为苏格兰皇室的其中一个行宫,同时亦修葺了宫殿旁边的圣迈克尔教区教堂。

往后数代的君主詹姆斯三世、四世和五世都曾经扩建林利思哥宫,令它的布局渐渐正规化。苏格兰女王玛丽一世在这里出生,詹姆斯六世的女儿伊丽莎白·斯图尔特,波希米亚王后(Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia)更加长居于此。
   
  sing     02/26/2016 01:16
Linlithgow and Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, Scotland

   
  sing     02/27/2016 02:04

Monument to King Henry IV and Queen Joan,Canterbury Cathedral, north side of Trinity Chapel

亨利四世晚年常受病痛折磨。 他患有严重的皮肤病,很可能是麻风病或牛皮癣。他还可能患癫痫或其他心血管方面的急发病。1413年3月,一次致命的急发病发作后,45岁的亨利四世在统治英格兰13年之后,于20日病殁(Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) 在位 30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413 )。

一些中世纪作家认为,麻风病是对他处死约克大主教斯克洛普Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York 的报应。斯克洛普与Percy 是姻亲,1405年反叛失败后被俘,未经正式审判即以叛国罪定死罪。Scrope 临刑前要求刽子手砍他五刀,以此纪念耶稣受难时承受的五伤five wounds。罗马教皇对此事大为不满,将处死Scrope 的参与者开除了教籍。 中世纪时,教皇坚持神职人员不受世俗法庭审判。

尽管亨利四世之前的国王们大都葬于西敏寺,他同他的第二任王后Joan of Navarre 却选择了坎特伯雷大教堂,停棺于St Thomas Becket 旁边的圣陵。当时还有不少信徒狂热地崇拜着Becket。


wiki(Henry IV of England):

The later years of Henry's reign were marked by serious health problems. He had a disfiguring skin disease and, more seriously, suffered acute attacks of some grave illness in June 1405; April 1406; June 1408; during the winter of 1408–09; December 1412; and finally a fatal bout in March 1413. Medical historians have long debated the nature of this affliction or afflictions. The skin disease might have been leprosy (which did not necessarily mean precisely the same thing in the 15th century as it does to modern medicine), perhaps psoriasis, or some other disease. The acute attacks have been given a wide range of explanations, from epilepsy to some form of cardiovascular disease. Some medieval writers felt that he was struck with leprosy as a punishment for his treatment of Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, who was executed in June 1405 on Henry's orders after a failed coup.

Despite the example set by most of his recent predecessors, Henry and his second wife, Joan of Navarre, Queen of England, were buried not at Westminster Abbey but at Canterbury Cathedral, on the north side of Trinity Chapel and directly adjacent to the shrine of St Thomas Becket.
   
  sing     03/03/2016 01:15
顺手翻了下同时期的中国史,读到相似处,不由一惊。

到了1400年左右,统治不足百年的元朝(1271-1368)已被明朝取代。回眸历史长河,一百年或许只是一朵转瞬即逝的浪花,但它给社会带来的影响有时可能是不可估量的。看看中国过去几十年的历史,三反五反到文革等等,不由不唏嘘。 文化浩劫之后,沈从文笔下的《边城》再也不复存在。偏题了。

放牛娃朱元璋1368年灭元后,实施极端专制主义皇权,据说这是受元朝影响。

朱元璋之后,“ 由于太子朱标早死,所以朱允炆以皇太孙的身份即皇帝位”。这同黑太子病殁,王位由爱德华三世之孙理查二世继位相像。而理查二世放逐叔叔冈特的约翰之子Henry Bolingbroke , 又同建文帝的“削藩”如出一辙。不同的是,Henry Bolingbroke 并非完全无辜,只是被流放六年,被没收领地。 理查二世同建文帝相比,太小小巫了。 咱们中国皇帝的心狠手辣老外国王只能望其项背。结果是类似的,1399年理查二世的cousin亨利四世篡位,1402年建文帝的uncle明成祖朱棣 篡位。 同时期的王位之争,无独有偶?

wiki:

靖难之变

明太祖分封诸子为亲王,以加强边防、保卫天子。北方诸王势力较强,原因主要是对蒙古的边防任务。而其中又尤以燕王(朱棣)和晋王势力最大。为防止朝中奸臣不轨,明太祖规定诸王可移文中央捉拿奸臣,必要时得奉天子密诏,领兵“靖难”。同时为防止宗室诸王尾大不掉,明太祖也允许今后的皇帝在必要时可下令“削藩”。

洪武三十一年(1398年)明太祖驾崩,由于太子朱标早死,所以朱允炆以皇太孙的身份即皇帝位,改元建文,翌年为建文元年。建文帝立刻与亲信大臣齐泰、黄子澄等密谋削藩。周王、代王、齐王、湘王等先后或被废为庶人,或被杀。同时以边防为名调离燕王的精兵,准备削除燕王。结果燕王朱棣在姚广孝的建议下以“清君侧,靖内难”的名义起兵南下,占领京师,是为靖难之役,燕王即位,年号永乐。建文帝(惠帝)在宫城大火中下落不明。
   
  sing     03/03/2016 01:16

亨利五世(16世纪画像)


wiki:

亨利五世(Henry V,1386年9月16日-1422年8月31日)英格兰兰开斯特王朝国王(1413年—1422年在位)。在他短暂的九年统治期间,他取得了中世纪任何一位英格兰国王都未取得过的军事辉煌。

亨利五世是英王亨利四世之子,母为玛丽·德·伯翰。生于蒙茅斯(在威尔士)。在他出生时他父亲还只是德比伯爵。当德比伯爵被放逐期间,亨利被国王理查二世收养,并得到很好的教育。德比伯爵篡位后,即封亨利为威尔士亲王。1413年3月20日,亨利五世加冕为英格兰国王。

亨利五世重燃百年战争战火,而他甚至取得了比爱德华三世更大的胜利。当时法国内部矛盾重重:国王查理六世长期患精神病;两大贵族集团奥尔良派与勃艮第派流血冲突。亨利五世一一加以利用。实际上,他使勃艮第公爵无畏的约翰背叛自己的国家转而支持英国。

1415年亨利五世正式侵入法国。事实证明,他是比爱德华三世更善于发挥英格兰长弓手威力的指挥官。他首先攻下勒阿弗尔,继而向沿海重镇加来进军。在这期间,亨利五世宣称他要得到法国的王冠。以少胜多的阿金库尔战役(1415年)几乎摧毁法国人的斗志。此后英军不断取胜,1419年全部征服诺曼底,随即法国北部第一重镇鲁昂投降。

1420年亨利五世迫使查理六世签订特鲁瓦条约。这份条约对英格兰来说是难以置信的巨大胜利:条约规定,亨利五世与查理六世的女儿瓦卢瓦的凯瑟琳(法语读卡特琳)结婚,并且查理六世死后其法国王位由亨利五世继承(剥夺了法国王太子查理的继承权)。亨利五世实际成为法国的摄政。

此时的亨利五世可谓青云得意,然而1422年在万塞讷附近的一次战斗中,亨利五世死于斑疹伤寒。



亨利五世的纹章
   
  sing     03/06/2016 01:37
"当德比伯爵(亨利四世曾是Earl of Derby)被放逐期间,亨利被国王理查二世收养,并得到很好的教育。"

这样的事,中国哪个皇帝做得到?从来都是一人犯上,株连九族。推翻封建皇帝后,老蒋宁可错杀一千也不放过一个。 老毛让“中国人民站起来”之后,血统论决定每一个人的政治命运。 不得不感慨,中外之间确存在文明落差。

亨利五世继位后,将原本葬于King's Langley 的理查二世,移至安葬国王们的威斯敏斯特大教堂,理查二世在那里早为自己建好了精致的墓棺。据说亨利五世此举,一为弥补他父亲亨利四世篡位弑君之为,二为灭理查二世仍在人世之谣。除此之外,或许他犹记理查二世昔日的善待?


wiki(Henry V of England):

Meanwhile, in 1413, Henry V – in an effort both to atone for his father's act of murder and to silence the rumours of Richard's survival – had decided to have the body at King's Langley moved to its final resting place in Westminster Abbey. Here Richard himself had prepared an elaborate tomb, where the remains of his wife Anne were already entombed.


sing wrote: (3/2/2016 22:16)

wiki:

亨利五世是英王亨利四世之子,母为玛丽·德·伯翰。生于蒙茅斯(在威尔士)。在他出生时他父亲还只是德比伯爵。当德比伯爵被放逐期间,亨利被国王理查二世收养,并得到很好的教育。

   
  sing     03/06/2016 01:40
莎翁的三部名剧Henry IV (part 1), Henry IV(part 2), 和Henry V, 自然影响了后世对亨利五世的印象。历史剧有历史的影子,但并非真实的历史。

莎翁笔下整日厮混的亨利王子,并没有历史佐证。据说剧中的Falstaff 原来写做Sir John Oldcastle, 因 Oldcastle 后人反对,遂易名为Falstaff(此人无后)。 亨利王子同 Oldcastle 确曾有过一段友谊, 但剧中细节自然是莎翁的忽悠。

Henry IV (part 1), Henry IV(part 2) 这两部剧,亨利四世的戏很有限,不如说是亨利五世前传。剧中喜剧性穿插颇多,是否喧宾夺主,仁见仁智见智。

BBC拍摄的 Hollow Crown 四部曲中,亨利五世由 Tom Hiddleston 担纲。Hiddleston 在 Midnight in Paris 中出演The Great Gatsby 作者Fitzgerald。油管上有不少Hiddleston 读诗节目,很精彩。


wiki(Henry V of England):

Supposed riotous youth

It may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is partly due to political enmity. Henry's record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531.

The story of Falstaff originated in Henry's early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle, a supporter of the Lollards. Shakespeare's Falstaff was originally named "Oldcastle", following his main source, The Famous Victories of Henry V. However, his descendants objected, and the name was changed (the character became a composite of several real persons, including Sir John Fastolf). That friendship, and the prince's political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, perhaps encouraged Lollard hopes. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry, on becoming king, was suddenly changed into a new man.
   
  sing     03/06/2016 01:42
The Hollow Crown: Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part I | Great Performances | PBS

   
  sing     03/08/2016 22:08
国内政策

在国内事务上,亨利五世的政策涵盖广泛。从一开始起,他就将自己明确定位为统治英格兰的一国之首。

一方面,他试图消除亨利四世时期产生的仇隙。他将理查二世重新厚葬;解除对Mortimer兄弟(Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March)的监禁,并于加冕前一天封二人为巴斯骑士Knights of the Bath; 对那些叛乱贵族的后代, 使之贵族头衔及其原有封地失而复得。

另一方面,他对敌手毫不心慈手软。一有反叛苗头,他就立即采取行动,以防止事态扩大(“nip the movement in the bud" 防患于未然). 1414年,他击败了罗拉德教派的反叛。1417年,对他的老朋友Sir John Oldcastle 处以火刑。

总的来说,亨利五世统治时期比较太平,除了1415年的南安普顿阴谋 the Southampton Plot。

自1417年8月,亨利五世提倡英文做为政府部门官方语言, 他的统治也是法庭英文Chancery Standard English 问世的标志。诺曼统治(1066年)350年以来,亨利五世是第一位在私人信函中使用英文的英格兰国王。


wiki(Henry V of England):

Domestic policy

Henry tackled all of the domestic policies together and gradually built on them a wider policy. From the first, he made it clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation. On the one hand, he let past differences be forgotten – the late Richard II was honourably re-interred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their titles and estates. On the other hand, where Henry saw a grave domestic danger, he acted firmly and ruthlessly – such as the Lollard discontent in January 1414, including the execution by burning of Henry's old friend Sir John Oldcastle in 1417, so as to "nip the movement in the bud" and make his own position as ruler secure.

His reign was generally free from serious trouble at home. The exception was the Southampton Plot in favour of Mortimer, involving Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham and Richard, Earl of Cambridge (grandfather of the future King Edward IV of England), in July 1415.

Starting in August 1417, Henry V promoted the use of the English language in government, and his reign marks the appearance of Chancery Standard English as well as the adoption of English as the language of record within Government. He was the first king to use English in his personal correspondence since the Norman conquest, which had occurred 350 years earlier.
   
  sing     03/08/2016 22:10

John Oldcastle being burnt for insurrection and Lollard heresy


Sir John Oldcastle 老城堡爵士是英格兰罗拉德教派领袖。

因为同亨利五世的交情,做为异教徒的他很长一段时间得以免遭审判,直到在他的一本书中发现了确凿证据。即便如此,亨利五世还是拖延定罪时间。但老城堡声称他所有的财产都可以交给国王,除了他的信仰。

1413年9月被以异教徒定罪后,亨利五世仍想为老朋友开脱,遂特赐延缓40天执行。在大限到来之前,老城堡就从伦敦塔逃掉了,之后并领导了罗拉德教徒们预谋推翻亨利五世的叛乱。

1417年11月被捉拿,12月14日在伦敦被处绞刑,绞刑架被烧,他是否被burnt alive,没有明确记载。


wiki(Sir John Oldcastle):

Sir John Oldcastle (died 14 December 1417) was an English Lollard leader. Being a friend of Henry V, he long escaped prosecution for heresy. When convicted, he escaped from the Tower of London and then led a rebellion against the King. Eventually, he was captured and executed in London. He formed the basis for William Shakespeare's character John Falstaff, who was originally called John Oldcastle.

But his friendship with the new King Henry V prevented any decisive action until convincing evidence was found in one of Oldcastle's books, which was discovered in a shop in Paternoster Row, London. The matter was brought before the King, who desired that nothing should be done until he had tried his personal influence. Oldcastle declared his readiness to submit to the king "all his fortune in this world" but was firm in his religious beliefs.

On 14 December he was formally condemned, on the record of his previous conviction, and that same day was hanged in St Giles's Fields, and burnt "gallows and all". It is not clear whether he was burnt alive.


sing wrote: (3/8/2016 19:8)
国内政策

另一方面,他对敌手毫不心慈手软。一有反叛苗头,他就立即采取行动,以防止事态扩大(“nip the movement in the bud" 防患于未然). 1414年,他击败了罗拉德教派的反叛。1417年,对他的老朋友Sir John Oldcastle 处以火刑。
   
  sing     03/08/2016 22:15

Eduard von Grützner: Falstaff mit großer Weinkanne und Becher (1896) (Falstaff with big wine jar and cup, 1896)


莎翁《亨利四世》中奢酒撒谎嘻嘻哈哈的Sir John Falstaff ,除了与 Sir John Oldcastle同是亨利五世旧友之外,好像并无其它相像之处。 难怪Oldcastle的后人反对莎翁用先人之名。

在《亨利四世(下)》中,Falstaff得知亨利五世登基,兴奋得连夜赶回伦敦。当亨利五世加冕之后从西敏寺出来,Falstaff 穿过拥挤的围观人群,冲着国王大呼小叫,my sweet boy, my heart.... 而已从浪荡子蜕变成一国之君的亨利五世却翻脸不认人, 把Falstaff 大大奚落了一把:


以下中文翻译大概出自朱生豪先生译文:

Henry V:

I know thee not, old man: fall to thy prayers;
How ill white hairs become a fool and jester!
I have long dream'd of such a kind of man,
So surfeit-swell'd, so old and so profane;
But, being awaked, I do despise my dream.
Make less thy body hence, and more thy grace;
Leave gormandizing; know the grave doth gape
For thee thrice wider than for other men.
Reply not to me with a fool-born jest:
Presume not that I am the thing I was;
For God doth know, so shall the world perceive,
That I have turn'd away my former self;
So will I those that kept me company.
..........

亨利五世

我不认识你,老头儿。跪下来向上天祈祷吧;
苍苍的白发罩在一个弄人小丑的头上,是多么不称它的庄严!
我长久梦见这样一个人,
这样肠肥脑满,这样年老而邪恶;
可是现在觉醒过来,我就憎恶我自己所做的梦。
从此以后,不要尽让你的身体肥胖,多多勤修你的德行吧;
不要贪图口腹之欲,你要知道坟墓张着
三倍大的阔口在等候着你。
现在你也不要用无聊的谐谑回答我;
不要以为我还跟从前一样,
因为上帝知道,世人也将要明白,
我已经丢弃了过去的我,
我也要同样丢弃过去跟我在一起的那些伴侣。

自此,可怜的 Falstaff 一蹶不振,后来病死。 他的朋友们说,"The king has killed his heart."
   
  sing     03/08/2016 22:20
I know thee not, old man

   
  sing     03/08/2016 22:28

1999年由Pacific Repertory Theatre演出之温莎的风流妇人,剧中的佩芝夫人(Julie Hughett饰)与法斯塔夫(John Rousseau饰)


Falstaff 法斯塔夫 也是莎翁 The Merry Wives of Windsor 的剧中人。

wiki:

《温莎的风流妇人》(The Merry Wives of Windsor)是莎士比亚所著之喜剧,咸认为著作时间应早于1597年,首次出版于1602年,标题中的“温莎”是指英格兰柏克郡的温莎城堡,且虽然剧中时代设定在亨利四世时期,但却毫不掩饰其描写的是当代伊丽莎白时代的中产阶级生活。剧内角色胖骑士法斯塔夫已出现于莎士比亚的剧作“亨利四世”第一部与第二部中,该角色后来也被数部歌剧所采用。

本剧描写贪财好色的胖骑士法斯塔夫看中了福德太太和佩芝太太,两位聪明的妇人发现后,开始一连串整人计划,借机整整爱吃飞醋的先生,也让法斯塔夫在众人面前出丑,于是一连串整人计划一幕幕上演。
   
  sing     03/08/2016 22:29
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture

   
  sing     03/10/2016 00:09
提上旧帖。 又要说到理查二世被废之后原该继承王位的Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March.


sing wrote: (2/3/2016 20:47)


Lionel of Antwerp


爱德华三世的次子:安特卫普的莱昂内尔Lionel of Antwerp(1338年-1368年)


Lionel也在爱德华三世之前过世。Lionel 名下只有独女菲利琶Philippa of Clarence (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1382)  。

Philippa 嫁给了Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March。Edmund 的曾祖父(great grandfather)就是Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, 曾伙同法兰西母狼伊莎贝拉联手,于1327年1月废黜爱德华二世。

菲利琶与莫提摩有二子二女。 长子为Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, 次子为Sir Edmund Mortimer。 稍后还会提到。

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 与Eleanor Holland 的长女长子, 即菲利琶的孙女孙子,影响了王位之争。

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 的长子就是本应在理查二世被黜之后继承王位的Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March.

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 的长女是 Anne Mortimer。 他与 Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge 成婚。 而这位Richard 的父亲正是爱德华三世的第四个儿子、约克家族鼻祖Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 。

Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 死后无嗣,他的财产连同他对英格兰王位的继承权因此就传给了他姐姐Anne Mortimer 和Richard的儿子Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York。后面再续。

一言以概之,玫瑰战争时约克家族继承王位的依据上溯到爱德华三世次子安特卫普的莱昂内尔Lionel of Antwerp的女儿菲利琶。约克家族与后来的约克郡的标志是白玫瑰。
   
  sing     03/10/2016 00:13
再提一帖。

爱德华三世的孙子剑桥伯爵理查 Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, 迎娶了 Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March的姐姐Anne Mortimer。

Roger Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 死后无嗣,他的财产连同他对英格兰王位的继承权因此就传给了他姐姐安妮与剑桥伯爵理查的儿子第三代约克公爵约克的理查 Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York。 Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York之子为爱德华四世。


sing wrote: (2/3/2016 21:42)


Edmund of Langley before King Ferdinand I of Portugal, from Jean de Wavrin's Chronique d'Angleterre

爱德华三世的第四个儿子;Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402)

兰利的埃德蒙 Edmund of Langley 是约克王朝的创始人。前面已提到,他的儿子Richard 与他兄长Lionel of Antwerp 的女儿菲利琶的孙女Anne Mortimer 成婚, 由此约克家族在玫瑰战争中claim 对英格兰王位的继承权。


wiki(Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York):

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, to Anne de Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Edmund's elder brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, that the House of York made its claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward III's third son.
   
  sing     03/10/2016 00:23
亨利五世时期1415年的南安普顿阴谋 the Southampton Plot 的三位主谋之一就是剑桥伯爵理查 Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge。 另两位主谋是 “Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham (whose uncle Richard le Scrope had been executed for his part in a 1405 revolt also supporting Mortimer's right); and Sir Thomas Grey, whose son, Thomas, had been betrothed in 1412 to Cambridge's only daughter, Isabel.”



sing wrote: (3/8/2016 19:8)
国内政策

在国内事务上,亨利五世的政策涵盖广泛。从一开始起,他就将自己明确定位为统治英格兰的一国之首。

一方面,他试图消除亨利四世时期产生的仇隙。他将理查二世重新厚葬;解除对Mortimer兄弟(Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March)的监禁,并于加冕前一天封二人为巴斯骑士Knights of the Bath; 对那些叛乱贵族的后代, 使之贵族头衔及其原有封地失而复得。

另一方面,他对敌手毫不心慈手软。一有反叛苗头,他就立即采取行动,以防止事态扩大(“nip the movement in the bud" 防患于未然). 1414年,他击败了罗拉德教派的反叛。1417年,对他的老朋友Sir John Oldcastle 处以火刑。

总的来说,亨利五世统治时期比较太平,除了1415年的南安普顿阴谋 the Southampton Plot。

自1417年8月,亨利五世提倡英文做为政府部门官方语言, 他的统治也是法庭英文Chancery Standard English 问世的标志。诺曼统治(1066年)350年以来,亨利五世是第一位在私人信函中使用英文的英格兰国王。


wiki(Henry V of England):

Domestic policy

Henry tackled all of the domestic policies together and gradually built on them a wider policy. From the first, he made it clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation. On the one hand, he let past differences be forgotten – the late Richard II was honourably re-interred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their titles and estates. On the other hand, where Henry saw a grave domestic danger, he acted firmly and ruthlessly – such as the Lollard discontent in January 1414, including the execution by burning of Henry's old friend Sir John Oldcastle in 1417, so as to "nip the movement in the bud" and make his own position as ruler secure.

His reign was generally free from serious trouble at home. The exception was the Southampton Plot in favour of Mortimer, involving Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham and Richard, Earl of Cambridge (grandfather of the future King Edward IV of England), in July 1415.

Starting in August 1417, Henry V promoted the use of the English language in government, and his reign marks the appearance of Chancery Standard English as well as the adoption of English as the language of record within Government. He was the first king to use English in his personal correspondence since the Norman conquest, which had occurred 350 years earlier.

   
  sing     03/10/2016 00:29
下文中的埃德蒙指第五代马奇伯爵埃德蒙·莫蒂默 Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March

“1415年, 一些不满的贵族启动了南安普顿阴谋,图谋将埃德蒙带到威尔士并宣布为王。主谋即埃德蒙姐姐安妮的丈夫剑桥伯爵。莫蒂默卷入其中后,于7月31日在波特切斯特将此图谋揭发给了国王,并参与了谴责姐夫剑桥及其他同谋者并处以死刑的委员会;他们于8月2日和5日被斩首。8月7日,国王正式赦免莫蒂默在此事中的名义参与。

因为莫蒂默无嗣。在他死后,马奇伯爵男系绝嗣。遗产由姐姐安妮与姐夫剑桥伯爵理查所生的儿子第三代约克公爵约克的理查(1411年-1460年)继承。理查也继承了莫蒂默的王位继承权,最终提出并导致了玫瑰战争的爆发。”-- wiki 摘抄
   
  sing     03/10/2016 00:36
把年龄搞错,于莎翁是家常便饭。


wiki:

莎士比亚和莫蒂默家族

第五代马奇伯爵埃德蒙·莫蒂默的叔父埃德蒙·莫蒂默爵士的生前活动被莎士比亚在《亨利六世(上)》中戏剧化。剧中莎士比亚明确认同埃德蒙·莫蒂默爵士为急惊风的小舅子,但同时称他为“马奇伯爵”,将他与其侄混合了。

南安普顿阴谋在莎士比亚的《亨利五世》(第二幕第二场)中被戏剧化。但此事的意图被错写了,莫蒂默揭发此事和谴责谋乱者的角色被完全忽略。

埃德蒙·莫蒂默也出现在《亨利六世 (上)》(第二幕第五场)。他34岁却被错误描述为老人和自从亨利四世上台就被控制在伦敦塔的垂死的囚犯。同样错误的是,他向外甥理查解释了他们的王位继承权,表扬了理查的父亲立自己为王的努力,并劝理查接受王位继承权。
   
  sing     03/13/2016 18:41
sing wrote: (3/8/2016 19:8)

自1417年8月,亨利五世提倡英文做为政府部门官方语言, 他的统治也是法庭英文(Chancery Standard English, 网上似乎称为“平衡法院标准” )问世的标志。诺曼统治(1066年)350年以来,亨利五世是第一位在私人信函中使用英文的英格兰国王。

__________________________________________________________________________

”法院标准英语“的问世,确定了英语在英格兰正式成为官方语言。


CHANCERY STANDARD English 法院标准英语

15世纪时,国王的文档由伦敦法院书记员们打理,他们所使用的书面语言被今人称为Chancery Standard法院标准,也称Chancery English法院英语。1430年之前, 官方记录主要使用拉丁文和法文,但1430年之后, 则使用以英格兰中心地区(Central Midland)方言为基础的英语,比方,以gaf(gave) 取代乔叟的中东部(East Midland)的yaf。

1476年,将印刷机传入英格兰的威廉·卡克斯顿在西敏寺装置了印刷机。“当年英语处于不断变化的年代,而他所印刷书籍时亦遇上不同的风格及方言。由于当时英语欠缺标准,他要不断解决技术上的问题(他曾在埃涅阿斯纪的自序中就此经历抱怨),直至后来他的接班人Wynkyn de Worde 仍遇上同样问题。卡克斯顿多年来印刷的经历,为英语奠下标准(不同区域方言在书面上的准则)。他扩充英语词汇量、词形变化及语法,还扩大了书面语和口语之间的差别。” 因为印刷机的使用,一些法院英语被取而代之,比方第三人称动词加“s”, 而不再是"th" (hopes, not hopeth), 等等。到了15世纪末,法院和国库采纳卡尔斯顿标准,建立了书面英语的基础。


wiki:

CHANCERY STANDARD, also Chancery English. Present-day terms for the 15c written usage of the clerks of Chancery in London, who prepared the king's documents. Before the 1430s, official records were mainly in Latin and French, but after that date mainly in an English based on the Central Midland dialect, with such usages as gaf (gave) not Chaucer's East Midland yaf, such not swich, and theyre (their) not hir. Until the end of the 15c, Chancery and the Exchequer built a foundation of written English that was developed by CAXTON when he set up his press in Westminster in 1476. Over the years, printers replaced some features of Chancery usage with London equivalents, such as third person -s instead of -th (hopes, not hopeth), and are instead of be. See STANDARD ENGLISH.
   
  sing     03/13/2016 18:46
亨利五世是否说法文不清楚。《亨利五世》中亨利五世在 woo 法兰西公主凯瑟琳时有这样的对话:

KATHERINE
Your Majesty shall mock at me. I cannot speak your England.

...

KING HENRY
Now fie upon my false French. By mine honor, in true English, I love thee, Kate.
   
  sing     03/13/2016 18:49
wiki:

Middle English 中古英语


中古英语是指1150年到1500年间所使用的英语。这个时期的英语和古英语相比,在读音和拼写,词汇和语法方面都产生了较大的变化。一大部分古英语词汇被淘汰,转而吸收了很多法语和拉丁语的词汇。


中古英语文选:

下文载自《坎特伯雷故事集》(Tales of Canterbury),乔叟著,14世纪
Here bygynneth the Book of the Tales of Caunterbury

Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,
And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open eye-
(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages);
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
   
  sing     03/13/2016 18:51
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近代英语 Early Modern English

近代英语(英语:Early Modern English,可缩写为 EModE),又译近世英语,指从英国都铎时期到王政复辟时期的英语,也就是从十五世纪末的古英语到十七世纪中晚期的现代英语之间的英语语言。

1603年詹姆士一世登上英国王位,这前后渐渐产生的英语标准开始对中古苏格兰语产生影响,包括其口语和书面语。

现代英语读者大都能读懂用晚期近代英语写成的文字(例如《钦定版圣经》的初版,以及莎士比亚的作品等),但比这更早的作品就比较难以读懂了(如《亚瑟之死》)。十七世纪初的近代英语给现代英语的语法、拼写习惯打下了基础。

中古英语到近代英语的转变不只是发生在词汇和语音上,这种转变开启了英语历史的新纪元。这个时期的英语更为标准化,有着更丰富的词汇,还兴起了长久不衰的文学。至此,多种方言共存发展的时代成为了永久的历史。

1476年,威廉·卡克斯顿开始在伦敦的西敏地区兴办印刷业,它所采用的语言反映了各个作家方言和风格的多变。

卡克斯顿出版了马洛礼的《亚瑟之死》,这是第一本用英语语言写成的畅销出版物。马洛礼的语言,虽然在某些方面很古老,但很明显他使用的是近代英语,也可能带点约克郡和内陆方言。

1491年(或许是1492年),理查德·平森在伦敦开创印刷事业,他的风格偏向于“平衡法院标准”(Chancery Standard,英国政府所用的英语形式)。

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